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1.
PLoS One ; 19(7): e0304354, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38954710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood leukemia (CL) is a major global concern, accounting for 33% of all new cancer cases and 31% of all cancer deaths in children aged 0-14 years. Our study aimed to analyze the global incidence and mortality rates of CL in 2020 and its relationship with the Human Development Index (HDI). MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this ecologic study, we analyzed the 2020 cancer incidence and mortality data for children aged 0-14 years from the GLOBOCAN Project. We calculated the Age-Standardized Incidence Rate (ASIR) and Age-Standardized Mortality Rate (ASMR) of CL per 100,000 individuals. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to examine the association between childhood leukemia ASIR, ASMR, and the HDI, with a statistical significance threshold of P<0.05. RESULTS: In 2020, there were a total of 67,008 new cases of CL worldwide, with males accounting for 57.85%. The global ASIR for CL was 3.4 per 100,000 (3.9 in males, 3 in females). Additionally, there were 25,080 CL-related deaths, with males comprising 58.86%. The overall ASMR for CL was 1.3 (1.4 in males, 1.1 in females). We found a significant positive correlation (r = 0.405, P≤0.001) between the global ASIR and ASMR for CL. There was a strong positive correlation (r = 0.770, P = 0.001) between the HDI and childhood leukemia ASIR, but no significant association (r = 0.077, P = 0.337) was observed with ASMR. CONCLUSION: Our study reveals that CL remains a significant health burden worldwide. We identified a positive correlation between the ASIR of CL and the HDI, indicating a potential role of socioeconomic factors in CL incidence.


Assuntos
Saúde Global , Leucemia , Humanos , Criança , Lactente , Masculino , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Incidência , Adolescente , Leucemia/epidemiologia , Leucemia/mortalidade , Recém-Nascido , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos
2.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 12417, 2024 05 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38816573

RESUMO

We conducted a hospital-based case-control study to explore the association between proximity to various land use types and childhood leukemia and lymphoma. This research involved 428 cases of childhood leukemia and lymphoma (2016-2021), along with a control group of 428 children aged 1-15 in Tehran. We analyzed the risk of childhood cancer associated with land use by employing logistic regression adjusted for confounding factors such as parental smoking and family history. The odds ratio (OR) for children with leukemia and lymphoma residing within 100 m of the nearest highway was 1.87 (95% CI = 1.00-3.49) and 1.71 (95% CI = 1.00-2.93), respectively, in comparison to those living at a distance of 1000 m or more from a highway. The OR for leukemia with exposure to petrol stations within 100 m was 2.15 (95% CI = 1.00-4.63), and for lymphoma it was 1.09 (95% CI = 0.47-2.50). A significant association was observed near power lines (OR = 3.05; 95% CI = 0.97-9.55) within < 100 m for leukemia. However, no significant association was observed between power lines and the incidence of childhood lymphoma. There was no association between bus stations, major road class 2, and the incidence of childhood leukemia and lymphoma. In conclusion, our results suggest a possible association between the incidence of childhood leukemia and proximity to different urban land uses (i.e., highways and petrol stations). This study is the first step in understanding how urban land use affects childhood leukemia and lymphoma in Tehran. However, comprehensive studies considering individual-level data and specific pollutants are essential for a more nuanced understanding of these associations.


Assuntos
Leucemia , Linfoma , Humanos , Criança , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Leucemia/epidemiologia , Leucemia/etiologia , Feminino , Linfoma/epidemiologia , Linfoma/etiologia , Linfoma/induzido quimicamente , Pré-Escolar , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Lactente , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Razão de Chances , Incidência
3.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1355739, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38807987

RESUMO

Objectives: To assess leukemia risk in occupational populations exposed to low levels of benzene. Methods: Leukemia incidence data from the Chinese Benzene Cohort Study were fitted using the Linearized multistage (LMS) model. Individual benzene exposure levels, urinary S-phenylmercapturic acid (S-PMA) and trans, trans-muconic acid (t, t-MA) were measured among 98 benzene-exposed workers from factories in China. Subjects were categorized into four groups by rounding the quartiles of cumulative benzene concentrations (< 3, 3-5, 5-12, ≥12 mg/m3·year, respectively). The risk of benzene-induced leukemia was assessed using the LMS model, and the results were validated using the EPA model and the Singapore semi-quantitative risk assessment model. Results: The leukemia risks showed a positive correlation with increasing cumulative concentration in the four exposure groups (excess leukemia risks were 4.34, 4.37, 4.44 and 5.52 × 10-4, respectively; Ptrend < 0.0001) indicated by the LMS model. We also found that the estimated leukemia risk using urinary t, t-MA in the LMS model was more similar to those estimated by airborne benzene compared to S-PMA. The leukemia risk estimated by the LMS model was consistent with both the Singapore semi-quantitative risk assessment model at all concentrations and the EPA model at high concentrations (5-12, ≥12 mg/m3·year), while exceeding the EPA model at low concentrations (< 3 and 3-5 mg/m3·year). However, in all four benzene-exposed groups, the leukemia risks estimated by these three models exceeded the lowest acceptable limit for carcinogenic risk set by the EPA at 1 × 10-6. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the utility of the LMS model derived from the Chinese benzene cohort in assessing leukemia risk associated with low-level benzene exposure, and suggests that leukemia risk may occur at cumulative concentrations below 3 mg/m3·year.


Assuntos
Benzeno , Leucemia , Exposição Ocupacional , Ácido Sórbico , Benzeno/toxicidade , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Medição de Risco , Leucemia/induzido quimicamente , Leucemia/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Masculino , Adulto , Ácido Sórbico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Sórbico/análise , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Acetilcisteína/urina , Acetilcisteína/análogos & derivados , Feminino , Estudos de Coortes , Incidência
4.
Environ Res ; 254: 119120, 2024 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38734295

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to air pollution has been proposed as one of the potential risk factors for leukaemia. Work-related formaldehyde exposure is suspected to cause leukaemia. METHODS: We conducted a nested register-based case-control study on leukaemia incidence in the Viadana district, an industrial area for particleboard production in Northern Italy. We recruited 115 cases and 496 controls, frequency-matched by age, between 1999 and 2014. We assigned estimated exposures to particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and formaldehyde at residential addresses, averaged over the susceptibility window 3rd to 10th year prior to the index date. We considered potential confounding by sex, age, nationality, socio-economic status, occupational exposures to benzene and formaldehyde, and prior cancer diagnoses. RESULTS: There was no association of exposures to PM10, PM2.5, and NO2 with leukaemia incidence. However, an indication of increased risk emerged for formaldehyde, despite wide statistical uncertainty (OR 1.46, 95%CI 0.65-3.25 per IQR-difference of 1.2 µg/m3). Estimated associations for formaldehyde were higher for acute (OR 2.07, 95%CI 0.70-6.12) and myeloid subtypes (OR 1.79, 95%CI 0.64-5.01), and in the 4-km buffer around the industrial facilities (OR 2.78, 95%CI 0.48-16.13), although they remained uncertain. CONCLUSIONS: This was the first study investigating the link between ambient formaldehyde exposure and leukaemia incidence in the general population. The evidence presented suggests an association, although it remains inconclusive, and a potential significance of emissions related to industrial activities in the district. Further research is warranted in larger populations incorporating data on other potential risk factors.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Exposição Ambiental , Formaldeído , Leucemia , Material Particulado , Itália/epidemiologia , Humanos , Leucemia/epidemiologia , Leucemia/induzido quimicamente , Leucemia/etiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Masculino , Incidência , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Formaldeído/análise , Formaldeído/toxicidade , Idoso , Material Particulado/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Adulto Jovem
5.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 60(5)2024 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38792914

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Leukemia, characterized by abnormal leukocyte production, exhibits clonal origin from somatic mutations. Globally, it ranked 15th in cancer incidence in 2020, with higher prevalence in developing countries. In Mexico, it was the ninth most frequent cancer. Regional registries are vital for understanding its epidemiology. This study aims to analyze the prevalence and age-standardized incidence rates of leukemias in a tertiary care hospital in the Mexican Bajio region. Materials and Methods: Leukemia cases from 2008-2018 were analyzed, and 535 medical records were included in this study. The prevalence, distribution, and age-specific incidence rate of different types and subtypes of leukemia were determined according to sex and age groups. Results: Overall, 65.79% consisted of lymphocytic leukemia, 33.64% of myeloid leukemia, and 0.56% of monocytic leukemia. No significant sex-based differences were found, but age-specific patterns were observed. Leukemia distribution by age revealed significant associations. Lymphocytic leukemia dominated in the pediatric population, particularly acute lymphocytic leukemia, while myeloid leukemia shifted towards adulthood. Age-specific incidence patterns showed, first, that lymphocytic leukemia is the most common leukemia in pediatric ages, and second, there is a shift from acute lymphocytic leukemia dominance in pediatric ages to myeloid leukemia incidence in late adulthood, emphasizing nuanced epidemiological dynamics. Conclusions: Acute leukemia cases occurred with high prevalence in our study population, with a high incidence in pediatric and adulthood populations, especially for acute lymphocytic leukemia, showing a (<18 years) 153.8 age-standardized incidence rate in the pediatric group, while in the adult population, the age-standardized rate was 59.84. In the age-specific analysis, we found that the childhood group (5-9 years) were the most affected by acute lymphocytic leukemia in the pediatric population, while in the adult population, the early-adulthood group (15-29 years) were the most affected age group. In contrast, chronic myeloid leukemia affected both adults and the pediatric populations, while chronic lymphocytic leukemia and monocytic leukemia were exclusive to adults. The study underscores the need for tailored diagnostic, treatment, and preventive strategies based on age, contributing valuable insights into the leukemia epidemiology of the Bajio region.


Assuntos
Leucemia , Humanos , México/epidemiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Incidência , Idoso , Lactente , Leucemia/epidemiologia , Leucemia/classificação , Adulto Jovem , Prevalência , Fatores Etários , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1295643, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38756895

RESUMO

Leukemia is the most common cancer in children. Its incidence has been increasing worldwide since 1910th, suggesting the presence of common sources of the disease, most likely related to people's lifestyle and environment. Understanding the relationship between childhood leukemia and environmental conditions is critical to preventing the disease. This discussion article examines established potentially-carcinogenic environmental factors, such as vehicle emissions and fires, alongside space weather-related parameters like cosmic rays and the geomagnetic field. To discern the primary contributor, we analyze trends and annual variations in leukemia incidence among 0-14-year-olds in the United States, Canada, Australia, and Russia from 1990 to 2018. Comparisons are drawn with the number of vehicles (representing gasoline emissions) and fire-affected land areas (indicative of fire-related pollutants), with novel data for Russia introduced for the first time. While childhood leukemia incidence is rising in all countries under study, the rate of increase in Russia is twice that of other nations, possibly due to a delayed surge in the country's vehicle fleet compared to others. This trend in Russia may offer insights into past leukemia levels in the USA, Canada, and Australia. Our findings highlight vehicular emissions as the most substantial environmental hazard for children among the factors examined. We also advocate for the consideration of potential modulation of carcinogenic effects arising from variations in cosmic ray intensity, as well as the protective role of the geomagnetic field. To support the idea, we provide examples of potential space weather effects at both local and global scales. The additional analysis includes statistical data from 49 countries and underscores the significance of the magnetic field dip in the South Atlantic Anomaly in contributing to a peak in childhood leukemia incidence in Peru, Ecuador and Chile. We emphasize the importance of collectively assessing all potentially carcinogenic factors for the successful future predictions of childhood leukemia risk in each country.


Assuntos
Leucemia , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Humanos , Incidência , Leucemia/epidemiologia , Leucemia/etiologia , Federação Russa/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Canadá/epidemiologia , Lactente , Adolescente , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Recém-Nascido , Emissões de Veículos , Masculino , Feminino , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Radiação Cósmica/efeitos adversos
8.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 89: 102548, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38428302

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood leukemia (CL) is the most prevalent form of pediatric cancer on a global scale. However, there is a limited understanding of the dynamics of CL incidence in South America, with a specific knowledge gap in Colombia. This study aimed to identify trends in CL incidence and to analyze the effects of age, period, and birth cohort on the risk of leukemia incidence in this population. METHODS: Information on all newly diagnosed leukemia cases (in general and by subtype) among residents aged 0-18 years and living in the serving areas of population-based cancer registries of Cali (2008-2017), Bucaramanga (2000-2017), Manizales (2003-2017), and Pasto (1998-2018). Estimated annual percent changes (EAPC) in incidence over time and potential changes in the slope of these EAPCs were calculated using joinpoint regression models. The effects of age, period, and cohort in CL incidence trends were evaluated using age-period-cohort models addressing the identifiability issue through the application of double differences. RESULTS: A total of 966 childhood leukemia cases were identified. The average standardized incidence rate (ASIR) of leukemia was calculated and expressed per 100,000 person-years - observing ASIR of 4.46 in Cali, 7.27 in Bucaramanga, 3.89 in Manizales and 4.06 in Pasto. Concerning CL trends there were no statistically significant changes in EAPC throughout the different periods, however, when analyzed by leukemia subtype, statistically significant changes were observed in the EAPC for both ALL and AML. Analysis of age-period-cohort models revealed that age-related factors significantly underpin the incidence trends of childhood leukemia in these four Colombian cities. CONCLUSIONS: This study offers valuable insights into the incidence trends of childhood leukemia in four major Colombian cities. The analysis revealed stable overall CL incidence rates across varying periods, predominantly influenced by age-related factors and the absence of cohort and period effects. This information is useful for surveillance and planning purposes for CL diagnosis and treatment in Colombia.


Assuntos
Leucemia , Neoplasias , Criança , Humanos , Incidência , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Efeito de Coortes , Sistema de Registros , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Leucemia/epidemiologia
9.
Environ Res ; 249: 118459, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38346482

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: New epidemiologic approaches are needed to reduce the scientific uncertainty surrounding the association between extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) and childhood leukemia. While most previous studies focused on power lines, the Transformer Exposure study sought to assess this association using a multi-country study of children who had lived in buildings with built-in electrical transformers. ELF-MF in apartments above built-in transformers can be 5 times higher than in other apartments in the same building. This novel study design aimed to maximize the inclusion of highly exposed children while minimising the potential for selection bias. METHODS: We assessed associations between residential proximity to transformers and risk of childhood leukemia using registry based matched case-control data collected in five countries. Exposure was based on the location of the subject's apartment relative to the transformer, coded as high (above or adjacent to transformer), intermediate (same floor as apartments in high category), or unexposed (other apartments). Relative risk (RR) for childhood leukemia was estimated using conditional logistic and mixed logistic regression with a random effect for case-control set. RESULTS: Data pooling across countries yielded 16 intermediate and 3 highly exposed cases. RRs were 1.0 (95% CI: 0.5, 1.9) for intermediate and 1.1 (95% CI: 0.3, 3.8) for high exposure in the conditional logistic model. In the mixed logistic model, RRs were 1.4 (95% CI: 0.8, 2.5) for intermediate and 1.3 (95% CI: 0.4, 4.4) for high. Data of the most influential country showed RRs of 1.1 (95% CI: 0.5, 2.4) and 1.7 (95% CI: 0.4, 7.2) for intermediate (8 cases) and high (2 cases) exposure. DISCUSSION: Overall, evidence for an elevated risk was weak. However, small numbers and wide confidence intervals preclude strong conclusions and a risk of the magnitude observed in power line studies cannot be excluded.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Habitação , Leucemia , Humanos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Leucemia/epidemiologia , Leucemia/etiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Masculino , Feminino , Lactente , Fontes de Energia Elétrica/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Campos Magnéticos/efeitos adversos
10.
Radiat Res ; 201(3): 206-214, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38323646

RESUMO

The linear excess relative risk (ERR) is the most commonly reported measure of association in radiation epidemiological studies, when individual dose estimates are available. While the asymptotic properties of the ERR estimator are well understood, there is evidence of small sample bias in case-control studies of treatment-related radiation exposure and second cancer risk. Cohort studies of cancer risk after exposure to low doses of radiation from diagnostic procedures, e.g., computed tomography (CT) examinations, typically have small numbers of cases and risks are small. Therefore, understanding the properties of the estimated ERR is essential for interpretation and analysis of such studies. We present results of a simulation study that evaluates the finite-sample bias of the ERR estimated by time-to-event analyses and its confidence interval using simulated data, resembling a retrospective cohort study of radiation-related leukemia risk after CT examinations in childhood and adolescence. Furthermore, we evaluate how the Firth-corrected estimator reduces the finite-sample bias of the classical estimator. We show that the ERR is overestimated by about 30% for a cohort of about 150,000 individuals, with 42 leukemia cases observed on average. The bias is reduced for higher baseline incidence rates and for higher values of the true ERR. As the number of cases increases, the ERR is approximately unbiased. The Firth correction reduces the bias for all cohort sizes to generally around or under 5%. Epidemiological studies showing an association between radiation exposure from pediatric CT and cancer risk, unless very large, may overestimate the magnitude of the relationship, while there is no evidence of an increased chance for false-positive results. Conducting large studies, perhaps by pooling individual studies to increase the number of cases, should be a priority. If this is not possible, Firth correction should be applied to reduce small-sample bias.


Assuntos
Leucemia Induzida por Radiação , Leucemia , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação , Neoplasias , Exposição à Radiação , Adolescente , Humanos , Criança , Risco , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos de Coortes , Leucemia Induzida por Radiação/epidemiologia , Leucemia/epidemiologia , Exposição à Radiação/efeitos adversos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/etiologia
11.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 4594, 2024 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38409531

RESUMO

Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia (CEL), a rare and intricate hematological disorder characterized by uncontrolled eosinophilic proliferation, presents clinical challenges owing to its infrequency. This study aimed to investigate epidemiology and develop a prognostic nomogram for CEL patients. Utilizing the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database, CEL cases diagnosed between 2001 and 2020 were analyzed for incidence rates, clinical profiles, and survival outcomes. Patients were randomly divided into training and validation cohorts (7:3 ratio). LASSO regression analysis and Cox regression analysis were performed to screen the prognostic factors for overall survival. A nomogram was then constructed and validated to predict the 3- and 5-year overall survival probability of CEL patients by incorporating these factors. The incidence rate of CEL was very low, with an average of 0.033 per 100,000 person-years from 2001 to 2020. The incidence rate significantly increased with age and was higher in males than females. The mean age at diagnosis was 57 years. Prognostic analysis identified advanced age, specific marital statuses, and secondary CEL as independent and adverse predictors of overall survival. To facilitate personalized prognostication, a nomogram was developed incorporating these factors, demonstrating good calibration and discrimination. Risk stratification using the nomogram effectively differentiated patients into low- and high-risk groups. This study enhances our understanding of CEL, offering novel insights into its epidemiology, demographics, and prognostic determinants, while providing a possible prognostication tool for clinical use. However, further research is warranted to elucidate molecular mechanisms and optimize therapeutic strategies for CEL.


Assuntos
Síndrome Hipereosinofílica , Leucemia , Nomogramas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Leucemia/diagnóstico , Leucemia/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Pesquisa , Programa de SEER
12.
Br J Cancer ; 130(6): 976-986, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38243010

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood cancer survivors are at risk of subsequent gliomas and meningiomas, but the risks beyond age 40 years are uncertain. We quantified these risks in the largest ever cohort. METHODS: Using data from 69,460 5-year childhood cancer survivors (diagnosed 1940-2008), across Europe, standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and cumulative incidence were calculated. RESULTS: In total, 279 glioma and 761 meningioma were identified. CNS tumour (SIR: 16.2, 95% CI: 13.7, 19.2) and leukaemia (SIR: 11.2, 95% CI: 8.8, 14.2) survivors were at greatest risk of glioma. The SIR for CNS tumour survivors was still 4.3-fold after age 50 (95% CI: 1.9, 9.6), and for leukaemia survivors still 10.2-fold after age 40 (95% CI: 4.9, 21.4). Following cranial radiotherapy (CRT), the cumulative incidence of a glioma in CNS tumour survivors was 2.7%, 3.7% and 5.0% by ages 40, 50 and 60, respectively, whilst for leukaemia this was 1.2% and 1.7% by ages 40 and 50. The cumulative incidence of a meningioma after CRT in CNS tumour survivors doubled from 5.9% to 12.5% between ages 40 and 60, and in leukaemia survivors increased from 5.8% to 10.2% between ages 40 and 50. DISCUSSION: Clinicians following up survivors should be aware that the substantial risks of meningioma and glioma following CRT are sustained beyond age 40 and be vigilant for symptoms.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central , Glioma , Leucemia , Neoplasias Meníngeas , Meningioma , Segunda Neoplasia Primária , Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Meningioma/etiologia , Meningioma/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/epidemiologia , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/etiologia , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/epidemiologia , Glioma/epidemiologia , Sobreviventes , Leucemia/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Meníngeas/epidemiologia , Incidência
13.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 79(2): 297-306, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38073151

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Historically, patients with leukaemia and invasive fusariosis (IF) have experienced poor outcomes in the setting of persistent immunosuppression. Herein, we retrospectively reviewed the incidence, presentation and outcomes of IF that are scarcely studied in contemporary cohorts of leukaemia patients. METHODS: We identified adult leukaemia patients with proven or probable IF at MD Anderson Cancer Center during 2009-21. Independent risk factors for 42 day mortality after IF diagnosis were determined using a multivariable logistic regression model. Combined with historical data, the annual IF incidence density over the past 23 years was estimated using Poisson regression analysis. RESULTS: Among 140 leukaemia patients with IF (114 proven), 118 patients (84%) had relapsed/refractory leukaemia and 124 (89%) had neutropenia at IF diagnosis. One hundred patients (71%) had pulmonary IF, 88 (63%) had disseminated IF and 48 (34%) had fungaemia. Coinfections were common (55%). Eighty-nine patients (64%) had breakthrough IF to mould-active triazoles. Most patients (84%) received combination antifungal therapy. Neutrophil recovery [adjusted OR (aOR), 0.04; 95% CI, 0.01-0.14; P < 0.0001], pulmonary IF (aOR, 3.28; 95% CI, 1.11-9.70; P = 0.032) and high SOFA score (aOR, 1.91 per 1-point increase; 95% CI, 1.47-2.50; P < 0.0001) were independent predictors of 42 day mortality outcomes. From 1998 to 2021, IF incidence density increased significantly at an annual ratio of 1.03 (95% CI, 1.01-1.06; P = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: IF is predominantly seen in patients with relapsed/refractory leukaemia and increasingly seen as a breakthrough infection to mould-active triazoles. Despite frequent combination antifungal therapy, high mortality rates have persisted in patients with lasting neutropenia.


Assuntos
Fusariose , Leucemia , Neutropenia , Adulto , Humanos , Fusariose/tratamento farmacológico , Fusariose/epidemiologia , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Irruptivas , Azóis , Incidência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Triazóis , Fungos , Leucemia/complicações , Leucemia/epidemiologia , Leucemia/tratamento farmacológico , Neutropenia/complicações , Neutropenia/tratamento farmacológico
14.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 31(3): 3560-3571, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38085479

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the worldwide burden of leukemia owing to occupational exposure to formaldehyde (OEF) from 1990 to 2019. Data on leukemia due to OEF were obtained from the Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) 2019. By region, age, sex, and disease subtype, the numbers and age-standardized rates (ASRs) associated with deaths, years of life lost (YLLs), years lived with disability (YLDs), and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) were analyzed. Annual average percentage change (AAPC) was used to estimate disease burden trends from 1990 to 2019. To measure the risk of leukemia due to OEF, the population attributable fraction (PAF) was introduced. From 1990 to 2019, the number of deaths, DALYs, YLLs, and YLDs for leukemia caused by OEF increased by 44%, 34%, 33%, and 124%, respectively. Regarding the change in ASRs, the age-standardized YLDs (ASYLDs) rate of leukemia due to OEF, which was 38.03% (AAPC = 1.17 [95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11, 1.23]), indicated an increased trend. But the age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR), age-standardized DALY (ASDALY) rate, and age-standardized YLL (ASYLL) rate showed decline trends, with - 11.90% (AAPC = - 0.41 [95% CI - 0.45, - 0.37]), - 14.19% (AAPC = - 0.5 [95% CI - 0.55, - 0.45]), and - 14.97% (AAPC = - 0.53 [95% CI - 0.58, - 0.48]), respectively. In terms of PAFs, there were increasing trends in PAFs of age-standardized deaths, ASDALYs, ASYLLs, and ASYLDs for leukemia caused by OEF, with 20.15% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 11.76%, 30.25%), 36.28% (95% UI 21.46%, 53.42%), 51.91% (95% UI 35.05%, 72.07%), and 36.34% (95% UI 21.58%, 53.63%), respectively. Across the socio-demographic index (SDI) regions, the leukemia burden caused by OEF was concentrated in middle and high-middle SDI regions. Besides, OEF poses a more serious risk for acute leukemia among the leukemia subtype. Globally, leukemia caused by OEF remains a public health burden. Policies must be developed to avoid the burden of leukemia caused by OEF.


Assuntos
Leucemia , Exposição Ocupacional , Humanos , Expectativa de Vida , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Carga Global da Doença , Leucemia/induzido quimicamente , Leucemia/epidemiologia , Saúde Global
15.
Environ Pollut ; 343: 123097, 2024 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38065336

RESUMO

Leukemia and lymphoma are the two most common forms of hematologic malignancy, and their etiology is largely unknown. Pathophysiological mechanisms suggest a possible association with air pollution, but little empirical evidence is available. We aimed to investigate the association between long-term residential exposure to outdoor air pollution and risk of leukemia and lymphoma. We pooled data from four cohorts from three European countries as part of the "Effects of Low-level Air Pollution: a Study in Europe" (ELAPSE) collaboration. We used Europe-wide land use regression models to assess annual mean concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), black carbon (BC) and ozone (O3) at residences. We also estimated concentrations of PM2.5 elemental components: copper (Cu), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn); sulfur (S); nickel (Ni), vanadium (V), silicon (Si) and potassium (K). We applied Cox proportional hazards models to investigate the associations. Among the study population of 247,436 individuals, 760 leukemia and 1122 lymphoma cases were diagnosed during 4,656,140 person-years of follow-up. The results showed a leukemia hazard ratio (HR) of 1.13 (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.01-1.26) per 10 µg/m3 NO2, which was robust in two-pollutant models and consistent across the four cohorts and according to smoking status. Sex-specific analyses suggested that this association was confined to the male population. Further, the results showed increased lymphoma HRs for PM2.5 (HR = 1.16; 95% CI: 1.02-1.34) and potassium content of PM2.5, which were consistent in two-pollutant models and according to sex. Our results suggest that air pollution at the residence may be associated with adult leukemia and lymphoma.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Ambientais , Leucemia , Linfoma , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Leucemia/induzido quimicamente , Leucemia/epidemiologia , Linfoma/induzido quimicamente , Linfoma/epidemiologia , Potássio/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise
16.
Environ Res ; 245: 118043, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38145739

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies have documented an increased risk of leukemia among children exposed to magnetic fields from high-voltage power lines, with some evidence of dose-response relation. However, findings in some studies have been inconsistent, and data on the effects of different sources of exposure are lacking. In this study, we evaluated the relation of childhood leukemia risk to exposure to magnetic fields from transformer stations. METHODS: We conducted a population-based case-control study in a pediatric population of two Northern Italian provinces of Modena and Reggio Emilia. We included 182 registry-identified childhood leukemia cases diagnosed during 1998-2019 and 726 population controls matched on sex, year of birth, and province of residence. We assessed exposure by calculating distance from childhood residence to the nearest transformer station within a geographical information system, computing disease odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using conditional logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounders. We evaluated exposure using two buffers (15 m and 25 m radius) and assessed two case groups: leukemia (all subtypes) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). RESULTS: Residing within 15 m of a transformer station (vs. ≥15 m) was not appreciably associated with risk of leukemia (all subtypes) or ALL. We found similar results using a less stringent exposure buffer (25 m). Among children aged ≥5 years, the adjusted ORs were 1.3 (95% CI 0.1-12.8) for leukemia and 1.3 (95% CI 0.1-12.4) for ALL using the 15 m buffer, while they were 1.7 (95% CI 0.4-7.0) for leukemia and 0.6 (95% CI 0.1-4.8) for ALL using the 25 m buffer. CONCLUSIONS: While we found no overall association between residential proximity to transformer stations and childhood leukemia, there was some evidence for elevated risk of childhood leukemia among children aged ≥5 years. Precision was limited by the low numbers of exposed children.


Assuntos
Leucemia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras , Humanos , Criança , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Campos Eletromagnéticos/efeitos adversos , Leucemia/epidemiologia , Leucemia/etiologia , Campos Magnéticos , Habitação , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/epidemiologia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/etiologia , Exposição Ambiental , Fatores de Risco
18.
PLoS One ; 18(11): e0287917, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38033110

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hematologic malignancies have a great essential role in cancer global burden. Leukemia which two major subtypes based on the onset, is one of the common subtypes of this malignancy. METHOD: For the GBD 2019 study, cancer registry data and vital registration system were used to estimate leukemia mortality. The Meta-Regression-Bayesian Regularized Trimmed (MR-BRT), Cause of Death Ensemble model (CODEm) and Spatiotemporal Gaussian Process Regression (ST-GPR) were used to model our data and estimate each quantity of interest. Mortality to incidence ratios (MIR) were used to generate incidence and survival from mortality rate. Prevalence and survival were used to generate years lived with disability (YLDs). Age-specific mortality and life expectancy at the same age were used to estimate years of life lost (YLLs). The sum of YLLs and YLDs generates DALYs. RESULTS: The total national incidence of leukemia increased from 6092 (UI 95%: 3803-8507) in 1990 to 6767 (4646-7890) new cases in 2019. However, leukemia age-standardized incidence ratio(ASIR) decreased from 11.6 (8-14.8) to 8.9 (6.2-10.3) new cases per 100,000 in this exact period. At the national level, deaths from leukemia increased 1.5-fold between 1990 and 2019, from 3287 (2284-4201) to 4424 (3137-5030), whereas the age-standardized death rate(ASDR) decreased from 8.3 (6.1-9.8) in 1990 to 6 (4.3-6.8) per 100,000 in 2019. In the study period, total leukemia DALYs decreased 12.2% and reached 162850 (110681-188806), in 2019. The age-standardized DALYs decreased 36.7% from 324.3 (224.8-413.4) in 1990 to 205.3 (140.3-237.8) in 2019. ASDR, DALYs, YLLs, and YLDs rate to high BMI was increasing while smoking and occupational exposure to benzene and formaldehyde were decreasing in the study period. CONCLUSION: This study provided a better understanding of leukemia burden and to reduce controversies of leukemia across Iran. The leukemia status alteration of the country, is trackable.


Assuntos
Leucemia , Neoplasias , Humanos , Carga Global da Doença , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Teorema de Bayes , Expectativa de Vida , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Leucemia/epidemiologia , Saúde Global
19.
Altern Ther Health Med ; 29(8): 75-81, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37678874

RESUMO

Objective: Leukemia is the most prevalent cancer among children and adolescents. This study investigated the potential association between exposure to magnetic fields and the risk of pediatric leukemia. Methods: We conducted a comprehensive search of electronic databases, including Scopus, EMBASE, Cochrane, Web of Science, and Medline, up to December 15, 2022, to identify relevant studies examining the link between childhood leukemia and magnetic field exposure. Results: The first meta-analysis revealed a statistically significant inverse association between pediatric leukemia and magnetic field strengths ranging from 0.4 µT to 0.2 µT, suggesting a reduced risk associated with this range. The second meta-analysis focused on wiring configuration codes and observed a potential link between residential magnetic field exposure and childhood leukemia. Pooled relative risk estimates were 1.52 (95% CI = 1.05-2.04, P = .021) and 1.58 (95% CI = 1.15-2.23, P = .006) for exposure to 24-hour magnetic field measurements, suggesting a possible causal relationship. In the third meta-analysis, the odds ratios for the exposure groups of 0.1 to 0.2 µT, 0.2 to 0.3 µT, 0.3 to 0.4 µT, and 0.4 µT above 0.2 µT were 1.09 (95% confidence interval = 0.82 to 1.43 µT), 1.14 (95% confidence interval = 0.68 to 1.92 µT), and 1.45 (95% confidence interval = 0.87 to 2.37 µT), respectively. In contrast to the findings of the three meta-analyses, there was no evidence of a statistically significant connection between exposure to 0.2 µT and the risk of juvenile leukemia. A further result showed no discernible difference between the two groups of children who lived less than 100 meters from the source of magnetic fields and those who lived closer (OR = 1.33; 95% CI = 0.98-1.73 µT). Conclusions: The collective results of three meta-analyses, encompassing magnetic field strengths ranging from 0.1 µT to 2.38 µT, underscore a statistically significant association between the intensity of magnetic fields and the occurrence of childhood leukemia. However, one specific analysis concluded that no apparent relationship exists between exposure to 0.1 µT and an elevated risk of leukemia development in children.


Assuntos
Leucemia , Neoplasias , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Campos Eletromagnéticos/efeitos adversos , Leucemia/epidemiologia , Leucemia/etiologia , Campos Magnéticos , Radiação Eletromagnética , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Casos e Controles
20.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 1647, 2023 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37641011

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leukemia is a threat to human health, and there are relatively few studies on the incidence, mortality and disease burden analysis of leukemia in China. This study aimed to analyze the incidence and mortality rates of leukemia in China from 2005 to 2017 and estimate their age-period-cohort effects, it is an important prerequisite for effective prevention and control of leukemia. METHODS: Leukemia incidence and mortality data from 2005 to 2017 were collected from the Chinese Cancer Registry Annual Report. Joinpoint regression model was used to estimate the average annual percentage change (AAPC) and annual percentage change (APC) response time trend. Age-period-cohort model was constructed to analyze the effects of age, period and cohort. RESULTS: The age-standardized incidence rate of leukemia was 4.54/100,000 from 2005 to 2017, showed an increasing trend with AAPC of 1.9% (95% CI: 1.3%, 2.5%). The age-standardized mortality rate was 2.91/100,000, showed an increasing trend from 2005 to 2012 with APC of 2.1% (95%CI: 0.4%, 3.9%) and then a decreasing trend from 2012 to 2017 with APC of -2.5% (95%CI: -5.3%, 0.3%). The age-standardized incidence (mortality) rates of leukemia were not only higher in males than that in females, but also increased more rapidly. The incidence of leukemia in rural areas was lower than in urban areas, but the AAPC was 2.2 times higher than urban areas. Children aged 0-4 years were at higher risk of leukemia. The risk of leukemia incidence and mortality increased with age. The period effect of leukemia mortality risk showed a decreasing trend, while the cohort effect showed an increasing and then decreasing trend with the turning point of 1955-1959. CONCLUSIONS: The age-standardized incidence rate of leukemia in China showed an increasing trend from 2005 to 2017, while the age-standardized mortality rate increased first and then decreased in 2012 as a turning point. Differences existed by gender and region. The risk of leukemia incidence and mortality increased accordingly with age. The risk of mortality due to leukemia gradually decreased from 2005 to 2017. Leukemia remains a public health problem that requires continuous attention.


Assuntos
Leucemia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , China/epidemiologia , Leucemia/epidemiologia , Leucemia/mortalidade , Modelos Lineares , Saúde Pública
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