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1.
Anticancer Res ; 42(1): 185-193, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34969724

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that perioperative FOLFOX (5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, oxaliplatin) might be used as an alternative to standard FLOT (docetaxel, 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin) in patients with locally advanced oesogastric adenocarcinomas (OGA), particularly those with frailties. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reviewed the charts of 61 consecutives patients treated with FOLFOX for resectable OGA to estimate overall survival, recurrence-free survival, and safety. RESULTS: The median follow-up was 69.7 (range=3.6-97.9) months. Few patients experienced grade 3 adverse events during the preoperative (n=6; 10%) and postoperative (n=6; 16%) phases. One patient experienced a fatal grade 5 adverse events (cardiogenic shock). Median overall survival was 51.7 months [95% confidence interval (CI)=31.6-93.2 months] and the 5-year survival rate was 44.4% (95% CI=30.3%-57.5%). CONCLUSION: Regarding its comparable efficacy and its favourable toxicity profile, perioperative FOLFOX is a reasonable alternative to FLOT for frail patients with resectable OGA.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico , Adenocarcinoma/sangue , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Antígeno CA-19-9/sangue , Antígeno Carcinoembrionário/sangue , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Docetaxel/administração & dosagem , Docetaxel/efeitos adversos , Junção Esofagogástrica/efeitos dos fármacos , Junção Esofagogástrica/patologia , Feminino , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Leucovorina/administração & dosagem , Leucovorina/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Compostos Organoplatínicos/administração & dosagem , Compostos Organoplatínicos/efeitos adversos , Oxaliplatina/administração & dosagem , Oxaliplatina/efeitos adversos , Período Perioperatório , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Neoplasias Gástricas/sangue , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia
2.
Support Care Cancer ; 30(1): 127-133, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34235555

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Low doses of folinic acid (FA) rescue after high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) have been associated with increased toxicity, whereas high doses may be related to a decreased antileukemic effect. The optimal dosage and duration of FA rescue remain controversial. This study was designed to investigate, whether a shorter duration of FA rescue in the setting of rapid HD-MTX clearance is associated with increased toxicity. METHODS: We reviewed the files of 44 children receiving a total of 350 HD-MTX courses during treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia according to the NOPHO ALL-2000 protocol. Following a 5 g/m2 HD-MTX infusion, pharmacokinetically guided FA rescue commenced at hour 42. As per local guidelines, the patients received only one or two 15 mg/m2 doses of FA in the case of rapid MTX clearance (serum MTX ≤ 0.2 µmol/L at hour 42 or hour 48, respectively). Data on MTX clearance, FA dosing, inpatient time, and toxicities were collected. RESULTS: Rapid MTX clearance was observed in 181 courses (51.7%). There was no difference in the steady-state MTX concentration, nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, neutropenic fever, or neurotoxicity between courses followed by rapid MTX clearance and those without. One or two doses of FA after rapid MTX clearance resulted in a 7.8-h shorter inpatient time than if a minimum of three doses of FA would have been given. CONCLUSION: A pharmacokinetically guided FA rescue of one or two 15 mg/m2 doses of FA following HD-MTX courses with rapid MTX clearance results in a shorter hospitalization without an increase in toxic effects.


Assuntos
Metotrexato , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras , Doença Aguda , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Leucovorina/efeitos adversos , Metotrexato/efeitos adversos , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico
3.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 1030, 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525956

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fluoropyrimidine plus platinum chemotherapy remains the standard first line treatment for gastric cancer (GC). Guidelines exist for the clinical interpretation of four DPYD genotypes related to severe fluoropyrimidine toxicity within European populations. However, the frequency of these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Latin American population is low (< 0.7%). No guidelines have been development for platinum. Herein, we present association between clinical factors and common SNPs in the development of grade 3-4 toxicity. METHODS: Retrospectively, 224 clinical records of GC patient were screened, of which 93 patients were incorporated into the study. Eleven SNPs with minor allelic frequency above 5% in GSTP1, ERCC2, ERCC1, TP53, UMPS, SHMT1, MTHFR, ABCC2 and DPYD were assessed. Association between patient clinical characteristics and toxicity was estimated using logistic regression models and classification algorithms. RESULTS: Reported grade ≤ 2 and 3-4 toxicities were 64.6% (61/93) and 34.4% (32/93) respectively. Selected DPYD SNPs were associated with higher toxicity (rs1801265; OR = 4.20; 95% CI = 1.70-10.95, p = 0.002), while others displayed a trend towards lower toxicity (rs1801159; OR = 0.45; 95% CI = 0.19-1.08; p = 0.071). Combination of paired SNPs demonstrated significant associations in DPYD (rs1801265), UMPS (rs1801019), ABCC2 (rs717620) and SHMT1 (rs1979277). Using multivariate logistic regression that combined age, sex, peri-operative chemotherapy, 5-FU regimen, the binary combination of the SNPs DPYD (rs1801265) + ABCC2 (rs717620), and DPYD (rs1801159) displayed the best predictive performance. A nomogram was constructed to assess the risk of developing overall toxicity. CONCLUSION: Pending further validation, this model could predict chemotherapy associated toxicity and improve GC patient quality of life.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Compostos de Platina/administração & dosagem , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Idoso , Capecitabina/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Intervalos de Confiança , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Di-Hidrouracila Desidrogenase (NADP)/genética , Endonucleases/genética , Feminino , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Frequência do Gene , Genes p53 , Genótipo , Glutationa S-Transferase pi/genética , Glicina Hidroximetiltransferase/genética , Humanos , Leucovorina/efeitos adversos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Metilenotetra-Hidrofolato Redutase (NADPH2)/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Associadas à Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/genética , Complexos Multienzimáticos/genética , Nomogramas , Razão de Chances , Compostos Organoplatínicos/efeitos adversos , Orotato Fosforribosiltransferase/genética , Orotidina-5'-Fosfato Descarboxilase/genética , Pirimidinas , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Proteína Grupo D do Xeroderma Pigmentoso/genética
4.
Eur J Cancer ; 157: 21-30, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34464782

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of modified FOLFIRINOX (mFOLFIRINOX) as a second-line chemotherapy treatment for metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma (mPAC), remains unclear. This multi-center randomised phase III trial aimed to elucidate the efficacy of mFOLFIRINOX as a second-line chemotherapy treatment for mPAC patients with good performance status. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eighty mPAC patients (age, 19-75 years) refractory to first-line gemcitabine-based chemotherapy were randomly selected to receive mFOLFIRINOX or S-1. mFOLFIRINOX comprised oxaliplatin (65 mg/m2), irinotecan (135 mg/m2), and leucovorin (400 mg/m2) on day 1 and continuous 5-FU infusion (1000 mg/m2) over 24 h on days 1-2 every 2 weeks. S-1 comprised body surface area-dependent oral S-1, divided into two doses per day on days 1-28 every 6 weeks. RESULTS: Overall survival was the primary endpoint. The objective response and disease control rates were higher in the mFOLFIRINOX than in the S-1 group (15% versus 2%; p = .04 and 67% versus 37%; p = .007). The median progression-free survival rates were 5.2 and 2.2 months in the mFOLFIRINOX and S-1 groups, respectively (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: .4; 95% confidence interval [CI]: .2-.6; p < .001). The median overall survival rates were 9.2 and 4.9 months in the mFOLFIRINOX and S-1 groups, respectively (adjusted HR: .4; 95% CI: .2-.7; p = .002). Grade 3-4 adverse events occurred in 56% and 17% of the patients in the mFOLFIRINOX and S-1 groups, respectively (p < .001). CONCLUSION: Administration of mFOLFIRINOX as a second-line chemotherapy treatment for mPAC patients refractory to gemcitabine-based chemotherapy resulted in increased survival rates than S-1 treatment alone.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Ácido Oxônico/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Tegafur/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Desoxicitidina/uso terapêutico , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Fluoruracila/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Irinotecano/efeitos adversos , Irinotecano/uso terapêutico , Leucovorina/efeitos adversos , Leucovorina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Oxaliplatina/efeitos adversos , Oxaliplatina/uso terapêutico , Ácido Oxônico/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Qualidade de Vida , Tegafur/efeitos adversos
5.
Int J Clin Oncol ; 26(11): 2017-2024, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34291369

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Napabucasin is an oral NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 bioactivatable agent that generates reactive oxygen species, is hypothesised to affect multiple oncogenic cellular pathways, including STAT-3, and is expected to result in cancer cell death. This phase I study investigated the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of napabucasin co-administered with fluorouracil, l-leucovorin, and irinotecan (FOLFIRI) chemotherapy plus bevacizumab in Japanese patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). METHODS: Patients with histologically confirmed unresectable stage IV CRC received oral napabucasin 240 mg twice daily (BID). Intravenous FOLFIRI and bevacizumab therapy was initiated on day 3 at approved doses. Unacceptable toxicity was evaluated over the first 30 days of treatment, after which treatment continued in 14-day cycles until toxicity or disease progression. Endpoints included safety, pharmacokinetics, and tumour response based on RECIST v1.1. RESULTS: Four patients received treatment; three were evaluable during the unacceptable toxicity period. All four patients experienced diarrhoea and decreased appetite (considered napabucasin-related in four and two patients, respectively), and three patients experienced neutrophil count decreased. No unacceptable toxicity was reported during the 30-day evaluation period. No grade 4 events, deaths, or serious adverse events were reported. The addition of FOLFIRI and bevacizumab to napabucasin did not significantly change the pharmacokinetic profile of napabucasin; however, results were variable among patients. The best overall response was stable disease in two patients (50.0%). CONCLUSIONS: Napabucasin 240 mg BID in combination with FOLFIRI and bevacizumab was tolerated, with a manageable safety profile in Japanese patients with metastatic CRC.


Assuntos
Camptotecina , Neoplasias Colorretais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Benzofuranos , Bevacizumab/efeitos adversos , Camptotecina/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Japão , Leucovorina/efeitos adversos , Naftoquinonas
6.
Eur J Cancer ; 154: 288-295, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303267

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In locally advanced or metastatic biliary tract cancer (BTC), second-line chemotherapy is challenging after progression from first-line gemcitabine/cisplatin. This study evaluated whether irinotecan/5-fluorouracil (5-FU; mFOLFIRI) was superior to oxaliplatin/5-FU (mFOLFOX) as a second-line treatment in BTC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients diagnosed with BTC with disease progression after prior gemcitabine/cisplatin were randomised (1:1) to either mFOLFOX (control arm) or mFOLFIRI (experimental arm). Randomisation was stratified by tumour location (intrahepatic versus extrahepatic versus gallbladder versus ampulla of Vater) and ECOG performance status (0, 1 versus 2). The primary endpoint was the overall survival (OS) rate at 6 months. RESULTS: In total, 120 patients were enrolled and 118 patients were randomised (mFOLFOX n = 59, mFOLFIRI n = 59). The baseline characteristics were well balanced between the two arms. The tumour location was intrahepatic bile duct in 48 patients (40.7%), extrahepatic bile duct in 29 patients (24.6%), gallbladder in 35 patients (29.7%) and ampulla of Vater in 6 patients (5.1%). At a median follow-up duration of 25.8 months, the 6-month OS rate was 54.1% in mFOLFOX and 44.1% in mFOLFIRI (p = 0.677). The median OS was 6.3 months (95% CI, 4.4-8.2) in mFOLFOX and 5.7 months (95% CI, 4.7-6.7) in mFOLFIRI (p = 0.677). The median progression-free survival was 2.8 months (95% CI, 2.3-3.3) in mFOLFOX and 2.1 months (95% CI, 1.1-3.1) in mFOLFIRI (p = 0.974). Of the 101 evaluable patients, the objective response rate and disease control rate were 5.9% and 66.7% in mFOLFOX and 4.0% and 64.0% in mFOLFIRI (p = 0.663 and p = 0.778, respectively). Peripheral neuropathy (37.5% versus 5.2%) and thrombocytopenia (35.7% versus 15.5%) in mFOLFOX and vomiting (19.0% versus 1.8%) and cholangitis (10.3% versus 0.0%) in mFOLFIRI occurred more frequently. No chemotherapy-related death was reported. CONCLUSION: In the second-line treatment of BTC, mFOLFIRI was not superior to mFOLFOX. However, mFOLFIRI was tolerable and showed comparable efficacy to mFOLFOX. Adverse events were different between the two arms. CLINICALTRIALS. GOV IDENTIFIER: NCT03464968.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias do Sistema Biliar/tratamento farmacológico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias do Sistema Biliar/mortalidade , Neoplasias do Sistema Biliar/patologia , Camptotecina/efeitos adversos , Camptotecina/análogos & derivados , Camptotecina/uso terapêutico , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Fluoruracila/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Leucovorina/efeitos adversos , Leucovorina/uso terapêutico , Metástase Neoplásica , Compostos Organoplatínicos/efeitos adversos , Compostos Organoplatínicos/uso terapêutico
7.
Cancer Sci ; 112(11): 4669-4678, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34327766

RESUMO

The phase III AXEPT study showed the noninferiority of modified capecitabine plus irinotecan (mXELIRI) with or without bevacizumab relative to fluorouracil, leucovorin, and irinotecan (FOLFIRI) with or without bevacizumab as a second-line treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer. We evaluated the associations between the UGT1A1 genotype linked to adverse events-caused by irinotecan-and the efficacy and safety of mXELIRI and FOLFIRI. The UGT1A1 genotype was prospectively determined and patients were categorized into three groups according to WT (*1/*1), single heterozygous (SH; *28/*1 or *6/*1), and double heterozygous or homozygous (DHH; *28/*28, *6/*6, or *28/*6). Overall survival (OS), progression-free survival, response rate, and safety were assessed. The UGT1A1 genotype was available in all 650 randomized patients (WT, 309 [47.5%]; SH, 291 [44.8%]; DHH, 50 [7.7%]). The median OS was 15.9, 17.7, and 10.6 months in the WT, SH, and DHH groups, respectively, with an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 1.53 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12-2.09; P = .008) for DHH vs WT or SH. The median OS in the mXELIRI and FOLFIRI arms was 18.1 vs 14.3 months (HR 0.80; 95% CI, 0.62-1.03) in the WT group, 16.3 vs 18.3 months (HR 1.04; 95% CI, 0.79-1.36) in the SH group, and 13.0 vs 9.1 months (HR 0.71; 95% CI, 0.39-1.31) in the DHH group, respectively. Modified capecitabine plus irinotecan with or without bevacizumab could be a standard second-line chemotherapy in terms of efficacy and safety regardless of the UGT1A1 genotype.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Camptotecina/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Fluoruracila/análogos & derivados , Genótipo , Glucuronosiltransferase/genética , Inibidores da Topoisomerase I/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Bevacizumab/uso terapêutico , Camptotecina/efeitos adversos , Camptotecina/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Intervalos de Confiança , Desoxicitidina/efeitos adversos , Desoxicitidina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Fluoruracila/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Leucovorina/efeitos adversos , Leucovorina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Inibidores da Topoisomerase I/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
13.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(7)2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244200

RESUMO

Methotrexate is a versatile antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent. We report a case of a young adult on the Cancer and Leukaemia Group B 10403 treatment protocol for B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. She has previously completed the induction and consolidation phases with good tolerance then started on Capizzi methotrexate during the interim maintenance phase. Few days after receiving one intermediate dose of methotrexate, she developed severe multiorgan toxicities including pancytopaenia and several dermatologic toxicities. The patient underwent extensive diagnostic workup, with all results negative, pointing eventually towards severe methotrexate toxicity. This case highlights the broad spectrum of toxicities that can occur even with low doses of methotrexate. Capizzi methotrexate therapy implies no leucovorin therapy, hence putting patients at risk for multiorgan toxicity. Our experience reinforces the importance of close monitoring for patients receiving methotrexate, regardless of dose, and the prompt administration of high-dose leucovorin once toxicity suspected.


Assuntos
Metotrexato , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras , Doença Aguda , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Leucovorina/efeitos adversos , Metotrexato/efeitos adversos , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto Jovem
14.
Anticancer Res ; 41(6): 3091-3097, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34083302

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The efficacy of folinic acid, fluorouracil, and irinotecan (FOLFIRI) plus ramucirumab (F-RAM) or aflibercept (F-AFL) as a second-line treatment in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) is established. In this study, the risks and benefits of F-RAM/AFL as a third-line treatment after first- and second-line bevacizumab for mCRC were evaluated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Overall survival (OS) and adverse events (AEs) were compared between groups treated with F-RAM/AFL (n=17) and trifluridine/tipiracil combination tablet (TAS-102) (n=26). RESULTS: Median OS was longer in the third-line F-RAM/AFL group (379 days; 95%CI=157-458 days) than in the TAS-102 group (183 days; 95%CI=80-204 days) (log-rank test, p=0.015). Discontinuation due to AEs was only observed in the F-RAM/AFL group (3 cases). CONCLUSION: As a third-line treatment for mCRC, F-RAM/AFL should be prioritized over TAS-102 in terms of efficacy; however, the risk of AEs should be considered.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Camptotecina/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Camptotecina/administração & dosagem , Camptotecina/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Leucovorina/administração & dosagem , Leucovorina/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/efeitos adversos
15.
Biomolecules ; 11(6)2021 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067288

RESUMO

FOLFIRINOX (FFX) and gemcitabine + nab-paclitaxel (GN) are the most common chemotherapy regimens in first-line treatment of metastatic pancreatic cancer (PC). They have not been compared each other in a prospective trial, but only in retrospective studies, which can thus be affected by several biases. In order to overcome these biases, we took advantage of matching-adjusted indirect comparison (MAIC), that allows an indirect comparison by reducing cross-trial differences, and compared data from 268 patients treated with GN in a real-world setting with data from the 171 patients included in the FFX arm of the PRODIGE trial. Survival outcomes did not differ between the two populations. Overall survival was 11.1 months for both treatments (hazard ratio (HR) of FFX 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.81-1.49; p = 0.527). Progression-free survival was 6.0 months with GN and 6.4 months with FFX (HR of FFX 1.11, 95% CI 0.82-1.50; p = 0.520). On the other hand, we observed a difference in the toxicity profiles: grade 3/4 anemia was more frequent with GN, whereas a higher occurrence of grade 3/4 vomiting and diarrhea was reported with FFX. FFX and GN show an equivalent efficacy but different safety profiles in the first-line therapy of metastatic pancreatic cancer. Searching for reliable predictive biomarkers is advised in order to improve therapeutic strategy in metastatic PC.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Desoxicitidina/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Irinotecano/administração & dosagem , Irinotecano/efeitos adversos , Leucovorina/administração & dosagem , Leucovorina/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Oxaliplatina/administração & dosagem , Oxaliplatina/efeitos adversos , Paclitaxel/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Taxa de Sobrevida
16.
Eur J Cancer ; 151: 14-24, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33957442

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This open-label, phase I/II study evaluated safety and efficacy for first-line liposomal irinotecan + oxaliplatin + 5-fluorouracil + leucovorin (NALIRIFOX). METHODS: Patients (aged ≥18 years) had locally advanced/metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (mPDAC), with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score of 0/1 and adequate organ function. Primary objectives were to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and to evaluate safety and tolerability. Treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were graded using National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v4.03. Efficacy end-points included progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS); disease assessments used Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors 1.1. RESULTS: The MTD (liposomal irinotecan 50 mg/m2 [free-base equivalent], oxaliplatin 60 mg/m2, 5-fluorouracil 2400 mg/m2, leucovorin 400 mg/m2 every 2 weeks) was based on dose-limiting toxicities and cumulative safety data in four dose-exploration cohorts. The MTD was received by 32 of 56 patients, seven during dose exploration and 25 during dose expansion (median age 58.0 years [range, 39-76], 28 [87.5%] with metastatic disease at diagnosis [29 at study entry], and one receiving study treatment at data cutoff [26 February 2020]). Of these patients, 22 of 32 had grade ≥3 treatment-related TEAEs, most commonly neutropenia (31.3%), febrile neutropenia (12.5%) and hypokalaemia (12.5%); ten had serious treatment-related TEAEs; and three died from TEAEs considered unrelated to treatment. Median PFS and OS were 9.2 (95% CI: 7.69-11.96) and 12.6 (8.74-18.69) months, respectively. CONCLUSION: First-line NALIRIFOX for patients with locally advanced/mPDAC was generally manageable and tolerable. A randomised, controlled phase III study is underway.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/tratamento farmacológico , Fluoruracila/uso terapêutico , Irinotecano/uso terapêutico , Leucovorina/uso terapêutico , Oxaliplatina/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Austrália , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/mortalidade , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Feminino , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Irinotecano/efeitos adversos , Leucovorina/efeitos adversos , Lipossomos , Masculino , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxaliplatina/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Espanha , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos
17.
Eur J Cancer ; 151: 3-13, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33951545

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gemcitabine/nab-paclitaxel (GN) and FOLFIRINOX are standard first-line treatment options for advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (aPDAC), but currently no prospective randomised head-to-head comparison between these treatments has yet been performed. METHODS: We conducted a comparative propensity score (PS) analysis of overall (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in a tri-centre cohort of patients with aPDAC undergoing palliative first-line treatment with either GN or FOLFIRINOX. RESULTS: In unadjusted analysis, OS and PFS were highly similar between patients treated with GN (n = 297) and FOLFIRINOX (n = 158). In detail, median, 1- and 2-year OS estimates were 10.1 months, 42% and 18% in the GN group, as compared to 11.2 months, 45% and 12% in the FOLFIRINOX group, respectively (log-rank p = 0.783). Accordingly, median (4.6 versus 4.8 months), 6-month (40% versus 43%) and 1-year (9% versus 9%) PFS estimates did not significantly differ (log-rank p = 0.717). However, patients treated with FOLFIRINOX were significantly younger, had fewer comorbidities, and a better Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status. These imbalances were accounted for by weighting the data with the PS. In PS analysis of survival outcomes, OS and PFS remained comparable between the two treatment groups. In detail, PS-weighted median, 1- and 2-year OS estimates were 10.1 months, 42% and 18% in the GN group, as compared to 10.1 months, 40% and 13% in the FOLFIRINOX group (PS-weighted log-rank p = 0.449). PS-weighted PFS estimates again did not differ (PS-weighted log-rank p = 0.329). CONCLUSION: This real-world comparative effectiveness study indicates that FOLFIRINOX and GN have similar effectiveness in the palliative first-line treatment of aPDAC.


Assuntos
Albuminas/uso terapêutico , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/tratamento farmacológico , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Paclitaxel/uso terapêutico , Cuidados Paliativos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Albuminas/efeitos adversos , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Áustria , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/mortalidade , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Desoxicitidina/efeitos adversos , Desoxicitidina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Fluoruracila/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Irinotecano/efeitos adversos , Irinotecano/uso terapêutico , Leucovorina/efeitos adversos , Leucovorina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxaliplatina/efeitos adversos , Oxaliplatina/uso terapêutico , Paclitaxel/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
18.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 537, 2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33975561

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: FOLFIRINOX (FFX) and Gemcitabine plus nab-paclitaxel (GnP) have been recommended as the first-line chemotherapy for metastatic pancreatic cancer (mPC). However, the evidence is lacking comparing not only two regimens, but also sequential treatment (FFX-GnP vs. GnP-FFX). METHODS: Data of 528 patients (FFX, n = 371; GnP, n = 157) with mPC were collected retrospectively. Propensity score matching was conducted to alleviate imbalance of the two groups. Overall survival (OS), progression free survival (PFS), and toxicity of patients were analyzed. RESULTS: In the whole population, OS (12.5 months vs. 10.3 months, P = 0.05) and PFS (7.1 months vs. 5.8 months, P = 0.02) were longer in the FFX group before matching and after matching (OS: 11.8 months vs. 10.3 months, P = 0.02; PFS: 7.2 months vs. 5.8 months, P <  0.01). For sequential treatment, OS and PFS showed no significant difference. Interruptions of chemotherapy due to toxicities were more frequent (6.8 vs. 29.3%, P <  0.001) in the GnP group, and cessation of chemotherapy showed a significant association with mortality (z = - 1.94, P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: FFX achieved a longer overall survival than GnP in mPC, but not in the comparison for sequential treatment. More frequent adverse events followed by treatment interruptions during GnP might lead to a poor survival outcome. Therefore, FFX would be a better first-line treatment option than GnP for mPC.


Assuntos
Albuminas/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Albuminas/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Desoxicitidina/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Fluoruracila/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Irinotecano/efeitos adversos , Irinotecano/uso terapêutico , Leucovorina/efeitos adversos , Leucovorina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Oxaliplatina/efeitos adversos , Oxaliplatina/uso terapêutico , Paclitaxel/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Pontuação de Propensão
19.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 564, 2021 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34001059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The chemotherapy triplet FOLFOXIRI combined to the anti-VEGF antibody bevacizumab is an option in selected patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. In this setting, RAS-mutated metastatic colorectal cancer do not benefit the same from treatment than RAS-wildtype metastatic colorectal cancer do. Together with its antiangiogenic properties, the tyrosine-kinase inhibitor regorafenib has also anti-proliferative activities whatever the RAS status is. The present trial aims at studying the safety and the efficacy of regorafenib in combination with FOLFIRINOX - a chemotherapy triplet using a different dosing schedule than FOLFOXIRI - in patients with RAS-mutated metastatic colorectal cancer. METHODS: FOLFIRINOX-R is a prospective, multicentric, non-randomised, dose-finding phase 1-2 trial. The primary endpoints are the determination of the maximum tolerated dose, the recommended phase 2 dose, and the proportion of patients achieving disease control at 48-weeks. Phase 1 follows a 3 + 3 design (12 to 24 patients to be included). Sixty nine patients will be necessary in phase 2, including 5% non-evaluable ones, with the following assumptions, one-stage Fleming design, α = 5%, ß = 20%, p0 = 35% and p1 = 50%. Key eligibility criteria include Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status of ≤1 and RAS-mutated metastatic colorectal cancer not amenable to surgery with curative intent and not previously treated for metastatic disease. FOLFIRINOX (oxaliplatin 85 mg/m2, folinic acid 400 mg/m2, irinotecan 150-180 mg/m2, 5-fluorouracil: 400 mg/m2 then 2400 mg/m2 over 46 h) is administered every 14 days. Regorafenib (80 to 160 mg, as per dose-level) is administered orally, once daily on days 4 to 10 of each cycle. DISCUSSION: FOLFIRINOX-R is the first phase I/II study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of regorafenib in combination with FOLFIRINOX as frontline therapy for patients with RAS-mutated metastatic colorectal cancer. TRIAL REGISTRATION: EudraCT: 2018-003541-42 ; ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03828799 .


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos de Fenilureia/administração & dosagem , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Fase I como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Irinotecano/administração & dosagem , Irinotecano/efeitos adversos , Leucovorina/administração & dosagem , Leucovorina/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Oxaliplatina/administração & dosagem , Oxaliplatina/efeitos adversos , Compostos de Fenilureia/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Prospectivos , Piridinas/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem , Proteínas ras/genética
20.
Oncol Res ; 28(7): 801-809, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34030768

RESUMO

Irinotecan, a topoisomerase inhibitor, is a common cytotoxic agent prescribed for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients. Diarrhea is the most common adverse event (AE). The underlying mechanism of irinotecan-induced diarrhea is intestinal mucosal damage caused by SN-38 (active metabolite of irinotecan) hydrolyzed from SN-38G (inactive metabolite) by bacterial -glucuronidase (G). According to an animal study, silymarin reduces the activity of bacterial G without impairing antitumor efficacy. We conducted a prospective open-label pilot study to evaluate the effect of silymarin as supplementation in reducing toxicities of mCRC patients undergoing irinotecan-based chemotherapy. We enrolled and randomized 70 mCRC patients receiving first-line FOLFIRI (5-fluorouracil/leucovorin/irinotecan) plus bevacizumab. In each treatment cycle, the study group was administered silymarin capsules (150 mg) three times daily for 7 days. The study group experienced less AEs in diarrhea (5.7% vs. 14.6%, p=0.002) and nausea (27.0% vs. 40.2%, p=0.005) in comparison with the control group, but no significant differences in hepatic toxicities were observed. In conclusion, simultaneous administration of silymarin is a potential effective supplementation for reducing toxicities in mCRC patients undergoing first-line FOLFIRI plus bevacizumab, especially in diarrhea and nausea.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Bevacizumab/uso terapêutico , Camptotecina/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Substâncias Protetoras/uso terapêutico , Silimarina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Bevacizumab/efeitos adversos , Camptotecina/efeitos adversos , Camptotecina/uso terapêutico , Diarreia/etiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Fluoruracila/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Irinotecano/efeitos adversos , Irinotecano/uso terapêutico , Leucovorina/efeitos adversos , Leucovorina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Náusea/etiologia , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
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