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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33477330

RESUMO

Weightlifting is a discipline where technique and anthropometric characteristics are essential to achieve the best results in competitions. This study aims to analyse the relationships between body composition, limb length and barbell kinematics in the performance of weightlifters. It consists of an observational and descriptive study of 19 athletes (12 men [28.50 ± 6.37 years old; 84.58 ± 14.11 kg; 176.18 ± 6.85 cm] and 7 women [27.71 ± 6.34 years old; 64.41 ± 7.63 kg; 166.94 ± 4.11 cm]) who met the inclusion criteria. A level I anthropometrist took anthropometric measures according to the methodology of the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK), and the measurement of the barbell velocity was made with the software Kinovea. In terms of body composition, both genders are within the percentage range of fat mass recommended for this sport. In female weightlifters, there is a positive correlation between foot length, maximal velocity in the Snatch (ρ = 0.775, p = 0.041), and performance indicator in the Snatch and the Clean & Jerk (ρ = 0.964, p < 0.001; ρ = 0.883, p = 0.008, respectively). In male weightlifters, a positive correlation between tibial length and average velocity of the barbell in the Snatch is observed (ρ = 0.848, p < 0.001). Muscle mass percentage correlates positively with performance indicator in both techniques (ρ = 0.634, p = 0.027; ρ = 0.720, p = 0.008). Also, the relative length of the upper limb is negatively correlated with the performance indicator (ρ = -0.602, p = 0.038). Anthropometry and body composition may facilitate skill acquisition among this sport population, contributing to increase the limited body of scientific knowledge related to weightlifting.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Composição Corporal , Pé/anatomia & histologia , Levantamento de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
2.
J Electromyogr Kinesiol ; 56: 102513, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422743

RESUMO

The main aim of the study was to compare the peak surface electromyography (sEMG) amplitude of muscles during low and high loaded bench press exercises performed to muscular failure on the dominant and non-dominant body side. Ten resistance-trained healthy males with at least six-year experience in resistance training (27.7 ± 5.6 years, 81.1 ± 5.8 kg and 175.3 ± 5.2 cm, bench press one-repetition maximum [1RM] = 98.9 ± 7.1 kg) performed the bench press at 50% and at 90%1RM. The differences in peak sEMG amplitude between body-sides and the external loads were recorded for the pectoralis major (PM), anterior deltoid (AD), and the long head of the triceps brachii (TB) during each attempt. A two-way repeated-measures ANOVAs revealed statistically significant main effect of side for AD (p < 0.001) and TB (p < 0.001) but not for PM (p = 0.168) and a significant main effect of load for TB (p < 0.001) but not for AD and PM (p = 0.229; p = 0.072; respectively). The post-hoc analysis for the main effect of side showed significantly higher peak sEMG amplitude for the dominant side compared to the non-dominant side for AD and TB at 50%1RM and 90%1RM (p < 0.001; all) with no statistically significant differences for PM (p = 0.187; p = 0.155; both loads). The post-hoc analysis for the main effect of load for TB revealed a significantly higher peak sEMG amplitude at 90%1RM compared to the 50%1RM (p = 0.009). The obtained results indicate that regardless of the external load, the peak sEMG activity of the AD, PM, and TB during the bench press exercise performed to muscular failure was higher on the dominant body-side.


Assuntos
Eletromiografia/métodos , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Suporte de Carga/fisiologia , Adulto , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Músculos Peitorais/fisiologia , Levantamento de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 60(8): 1057-1064, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955831

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rock climbers are characterized by enhanced forearm fatigue resistance. This study compared the forearm isometric force of rock climbers (RC), strength-matched power lifters (PL) and aerobically trained (AT) athletes to determine the contribution of muscle oxygen desaturation during ischemia. METHODS: Aerobically trained athletes (N.=6, 23±1 years, 77±1 kg), power lifters (N.=7, 24±1 years, 80±3 kg) and rock climbers (N.=8, 25±2 years, 74±2 kg) took part in a controlled forearm ischemic occlusion (5 min) assessment using near infrared spectroscopy. In addition, three fatigue protocols were completed: protocol 1, sustained maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) until exhaustion; protocol 2, sustained 40% MVC for 3 mins duration; protocol 3, an intermittent 40% MVC (5-s contraction, 5-s recovery) for a duration of 3 mins. Forearm contractile fatigue was quantified as the reduction in MVC. RESULTS: MVC was equivalent between groups (P>0.05). Sustained MVC force (time to decline 50% MVC) was longer in the RC versus AT (AT: 35±5, PL: 46±6, RC: 54±4 s, P<0.05) and both AT and PL for sustained 40% MVC (AT: 56±9, RT: 62±8, RC: 87±7 s, P<0.05). Reduction in MVC was less in RC post intermittent 40% contractions (P<0.05). Oxygen desaturation half-time was longer in the RC versus AT (AT: 65±9, RT: 86±7, RC: 99±7 s, P<0.05) and this was associated with time to 50% MVC (P<0.05, r2=0.53) and time to 40% MVC task failure (P<0.05, r2=0.32). CONCLUSIONS: Rock climbers' enhanced isometric fatigue-resistance and ability to maintain MVC was associated with a lower oxygen consumption of the forearm flexors during the ischemic state. This suggests a training adaptation involving intracellular oxygen consumption.


Assuntos
Antebraço/fisiologia , Montanhismo/fisiologia , Fadiga Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Adulto , Dedos/fisiologia , Antebraço/irrigação sanguínea , Antebraço/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Contração Isométrica/fisiologia , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/irrigação sanguínea , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Consumo de Oxigênio , Condicionamento Físico Humano/fisiologia , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Levantamento de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235555, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645111

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to compare the effects of a 10-week chest-press resistance training on lifting regions in a trained exercise and a none-trained exercise; the barbell bench press (BBP). Thirty-five resistance trained men with 4.2 (± 2.3) years of resistance training experience were recruited. The participants were randomized to attend a resistance program, performing the chest-press, twice per week using either, Smith machine, dumbbells or laying on Swiss ball using a barbell. A six-repetitions maximum (6RM) test was conducted pre- and post-training in the trained chest-press exercise and non-trained BBP to examine lifting velocity, load displacement and the time of the pre-sticking, sticking and post-sticking regions. Additionally, the muscle activity in pectoralis major, triceps brachii, biceps brachii and deltoid anterior was examined. In the post-test, all three chest-press groups decreased lifting velocity and increased the time to reach the sticking- and post-sticking region. Independent of the type of chest-press exercise trained, no differences were observed in vertical displacement or in the muscle activity for the three lifting regions. In general, similar changes in kinematics in trained exercise and those observed in the BBP were observed for all three groups. This indicates that none of the three chest-press exercises (Swiss ball, Smith machine or dumbbells) were specific regarding the lifting regions but displaced a transferability towards the non-trained BBP. However, improved strength altered the sticking region among resistance trained men.


Assuntos
Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Masculino , Tronco/fisiologia , Levantamento de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235156, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667945

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Single repetition, contraction-phase specific and total time-under-tension (TUT) are crucial mechano-biological descriptors associated with distinct morphological, molecular and metabolic muscular adaptations in response to exercise, rehabilitation and/or fighting sarcopenia. However, to date, no simple, reliable and valid method has been developed to measure these descriptors. OBJECTIVE: In this study we aimed to test whether accelerometer data obtained from a standard smartphone placed on the weight stack can be used to extract single repetition, contraction-phase specific and total TUT. METHODS: Twenty-two participants performed two sets of ten repetitions of their 60% one repetition maximum with a self-paced velocity on nine commonly used resistance exercise machines. Two identical smartphones were attached on the resistance exercise weight stacks and recorded all user-exerted accelerations. An algorithm extracted the number of repetitions, single repetition, contraction-phase specific and total TUT. All exercises were video-recorded. The TUT determined from the algorithmically-derived mechano-biological descriptors was compared with the video recordings that served as the gold standard. The agreement between the methods was examined using Limits of Agreement (LoA). The association was calculated using the Pearson correlation coefficients and interrater reliability was determined using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC 2.1). RESULTS: The error rate of the algorithmic detection of single repetitions derived from two smartphones accelerometers was 0.16%. Comparing algorithmically-derived, contraction-phase specific TUT against video, showed a high degree of correlation (r>0.93) for all exercise machines. Agreement between the two methods was high on all exercise machines as follows: LoA ranged from -0.3 to 0.3 seconds for single repetition TUT (0.1% of mean TUT), from -0.6 to 0.3 seconds for concentric contraction TUT (7.1% of mean TUT), from -0.3 to 0.5 seconds for eccentric contraction TUT (4.1% of mean TUT) and from -1.9 to 1.1 seconds for total TUT (0.5% of mean TUT). Interrater reliability for single repetition, contraction-phase specific TUT was high (ICC > 0.99). CONCLUSION: Data from smartphone accelerometer derived resistance exercise can be used to validly and reliably extract crucial mechano-biological descriptors. Moreover, the presented multi-analytical algorithmic approach enables researchers and clinicians to reliably and validly report missing mechano-biological descriptors.


Assuntos
Acelerometria/instrumentação , Contração Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência , Smartphone , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Levantamento de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 60(7): 992-998, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597616

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rest interval between sets can affect the responses to resistance training. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare the effects of different rest intervals (RI) on volume, density, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) when adopting a crescent pyramid (CP) system. METHODS: Twenty young women (21.1±2.6 years, 1.59±0.06 m, 58.5±9.3 kg) participated in this study. All participants performed three experimental sessions of the leg press exercise in 5 sets until voluntary muscular failure at 60%, 65%, 70%, 75%, and 80% of one-repetition maximum (1RM). A randomized and crossover design was used so that in each session one of three RI (RI-1 = 1 min, RI-2 = 2 min, and RI-3 = 3 min) was tested. RESULTS: The participants performed a significantly larger volume in the RI-3 (12820±3134 kg) when compared to RI-1 (10367±3053 kg) condition (P<0.05). The volume did not differ between RI-2 and RI-3 (P>0.05). The density was higher (P<0.05) in RI-1 (43.1±12.7 kg/s) when compared RI-2 (25.6±5.8 kg/s) and RI-3 (17.7±4.3 kg/s). The RI-2 presented higher density compared to RI-3 condition (P<0.05). The RPE was not different between the three conditions (P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The use of 2 minutes of rest between sets allowed the performance of a high volume-load and density of the session in young women. In addition, the three experimental sessions provided a high perception of effort.


Assuntos
Percepção/fisiologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Levantamento de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Perna (Membro)/fisiologia , Descanso/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Sports Sci ; 38(17): 2005-2012, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32544021

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to examine load-dependent differences in lower-extremity biomechanics between the back squat (BS) and front squat (FS) exercises. Eleven NCAA Division-I athletes performed three repetitions of the BS and FS at loads of 40%, 60%, and 80% of their FS one repetition maximum (FS-1RM). Kinematic and kinetic data were collected during each squat repetition and used to calculate lower extremity peak joint angles and peak net joint moments (NJM). Peak angles and NJM were compared with a 2 × 3 repeated measures ANOVA. Peak hip extensor NJM were greater during the BS at 60% and 80% of FS-1RM. In comparison, peak knee extensor NJM were greater during the FS at 80% of FS-1RM. However, regression-based prediction of NJM at 100% of FS and BS 1RM indicated that at maximal loads, peak knee NJM are (~3%) higher during the BS. The experimental results suggest that when performed at the same absolute load, the BS and FS are characterized by greater respective mechanical demands imposed on the hip and knee extensors muscles groups. However, prediction-based results suggest that the knee extensor NJM demands are comparable when performed at the same relative load (i.e., with respect to each exercise's RM).


Assuntos
Extremidade Inferior/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Levantamento de Peso/fisiologia , Tornozelo/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Quadril/fisiologia , Humanos , Joelho/fisiologia , Masculino , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Postura , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento , Suporte de Carga/fisiologia
8.
J Sports Sci ; 38(17): 2013-2020, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516094

RESUMO

This study compared the effects of dictating load using individual (ILVP) or group (GLVP) load-velocity profiles on lower-body strength and power. Nineteen trained males (23.6 ± 3.7 years) completed a back squat one-repetition maximum (1-RM), load-velocity profiling (LVP), and countermovement (CMJ), static-squat (SSJ) and standing-broad (SBJ) jump tests before and after 6 weeks of resistance training. Participants were randomly assigned to an ILVP, or GLVP intervention with intra-session load dictated through real-time velocity monitoring and prediction of current relative performance using either the participant's LVP (ILVP) or a LVP based on all participant data (GLVP). Training resulted in significant increases in back squat 1-RM for the ILVP and GLVP group (p < 0.01; 9.7% and 7.2%, respectively), with no group-by-time interaction identified between training groups (p = 0.06). All jump performance significantly increased for the ILVP group (p < 0.01; CMJ: 6.6%; SSJ: 4.6%; SBJ: 6.7%), with only CMJ and SSJ improving for the GLVP group (p < 0.05; 4.3%). Despite no significant group-by-time interaction across all variables, the ILVP intervention induced a greater magnitude of adaptation when compared to a GLVP approach. Additionally, an individualised approach may lead to greater positive transfer to power-based movements, specifically vertical and horizontal jumps.


Assuntos
Força Muscular/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Adaptação Fisiológica , Humanos , Masculino , Exercício Pliométrico , Fatores de Tempo , Levantamento de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Strength Cond Res ; 34(7): 1808-1818, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32398635

RESUMO

Suchomel, TJ, McKeever, SM, and Comfort, P. Training with weightlifting derivatives: The effects of force and velocity overload stimuli. J Strength Cond Res 34(7): 1808-1818, 2020-The purposes of this study were to compare the training effects of weightlifting movements performed with (CATCH) or without (PULL) the catch phase of clean derivatives performed at the same relative loads or training without the catch phase using a force- and velocity-specific overload stimulus (OL) on isometric and dynamic performance tasks. Twenty-seven resistance-trained men completed 10 weeks of training as part of the CATCH, PULL, or OL group. The CATCH group trained using weightlifting catching derivatives, while the PULL and OL groups used biomechanically similar pulling derivatives. The CATCH and PULL groups were prescribed the same relative loads, while the OL group was prescribed force- and velocity-specific loading that was exercise and phase specific. Preintervention and postintervention isometric midthigh pull (IMTP), relative one repetition maximum power clean (1RM PC), 10-, 20-, and 30-m sprint, and 505 change of direction on the right (505R) and left (505L) leg were examined. Statistically significant differences in preintervention to postintervention percent change were present for relative IMTP peak force, 10-, 20-, and 30-m sprints, and 505L (all p < 0.03), but not for relative 1RM PC or 505R (p > 0.05). The OL group produced the greatest improvements in each of the examined characteristics compared with the CATCH and PULL groups with generally moderate to large practical effects being present. Using a force- and velocity-specific overload stimulus with weightlifting pulling derivatives may produce superior adaptations in relative strength, sprint speed, and change of direction compared with submaximally loaded weightlifting catching and pulling derivatives.


Assuntos
Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Levantamento de Peso/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Masculino , Movimento , Força Muscular , Esforço Físico , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Strength Cond Res ; 34(7): 1830-1841, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358309

RESUMO

Meechan, D, Suchomel, TJ, McMahon, JJ, and Comfort, P. A comparison of kinetic and kinematic variables during the midthigh pull and countermovement shrug, across loads. J Strength Cond Res 34(7): 1830-1841, 2020-This study compared kinetic and kinematic variables during the midthigh pull (MTP) and countermovement shrug (CMS). Eighteen men (age: 29.43 ± 3.95 years, height: 1.77 ± 0.08 m, body mass: 84.65 ± 18.79 kg, and 1 repetition maximum [1RM] power clean: 1.02 ± 0.18 kg·kg) performed the MTP and CMS at intensities of 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, and 140% 1RM, in a progressive manner. Peak force (PF), mean force (MF), peak velocity, peak barbell velocity (BV), peak power, (PP), mean power (MP), and net impulse were calculated from force-time data during the propulsion phase. During the CMS, PF and MF were maximized at 140% 1RM and was significantly greater than the MTP at all loads (p ≤ 0.001, Hedges g = 0.66-0.90); p < 0.001, g = 0.74-0.99, respectively). Peak velocity and BV were significantly and meaningfully greater during the CMS compared with the MTP across all loads (p < 0.001, g = 1.83-2.85; p < 0.001, g = 1.73-2.30, respectively). Similarly, there was a significantly and meaningfully greater PP and MP during the CMS, across all loads, compared with the MTP (p < 0.001, g = 1.45-2.22; p < 0.001, g = 1.52-1.92). Impulse during the CMS was also significantly greater across all loads (p < 0.001, g = 1.20-1.66) compared with the MTP. Results of this study demonstrate that the CMS may be a more advantageous exercise to perform to enhance force-time characteristics when compared with the MTP, due to the greater kinetics and kinematic values observed.


Assuntos
Movimento , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Levantamento de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Cinética , Masculino , Força Muscular , Coxa da Perna
12.
J Electromyogr Kinesiol ; 53: 102428, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32446132

RESUMO

Muscle activation, peak velocity (PV) and perceived technical difficulty while using three grip variations and three loads during a deadlift exercise (DL) were examined. Twenty-nine resistance-trained athletes (15 males, age: 22.2 ± 2.7 years; 14 females, age: 24.8 ± 7.0 years) performed the DL with 50%, 70% and 90% of their one repetition maximum (1RM) using hook grip (HG), mixed grip (MG) and double overhand (DOH) grip. Surface electromyography (EMG) of the brachialis (BS), brachioradialis (BR) and flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) was recorded. PV and perceived technical difficulty of each grip were also measured. Regardless of load and grip, females exhibited greater BS activation compared to males (p < 0.05; ES = 0.69) while males displayed greater BR activation, significant at 90% load (p < 0.01; ES = 1.01). MG elicited the least BR and FCU activation regardless of load and sex (p < 0.01; ES = 0.64-0.68) and was consistently ranked as the easiest grip for any load. Males achieved significantly greater PV than females at 50% and 70% (p < 0.01; ES = 1.72-1.92). Hand orientation did not significantly impact PV. A MG may be beneficial in reducing the overall perceived technical difficulty when performing a maximal DL. Athletes aiming to maximise muscle activation and potentially develop their grip strength should utilise a DOH grip or HG.


Assuntos
Atletas , Eletromiografia/métodos , Antebraço/fisiologia , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Levantamento de Peso/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Strength Cond Res ; 34(6): 1574-1580, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32459413

RESUMO

Bagley, JR, Burghardt, KJ, McManus, R, Howlett, B, Costa, PB, Coburn, JW, Arevalo, JA, Malek, MH, and Galpin, AJ. Epigenetic responses to acute resistance exercise in trained vs. sedentary men. J Strength Cond Res 34(6): 1574-1580, 2020-Acute resistance exercise (RE) alters DNA methylation, an epigenetic process that influences gene expression and regulates skeletal muscle adaptation. This aspect of cellular remodeling is poorly understood, especially in resistance-trained (RT) individuals. The study purpose was to examine DNA methylation in response to acute RE in RT and sedentary (SED) young men, specifically targeting genes responsible for metabolic, inflammatory, and hypertrophic muscle adaptations. Vastus lateralis biopsies were performed before (baseline), 30 minutes after, and 4 hours after an acute RE bout (3 × 10 repetitions at 70% 1 repetition maximum [1RM] leg press and leg extension) in 11 RT (mean ± SEM: age = 26.1 ± 1.0 years; body mass = 84.3 ± 0.2 kg; leg press 1RM = 412.6 ± 25.9 kg) and 8 SED (age = 22.9 ± 1.1 years; body mass = 75.6 ± 0.3 kg; leg press 1RM = 164.8 ± 22.5 kg) men. DNA methylation was analyzed through methylation sensitive high-resolution melting using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Separate 2 (group) × 3 (time) repeated-measures analyses of variance and analyses of covariance were performed to examine changes in DNA methylation for each target gene. Results showed that acute RE (a) hypomethylated LINE-1 (measure of global methylation) in RT but not SED, (b) hypermethylated metabolic genes (GPAM and SREBF2) in RT, while lowering SREBF2 methylation in SED, and (c) did not affect methylation of genes associated with inflammation (IL-6 and TNF-α) or hypertrophy (mTOR and AKT1). However, basal IL-6 and TNF-α were lower in SED compared with RT. These findings indicate the same RE stimulus can illicit different epigenetic responses in RT vs. SED men and provides a molecular mechanism underpinning the need for differential training stimuli based on subject training backgrounds.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Treinamento de Resistência , Comportamento Sedentário , Adulto , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Humanos , Interleucina-6/genética , Elementos Nucleotídeos Longos e Dispersos/genética , Masculino , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Músculo Quadríceps/fisiologia , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 2/genética , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Levantamento de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Sports Sci ; 38(14): 1624-1628, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32299296

RESUMO

The aims of this study were to compare the force profile of using a horizontal cylinder-shaped axis or a vertical cone-shaped axis to provide resistance in rotary inertia devices, and to report the evolution of kinetic and kinematic variables in experienced athletes during a half-squat exercise. Twenty-two healthy active men participated in the assessment of time, peak velocity, peak force, time to reach the peak force, average force, impulse, and range of movement, during a half-squat incremental test performed on conical inertial device (CP) and on cylinder inertial device (YY). The analysis showed that YY during CON-ECC phased generates substantial higher peak_force, mean_force, impulse, time, and a lower peak_velocity, than CP. We never obtained eccentric overload for peak_force or mean_force. CP offers less resistance to accelerate-decelerate the movement with respect to YY, we need checking whether eccentric overload it is being produced, and the impulse was the only kinetic variable that was able to discriminate between the inertias and devices.


Assuntos
Treinamento de Resistência/instrumentação , Equipamentos Esportivos , Levantamento de Peso/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Cinética , Masculino , Movimento/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Strength Cond Res ; 34(7): 1819-1829, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32282627

RESUMO

Meechan, D, McMahon, JJ, Suchomel, TJ, and Comfort, P. A comparison of kinetic and kinematic variables during the pull from the knee and hang pull, across loads. J Strength Cond Res 34(7): 1819-1829, 2020-Kinetic and kinematic variables during the pull from the knee (PFK) and hang pull (HP) were compared in this study. Eighteen men (age = 29.43 ± 3.95 years; height 1.77 ± 0.08 m; body mass 84.65 ± 18.79 kg) performed the PFK and HP with 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, and 140% of 1-repetition maximum (1RM) power clean, in a progressive manner. Peak force (PF), mean force (MF), peak system velocity (PSV), mean system velocity (MSV), peak power (PP), mean power (MP), and net impulse were calculated from force-time data during the propulsion phase. During the HP, small-to-moderate yet significantly greater MF was observed compared with the PFK, across all loads (p ≤ 0.001; Hedges g = 0.47-0.73). Hang pull PSV was moderately and significantly greater at 100-140% 1RM (p = 0.001; g = 0.64-0.94), whereas MSV was significantly greater and of a large-to-very large magnitude compared with PFK, across all loads (p < 0.001; g = 1.36-2.18). Hang pull exhibited small to moderate and significantly greater (p ≤ 0.011, g = 0.44-0.78) PP at 100-140%, with moderately and significantly greater (p ≤ 0.001, g = 0.64-0.98) MP across all loads, compared with the PFK. Hang pull resulted in a small to moderate and significantly greater net impulse between 100 and 140% 1RM (p = 0.001, g = 0.36-0.66), compared with PFK. The results of this study demonstrate that compared with the PFK, the HP may be a more beneficial exercise to enhance force-time characteristics, especially at loads of ≥1RM.


Assuntos
Movimento , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Levantamento de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Cinética , Joelho , Masculino , Força Muscular
16.
J Strength Cond Res ; 34(5): 1213-1219, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32149884

RESUMO

Pearson, J, Spathis, JG, van den Hoek, DJ, Owen, PJ, Weakley, J, and Latella, C. Effect of competition frequency on strength performance of powerlifting athletes. J Strength Cond Res 34(5): 1213-1219, 2020-Powerlifting (PL) requires athletes to achieve the highest possible "total" weight lifted across squat, bench press, and deadlift. Athletes compete multiple times per year; however, it is not well understood how often PL athletes should compete to facilitate maximal strength performance. This study investigated the effect of competition frequency on strength (relative and absolute) in PL athletes over a 12-month period. Results across all male (n = 563, mean ± SD; age; 28 ± 10 years, body mass; 89.3 ± 19.3 kg) and female (n = 437, age; 31 ± 11 years, body mass; 70.1 ± 15.8 kg) PL athletes were collated. Total competition scores were used to calculate absolute and relative strength for each competition. Linear mixed models with random effects, and effect sizes ± 95% confidence intervals compared competition frequency and total score for (a) all, (b) male, and (c) female competition entries, respectively. The association between total score at each competition was assessed with Pearson's correlation coefficient for the same independent variables. Results demonstrate greater absolute strength at competition 2 for all athletes (5.1%: p = 0.043: d = 0.16) and males (2.9%: p = 0.049: d = 0.15). For females, absolute strength was greater at competition 5 compared to 1 (12.0%: p = 0.001: d = 0.65) and 2 (9.6%: p = 0.007: d = 0.50). Weak positive correlations for relative strength and number of times competed for males were evident between competitions 1 to 4 (r = 0.070-0.085, p = 0.003-0.043). For females, 3 competitions weakly correlated with absolute strength (r = 0.106, p = 0.016). PL athletes who compete multiple times per year are more likely to achieve higher totals; however, there is an upper limit to the number of competitions (4 per year) that seem to allow a performance increase.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Levantamento de Peso/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Atletas , Terapia por Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Postura , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Sports Sci Med ; 19(1): 195-203, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32132843

RESUMO

The gluteus maximus (GMax) is one of the primary hip extensors. Several exercises have been performed by strength and conditioning practitioners aiming to increase GMax strength and size. This systematic review aimed to describe the GMax activation levels during strength exercises that incorporate hip extension and use of external load. A search of the current literature was performed using PubMed/Medline, SportDiscuss, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Science Direct electronic databases. Sixteen articles met the inclusion criteria and reported muscle activation levels as a percentage of a maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). The exercises classified as very high level of GMax activation (>60% MVIC) were step-up, lateral step-up, diagonal step-up, cross over step-up, hex bar deadlift, rotational barbell hip thrust, traditional barbell hip thrust, American barbell hip thrust, belt squat, split squat, in-line lunge, traditional lunge, pull barbell hip thrust, modified single-leg squat, conventional deadlift, and band hip thrust. We concluded that several exercises could induce very high levels of GMax activation. The step-up exercise and its variations present the highest levels of GMax activation followed by several loaded exercises and its variations, such as deadlifts, hip thrusts, lunges, and squats. The results of this systematic review may assist practitioners in selecting exercised for strengthening GMax.


Assuntos
Músculo Esquelético/anatomia & histologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Levantamento de Peso/fisiologia , Eletromiografia , Humanos , Contração Isométrica/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia
18.
J Sports Sci ; 38(9): 985-993, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32175825

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the physical determinants of weightlifting competition performance based on Isometric Mid-Thigh Pull (IMTP) and Countermovement Jump (CMJ) force-time variables, in a cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis. Ten British advanced international female weightlifters' competition results and neuromuscular assessment data collected as part of the British Weight Lifting World Class Programme were utilised for the purpose of this study. All data were averaged for two consecutive 1-year periods. The cross-sectional analysis utilised the second year of data, whereas the longitudinal analysis assessed the mean change between the two years. The cross-sectional analysis results reveal IMTP Net Isometric Peak Force (PF) and CMJ Peak Power (PP) predict 94.2%, 95.1% and 91.8% of the variance in Total, Snatch and Clean & Jerk competition performance, respectively (p = <0.5). The longitudinal analysis results revealed that ∆IMTP PF was the only predicting factor of longitudinal change in weightlifting competition performance predicting 41.5%, 41.7% and 42.5% of ∆Total, ∆Snatch and ∆Clean & Jerk, respectively (p = <0.5). The assessments and equations may be utilised by coaches or sports scientists to inform the prescription of training and help predict competition performance.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Contração Isométrica/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Levantamento de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Músculo Esquelético/inervação , Exercício Pliométrico , Coxa da Perna , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 60(2): 236-243, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32125125

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies were limited to physical measurements or included very few performance test batteries, which has hindered the determination of the best tests for predicting competition performance in weightlifters. This study aimed to examine the relationships between body composition, Wingate anaerobic power, vertical jump height, isokinetic strength, handgrip strength, trunk strength, and competition performance and to determine the best predictors of competition performance in male junior weightlifters. METHODS: Sixty-seven male junior weightlifters (age 16.6±1.5 years, height 166.6±5.2 cm, body mass 67.0±9.3 kg) voluntarily participated in this study. After a national weightlifting competition, the participants were evaluated for anthropometric measurements, Wingate anaerobic power, isokinetic strength, vertical jump, handgrip strength, and trunk strength tests. The competition performance of the participants was calculated using the Sinclair equation and used as the dependent variable in statistical analysis. RESULTS: The correlations between the variables calculated from the five strength-power tests and the Sinclair score were significant (r=0.448 to 0.951, P≤0.05). The regression model suggested that the best predictors of weightlifting performance were Wingate mean power, the countermovement jump with arm swing, and body fat percentage, which accounted for approximately 88% of the common variance associated with competition performance in male junior weightlifters. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study showed that the predictors of weightlifting performance were Wingate mean power, countermovement jump with arm swing, and body fat percentage.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Levantamento de Peso/fisiologia , Adolescente , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino
20.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 17(1): 15, 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32143716

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maximal strength-speed exercise is a powerful stimulus to acutely increase concentrations of circulating steroid hormones and homocysteine [Hcy]. There is some evidence that antioxidant beverages rich in polyphenols can attenuate [Hcy] levels and modulate endocrine responses in favor of an anabolic environment. Polyphenols-rich pomegranate (POM) have been reported to possess one of the highest antioxidant capacities compared to other purported nutraceuticals and other food stuffs. Studies focused on proving the beneficial effect of POM consumption during maximal strength exercises have only measured physical performance, muscle damage, oxidative stress and inflammatory responses, while POM effects on [Hcy] and hormonal adaptations are lacking. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of consuming natural polyphenol-rich pomegranate juice (POMj) on the acute and delayed [Hcy] and steroidal hormonal responses to a weightlifting exercises session. METHODS: Nine elite weightlifters (21.0 ± 1 years) performed two Olympic-weightlifting sessions after ingesting either the placebo (PLA) or POMj supplements. Venous blood samples were collected at rest and 3 min and 48 h after each session. RESULTS: Compared to baseline values, circulating cortisol [C] decreased (p < 0.01) and testosterone/cortisol [T/C] ratio increased immediately following the training session in both PLA and POMj conditions (p = 0.003 for PLA and p = 0.02 for POM). During the 48 h recovery period, all tested parameters were shown to recover to baseline values in both conditions with significant increases in [C] and decreases in [T/C] (p < 0.01 for PLA and p < 0.05 for POMj) from 3 min to 48 h post-exercises. Compared to PLA, a lower level of plasma testosterone [T] was registered 3 min post exercise using POMj supplementation (p = 0.012) and a significant decrease (p = 0.04, %change = - 14%) in plasma [Hcy] was registered during the 48 h recovery period only using POMj. A moderate correlation was observed between [Hcy] and [T] responses (p = 0.002, r = - 0.50). CONCLUSION: In conclusion, supplementation with POMj has the potential to attenuate the acute plasma [T] response, but did not effect 48 h recovery kinetics of [Hcy] following weightlifting exercise. Further studies investigating androgen levels in both plasma and muscular tissue are needed to resolve the functional consequences of the observed acute POMj effect on plasma [T]. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trials.gov, ID: NCT02697903. Registered 03 March 2016.


Assuntos
Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Homocisteína/sangue , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Polifenóis/administração & dosagem , Romã (Fruta) , Testosterona/sangue , Levantamento de Peso/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
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