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2.
J Int Bioethique Ethique Sci ; 31(4): 33-39, 2021 02.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33728876

RESUMO

Internationally, as in many national texts, human dignity is repeatedly invoked as the cardinal reference in bioethics. In reality, this principle has particular legal characteristics linked to its dual nature of objective principle and subjective principle. However, insofar as it constitutes, in its objective dimension, an obstacle to the instrumentalization of the human being, it sometimes seems to present an incantatory and rhetorical character. In this sense, the conception of fundamental rights organized exclusively on the basis of the freedom of a self-centered individual turns out to be less protective than the principle of dignity as it is the basis of prohibitions.


Assuntos
Bioética , Liberdade , Direitos Humanos , Respeito , Humanos
3.
J Int Bioethique Ethique Sci ; 31(4): 41-55, 2021 02.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33728877

RESUMO

This contribution analyses the way in which the European and Inter-American Courts of Human Rights handle the concept of Human Dignity in cases that present bioethical stakes. As they do not comprehend it in the same way – ‘Dignity-Freedom’ on the one hand, ‘Dignity-Equality’ on the other – it implies differences of solutions in areas such as the definition of the human person, the right to personal autonomy, the right to health or even the right to a healthy environment. This comparative analysis also allows us to grasp better the limits that a too liberal reading of human rights can represent and to propose some means of improvement. That would involve a review of the equal dignity of human beings by the European Court, thanks to different tools that can be put into action without the Court’s being forced to reconsider the theoretical basis on which its whole system is founded.


Assuntos
Temas Bioéticos/legislação & jurisprudência , Bioética , Liberdade , Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência , Respeito , Humanos , Autonomia Pessoal , Estados Unidos
4.
Soins Gerontol ; 26(147): 40-44, 2021.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549241

RESUMO

The use of physical, as well as chemical, restraints is subject to a medical prescription. It is a medical decision, most often fortunately made as a team. Responsibilities are involved when it is implemented. It is necessary to know them, as well as it is essential to know the alternatives. A study of the caring perception of restraint of hospitalized patients with neurocognitive disorders and excessive ambulation has been carried out. Thus, an ethical approach would make it possible to adopt a fairer approach taking into account the notions of individual and collective freedom, safety and risk.


Assuntos
Liberdade , Restrição Física , Idoso , Humanos , Transtornos Neurocognitivos/terapia
5.
Harm Reduct J ; 18(1): 21, 2021 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596901

RESUMO

Since the start of the opioid epidemic in 2016, the Downtown Eastside community of Vancouver, Canada, has lost many pioneering leaders, activists and visionaries to the war on drugs. The Vancouver Area Network of Drug Users (VANDU), the Western Aboriginal Harm Reduction Society (WAHRS), and the British Columbia Association People on Opiate Maintenance (BCAPOM) are truly concerned about the increasing overdose deaths that have continued since 2016 and have been exacerbated by the novel coronavirus (SARS-COVID-19) despite many unique and timely harm reduction announcements by the British Columbia (B.C.) government. Some of these unique interventions in B.C., although in many cases only mere announcements with limited scope, are based on the philosophy of safe supply to illegal street drugs. Despite all the efforts during the pandemic, overdose deaths have spiked by over 100% compared to the previous year. Therefore, we urge the Canadian federal government, specifically the Honorable Patty Hajdu, the federal Minister of Health, to decriminalize simple possession immediately by granting exemption under the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act. The Canadian federal government has a moral obligation under Sect. 7 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms to protect the basic human rights of marginalized Canadians.


Assuntos
Controle de Medicamentos e Entorpecentes/legislação & jurisprudência , Redução do Dano , Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência , /mortalidade , Analgésicos Opioides , Colúmbia Britânica/epidemiologia , Canadá , Overdose de Drogas/mortalidade , Governo Federal , Liberdade , Humanos , Governo Local , Epidemia de Opioides/mortalidade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides
6.
Ital J Pediatr ; 47(1): 40, 2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33618753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The year 2020 will be remembered as the "year of the COVID-19 pandemic". The world population had to familiarize themselves with words as swabs, personal protective equipment, pandemic. To curb the wave of the pandemic, almost all the countries imposed self-isolation and social distancing. We conducted a web-based survey to investigate the behavioural responses during the quarantine due to the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Participants were 1860 youth aged 12-18 years attending lower secondary schools and upper secondary schools. Data were collected on demographic characteristics, lifestyle changes during the quarantine period, and the psychological impact of the lock-down on adolescents' life. RESULTS: Most adolescents experienced feelings of fear, discouragement, and anxiety which strongly affected the approach to their daily lifestyles. Most of the surveyed subjects reported having used this period to acquire new skills and to practice physical activities at home. The use of technology was predominant both for recreational activities and educational purposes. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the strong psychological impact of the quarantine, adolescents showed good levels of resilience. Technology played a crucial role during the quarantine for young subjects who have increased the daily use of technological devices to stay connected with the rest of the world.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Quarentena , Smartphone , Mídias Sociais , Adolescente , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Educação , Exercício Físico , Medo , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Liberdade , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Aprendizagem , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Recreação , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Soins Psychiatr ; 42(332): 36-39, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33602457

RESUMO

The subjective recognition by those involved in care, of people with psychiatric disorders, is not self-evident. Caregivers, in the general sense of the term, often find it difficult to recognise the personal freedom and dignity of psychiatric patients. Care is, however, inseparable from the relationship of trust and the mobilisation of the patient's ability to freely express choices and to participate in decisions concerning him; a central ability in the caregiver-patient relationship. Although the objectives of access to care and protection of the patient's rights are clearly stated, the question of the mental patient's freedom of choice, as well as his inner moral freedom, remains open to question, as does the questioning of these same freedoms among care providers.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Relações Enfermeiro-Paciente , Enfermagem Psiquiátrica , Liberdade , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/enfermagem , Direitos do Paciente
8.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 43(1): 3, 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33417016

RESUMO

Many governments have seen digital health technologies as promising tools to tackle the current COVID-19 pandemic. A much-talked example in this context involves the recent deluge of digital contact tracing apps (DCT) aimed at detecting Covid-19 exposure. In this short contribution we look at the bio-political justification of this phenomenon and reflect on whether DCT apps constitute, as it is often argued, a serious potential breach of our right to privacy. Despite praising efforts attempting to develop legal and ethical frameworks for DCT apps' usage; we argue that such endeavours are not sufficient to tackle the more fundamental problem of mass surveillance, which will remain largely unaddressed unless we deal with the biopolitical arguments presented and resort to a technical and structural defence.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Busca de Comunicante/ética , Liberdade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Filosofia , Privacidade , /prevenção & controle , Humanos
9.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(7): 8922-8926, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33410045

RESUMO

This study attempts to unveil an additional dimension to economic freedom within the framework of the environmental Kuznet curve (EKC) hypothesis using the panel data for BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa) economies over the period 1995-2018. Firstly, the study found that the EKC hypothesis is valid only in the long run for the panel countries. Secondly, we found that economic freedom mimics the pattern of economic output. Thus, when economic freedom is employed in lieu of economic growth, the EKC hypothesis is also validated only in the long run. Importantly, when both economic freedom and output are employed alongside, they produce the same carbon mitigation effect in each of the short-run and long-run periods. Thirdly, the country-specific evidence of the role of economic freedom and output in environmental quality is not less of a U-shaped relationship in the short run. Lastly, the impact of the bloc's energy mix (coal, natural gas, and oil energy utilization) on environmental quality is undesirable in both the short and long run; only in South Africa natural gas has the potential to mitigate carbon emissions. Overall, the study offers relevant policy measures for attaining Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) target to combat climate change and its impacts.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Brasil , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , China , Liberdade , Índia , Energia Renovável , Federação Russa , África do Sul
10.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 89, 2021 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413219

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The global spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been mirrored by diffusion of misinformation and conspiracy theories about its origins (such as 5G cellular networks) and the motivations of preventive measures like vaccination, social distancing, and face masks (for example, as a political ploy). These beliefs have resulted in substantive, negative real-world outcomes but remain largely unstudied. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional, online survey (n=660). Participants were asked about the believability of five selected COVID-19 narratives, their political orientation, their religious commitment, and their trust in science (a 21-item scale), along with sociodemographic items. Data were assessed descriptively, then latent profile analysis was used to identify subgroups with similar believability profiles. Bivariate (ANOVA) analyses were run, then multivariable, multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with membership in specific COVID-19 narrative believability profiles. RESULTS: For the full sample, believability of the narratives varied, from a low of 1.94 (SD=1.72) for the 5G narrative to a high of 5.56 (SD=1.64) for the zoonotic (scientific consensus) narrative. Four distinct belief profiles emerged, with the preponderance (70%) of the sample falling into Profile 1, which believed the scientifically accepted narrative (zoonotic origin) but not the misinformed or conspiratorial narratives. Other profiles did not disbelieve the zoonotic explanation, but rather believed additional misinformation to varying degrees. Controlling for sociodemographics, political orientation and religious commitment were marginally, and typically non-significantly, associated with COVID-19 belief profile membership. However, trust in science was a strong, significant predictor of profile membership, with lower trust being substantively associated with belonging to Profiles 2 through 4. CONCLUSIONS: Belief in misinformation or conspiratorial narratives may not be mutually exclusive from belief in the narrative reflecting scientific consensus; that is, profiles were distinguished not by belief in the zoonotic narrative, but rather by concomitant belief or disbelief in additional narratives. Additional, renewed dissemination of scientifically accepted narratives may not attenuate belief in misinformation. However, prophylaxis of COVID-19 misinformation might be achieved by taking concrete steps to improve trust in science and scientists, such as building understanding of the scientific process and supporting open science initiatives.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Comunicação , Política , Religião , Confiança , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Liberdade , Humanos , Internet , Análise de Classes Latentes , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Máscaras , Análise Multivariada , Ciência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Vacinação , Adulto Jovem
11.
Health Commun ; 36(1): 59-73, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33198533

RESUMO

As the COVID-19 pandemic poses severe threats to human life around the globe, effective risk messages are needed to warn the public and encourage recommended actions for avoiding infection, especially as steps are taken to ease physical restrictions and restart economies. The present study examines the effects of agency assignment and reference point on perceptions of SARS-CoV-2 threat and assesses key message responses, including psychological reactance, source derogation, counterarguing, and behavioral intentions. Participants (N = 207) were randomly assigned to one of four conditions crossing agency assignment (SARS-CoV-2/human) and reference point (self/self-other). Results show, relative to human agency, SARS-CoV-2 agency assignment generated significantly more psychological reactance in the form of greater perceptions of freedom threat, anger, and negative cognitions, as well as more source derogation and counterarguing. No significant effects were found for reference point, and the interaction between agency assignment and reference point was not significant. The study findings, limitations, and implications are discussed.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Comunicação em Saúde/métodos , Motivação , Adulto , Ira , Feminino , Liberdade , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Medição de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
14.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e49514, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1118069

RESUMO

Objetivo: desvelar a percepção das mulheres sobre o acesso aos serviços de saúde como ferramenta do processo de ressocialização. Método: trata-se de um estudo fenomenológico-sociológico, qualitativo, realizado entre novembro de 2018 e novembro de 2019, com 10 mulheres de um estabelecimento prisional feminino de Maceió, Alagoas. Resultados: as participantes possuíam de 22 a 54 anos, ensino fundamental incompleto, pardas, solteiras, já haviam vivenciado a maternidade. Emergiram duas categorias temáticas: percepções do acesso aos serviços de saúde: a invisibilidade das mulheres e acesso aos serviços de saúde como uma ferramenta de ressocialização: elos dilacerados e Trabalho e Educação como alternativa de Fuga do esquecimento, ociosidade e solidão. Conclusão: evidenciou-se a percepção de invisibilidade das mulheres privadas de liberdade e desvinculação do acesso aos serviços de saúde como ferramenta do processo de ressocialização.


Objective: to unveil women's perceptions of access to health services as a tool in the re-socialization process. Method: this qualitative, phenomenological-sociological study was conducted between November 2018 and November 2019 with 10 women at a women's prison in Maceió, Alagoas, Brazil. Results: the participants were 22 to 54 years old, of mixed race, single, had not completed lower secondary school, and had already experienced motherhood. Two thematic categories emerged: "Perceptions of access to health services: women's invisibility" and "Access to health services as a resocialization tool: ties in shreds and Work and Education as an alternative escape route from oblivion, idleness and loneliness. Conclusion: the women deprived of their freedom were found to perceive themselves to be invisible and disconnected from access to health services as a tool in the resocialization process.


Objetivo: revelar las percepciones de las mujeres sobre el acceso a los servicios de salud como herramienta en el proceso de resocialización. Método: este estudio cualitativo, fenomenológico-sociológico se realizó entre noviembre de 2018 y noviembre de 2019 con 10 mujeres en una cárcel de mujeres en Maceió, Alagoas, Brasil. Resultados: las participantes tenían entre 22 y 54 años, mestizas, solteras, no habían completado el primer ciclo de secundaria y ya habían experimentado la maternidad. Surgieron dos categorías temáticas: "Percepciones del acceso a los servicios de salud: invisibilidad de las mujeres" y "Acceso a los servicios de salud como herramienta de resocialización: lazos en jirones y Trabajo y Educación como vía alternativa de escape al olvido, la ociosidad y la soledad. Conclusión: las mujeres privadas de libertad se percibieron a sí mismas invisibles y desconectadas del acceso a los servicios de salud como herramienta en el proceso de resocialización.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Prisões , Socialização , Saúde da Mulher , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Brasil , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Iniquidade de Gênero , Liberdade , Solidão
15.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e53264, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1145832

RESUMO

Objetivo: descrever a experiência de famílias que vivenciam o sofrimento mental em dispositivos existenciais presentes no território. Método: estudo descritivo, de abordagem qualitativa, fundamentado na fenomenologia de Merleau-Ponty. Com aprovação do comitê de ética em pesquisa, o estudo foi desenvolvido entre julho de 2017 e junho de 2018 em um município da Bahia, Brasil, com a participação de dez famílias, representadas por 24 pessoas. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevistas fenomenológicas e rodas de intersubjetividade, tendo sido analisados pela técnica analítica da ambiguidade. Resultados: as descrições foram categorizadas em: família como lugar de re(construção) de virtudes relacionais e liberdade como dispositivo existencial de cuidado. Conclusão: o estudo demostrou o potencial da família para se constituir como espaço de promoção de virtudes e fortalecimento de vínculos; e ressaltou a importância da construção e valorização de experiências dialógicas, a exemplo das rodas de intersubjetividade, que se mostraram como relevante estratégia de cuidado em saúde mental.


Objective: to describe the experience of families who experience mental suffering in existential spaces in the territory. Method: this qualitative, descriptive study, based on the phenomenology of Merleau-Ponty and approved by the research ethics committee, was conducted between July 2017 and June 2018 in a municipality in Bahia, Brazil, with the participation of ten families, represented by 24 people. Data were collected in phenomenological interviews and intersubjectivity groups, and then analyzed using the ambiguity analysis technique. Results: the resulting descriptions were categorized into the family as a place for re(building) relational virtues and freedom as an existential space for care. Conclusion: the study demonstrated the family's potential to constitute a space for promoting virtues and strengthening bonds, and highlighted the importance of building and valuing dialogical experiences, such as the intersubjectivity groups, which proved to be a substantial mental health care strategy.


Objetivo: describir la vivencia de familias que experimentan sufrimiento mental en espacios existenciales del territorio. Método: este estudio cualitativo, descriptivo, basado en la fenomenología de Merleau-Ponty y aprobado por el comité de ética en investigación, se realizó entre julio de 2017 y junio de 2018 en un municipio de Bahía, Brasil, con la participación de diez familias, representadas por 24 personas. Los datos fueron recolectados en entrevistas fenomenológicas y grupos de intersubjetividad, y luego analizados usando la técnica de análisis de ambigüedad. Resultados: las descripciones resultantes se categorizaron en la familia como lugar de reconstrucción de las virtudes relacionales y la libertad como espacio existencial para el cuidado. Conclusión: el estudio demostró el potencial de la familia para constituir un espacio de promoción de virtudes y fortalecimiento de vínculos, y destacó la importancia de construir y valorar experiencias dialógicas, como los grupos de intersubjetividad, que resultó ser una estrategia sustancial de atención en salud mental.


Assuntos
Humanos , Família/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Virtudes , Relações Familiares , Liberdade , Filosofia em Enfermagem , Estresse Psicológico/reabilitação , Brasil , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Serviços de Saúde Mental
16.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239983, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002055

RESUMO

This paper studies the spatial and time series patterns of religious liberty across countries and estimates its effect on measures of human flourishing. First, while there are significant cross-country differences in religious liberty, it has declined in the past decade across countries, particularly among countries that rank higher in economic freedom. Second, countries with greater religious liberty nonetheless exhibit greater levels of economic freedom, particularly property rights. Third, using micro-data across over 150 countries in the world between 2006 and 2018, increases in religious freedom are associated with robust increases in measures of human flourishing even after controlling for time-invariant characteristics across space and time and a wide array of time-varying country-specific factors, such as economic activity and institutional quality. Fourth, these improvements in well-being are primarily driven by improvements in civil liberties, such as women empowerment and freedom of expression.


Assuntos
Liberdade , Religião , Humanos , Internacionalidade
19.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 28: e3368, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33084774

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to analyze the influence of sociodemographic variables, prison context, religiosity, and symptoms of depression on the presence of suicidal thinking in a population deprived of liberty. METHOD: a cross-sectional study with a quantitative approach, conducted with 228 participants, based on a sociodemographic questionnaire, on the prison context, and on the presence of suicidal thinking, from the Duke Religiosity Scale and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21). RESULTS: the variables that showed a statistically significant correlation were the following: female gender, not having a partner, working inside the penitentiary, being a primary defendant and using controlled medication, and females are 7.2 times more likely to present suicidal thinking, for each point more in the depression score, increases by 21% in the chances and not having a partner increases the chances of thinking about suicide by three times. Although the scores of religiosity were high, they did not present a statistically significant correlation with the presence of suicidal thinking. CONCLUSION: the prison context is complex and contains peculiarities that cause the involvement of mental health problems, as well as self-harming thoughts. Considering the relevance of the subject at issue, this work stands out in view of the scarce scientific production on the subject.


Assuntos
Depressão , Ideação Suicida , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Liberdade , Humanos
20.
Soins Psychiatr ; 41(328): 26-29, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039088

RESUMO

The care programmes are medical-legal and therapeutic systems that showcase different spaces, the law, the patient's clinic, their freedom and their rights. In this context, the patient preserves their freedom to come and go. In applying the care programme, the doctor must acquire their approval, not to say consent. Outside hospitalisation, the care programmes bring patients and teams together within the city. The matter of social and community psychiatry, a vector of catchment-area psychiatry, then makes full sense.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Psiquiatria Comunitária , Liberdade , Humanos , Direitos do Paciente
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