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1.
Chem Rec ; 19(9): 2044-2057, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483089

RESUMO

This review covers the characteristics of pyrolysis and catalytic pyrolysis bio-oils by focusing on the fundamental factors that determine bio-oil upgradability. The abundant works on the subject of bio-oil production from lignocellulosic biomass were studied to establish the essential attributes of the bio-oils for assessment of the oil stability and upgradability. Bio-oils from catalytic pyrolysis processes relating to catalysts of different compositions and structures are discussed. A general relationship between the higher heating value and the oxygen content in the catalytic pyrolysis oils exists, but this relationship does not apply to the thermal pyrolysis oil. Reporting bio-oil yield is meaningful only when the oxygen content of the oil is measured because the pyrolytic oil stability is mainly determined by the oxygen content. Isoenergy plot that associates bio-oil yield with oxygen content is presented and discussed.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Lignina/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Catálise , Oxigênio/química , Plantas/química , Pirólise
2.
Top Curr Chem (Cham) ; 377(5): 26, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529210

RESUMO

Lignin, one of the main components of lignocellulosic biomass, is the largest renewable source of aromatics on the planet and presents an extraordinary opportunity for being used in the production of bio-based products. It can be transformed for the substitution of aromatic chemical-derived petrol as BTXs. The wide range of applications that it can be obtained from BTXs building blocks makes the selective depolymerization of lignin a great scientific challenge. This review emphasizes the different strategies for the fragmentation of lignin to monomers or aromatics hydrocarbons. Thus, a by-product traditionally discarded or used for energy generation, it could be valorized into high added-value products.


Assuntos
Benzeno/química , Lignina/química , Tolueno/química , Xilenos/química , Líquidos Iônicos/química , Estrutura Molecular , Polimerização
3.
Bioresour Technol ; 291: 121860, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374414

RESUMO

This study aims to enhance the quality of biofuel through microwave torrefaction pretreatment for lignin. Low density polyethylene (LDPE) was added as a hydrogen source during microwave co-pyrolysis along with the microwave-torrefied lignin (MTL). The thermal degradation behavior and kinetic study of MTL co-pyrolysis with LDPE by microwave-assisted heating was investigated as well. The results indicated that the hydrocarbon content in the bio-oil obtained from microwave co-pyrolysis of MTL and LDPE increased significantly (about 80%). It was also noticed that the aromatic hydrocarbon content increased from 1.94% to 22.83% with the addition of LDPE. Thermal behavior analysis and reaction kinetic study showed that the addition of LDPE into MTL had the effect of promoting thermal degradation and improving reaction rate during microwave-assisted pyrolysis.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos/química , Lignina/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Polietileno/química , Polifenóis/química , Temperatura Alta , Cinética , Micro-Ondas , Pirólise
4.
Bioresour Technol ; 291: 121844, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400704

RESUMO

A low-temperature sodium hydroxide (NaOH) pretreatment for sugarcane bagasse (SCB) was obtained via the surface response design in this study. However, a large quantity of water consumption and wastewater generation which have been the common problems for alkaline pretreatment of lignocellulose still exists in this pretreatment. In order to reduce water consumption and wastewater generation, this study attempted to perform enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of NaOH-treated SCB without washing process. It showed that after pretreatment and solid-liquid separation, NaOH-treated SCB could be directly hydrolysed by cellulase via pH and solid-liquid adjustment without washing steps, and the maximum enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency could reach to 70.2%. A domesticated Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y2034 which can endure 6-times diluted BL was obtained, and realized 67.5% ethanol yield from the enzymatic hydrolysate of unwashed NaOH-treated SCB. It provided a clue for converting NaOH-treated lignocellulose to ethanol at low water consumption and wastewater generation.


Assuntos
Celulose/química , Etanol/química , Saccharum/química , Hidróxido de Sódio/química , Celulose/metabolismo , Temperatura Baixa , Etanol/metabolismo , Fermentação , Hidrólise , Lignina/química , Lignina/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Saccharum/metabolismo , Águas Residuárias/química
5.
Bioresour Technol ; 291: 121885, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377049

RESUMO

Lignin is the most abundant, renewable aromatic resource on earth and holds great potential for the production of value-added chemicals. The efficient valorization of lignin requires to deal with several formidable challenges, especially to prevent it from re-condensation reactions during its depolymerization. Recently, a strategy involving the activation of lignin side chains by selective oxidation of the benzylic alcohol in ß-O-4 linkages to facilitate lignin degradation to aromatic monomers has become very popular. This strategy provides great advantages for lignin selective degradation to high yields of aromatics under mild conditions, but requires an additional pre-oxidation step. The purpose of this review is to provide the latest cutting-edge innovations of this novel approach. Various catalytic systems, including those using chemo-catalytic methods, physio-chemo catalytic methods, and/or bio-catalytic methods, for the oxidative activation of lignin side chains are summarized. By analyzing the current situation of lignin depolymerization, certain promising directions are emphasized.


Assuntos
Lignina/química , Catálise , Oxirredução , Polimerização
6.
Bioresour Technol ; 291: 121878, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377047

RESUMO

Lignin is one of the most promising renewable sources for aromatic hydrocarbons, while effective depolymerization towards its constituent monomers is a particular challenge because of the structural complexity and stability. Intensive research efforts have been directed towards exploiting effective valorization of lignin for the production of bio-based platform chemicals and fuels. The present contribution aims to provide a critical review of key advances in the identification of exact lignin structure subjected to various fractionation technologies and demonstrate the key roles of lignin structures in depolymerization for unique functionalized products. Various technologies (e.g., thermocatalytic approaches, photocatalytic conversion, and mechanochemical depolymerization) are reviewed and evaluated in terms of feasibility and potential for further upgrading. Overall, advances in pristine lignin structure analysis and conversion technologies can facilitate recovery and subsequent utilization of lignin towards tailored commodity chemicals and fungible fuels.


Assuntos
Lignina/química , Polimerização
7.
Bioresour Technol ; 291: 121873, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377506

RESUMO

Cholinium-glycinate ([Ch][Gly]) and cholinium-alanate ([Ch][Ala]) were investigated on the pretreatment of mulberry stem (MS). It resulted in an increase of glucose from 14% to more than 74% compared to the untreated sample. Pretreatment by reused [Ch][Gly] showed good performance for delignification of >60%, and improved structural polysaccharide digestion. Each fractional component has high potential for lignin purification, and succinic acid fermentation. The extracted lignin with [Ch][Gly] showed >90% purity with good qualities of aromatic unit as confirmed by FT-IR and 1H NMR spectra. The carbohydrate rich material was employed for succinic acid fermentation with the highest yield of succinic acid more than 0.89 gsuccinic acid/gglucose. After purification, poly(butylene) succinate (PBS) was synthesized, and was characterized in comparison to commercial PBS.


Assuntos
Butileno Glicóis/metabolismo , Fermentação , Morus/metabolismo , Polímeros/metabolismo , Ácido Succínico/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Líquidos Iônicos/química , Lignina/química
8.
Curr Med Chem ; 26(14): 2408-2409, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31453775
9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(35): 9840-9850, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31424924

RESUMO

In the present study, methanolysis of poplar biomass was conducted for the selective transformation of hemicellulose and lignin, which leads to methyl glycosides (mainly C5 glycosides) and lignin fragments in the liquefied products that can be separated according to their difference in hydrophilicity. The distribution of methyl glycosides and delignification was dependent on the presence of acid catalysts and reaction temperatures. The obtained lignin fraction was separated into solid lignin fragments and liquid lignin oil according to their molecular weight distribution. Subsequently, directional conversion of methyl C5 glycosides into methyl levulinate was performed with dimethoxymethane/methanol as the cosolvent. A yield of 12-30% of methyl levulinate yield (based on the methyl glycoside) was achieved under these conditions. The remaining cellulose-rich substrate showed enhanced susceptibility to enzymatic hydrolysis, resulting in a yield of glucose of above 70%. Overall, the described strategy shows practical implications for the effective valorization of biomass.


Assuntos
Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Glucose/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Levulínicos/isolamento & purificação , Metanol/química , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Populus/química , Madeira/química , Catálise , Celulose/química , Celulose/isolamento & purificação , Glucose/química , Ácidos Levulínicos/química , Lignina/química , Lignina/isolamento & purificação , Fenóis/química , Extratos Vegetais/química
10.
Bioresour Technol ; 291: 121799, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351375

RESUMO

The aim of this work is to develop a novel green solvent based sustainable process to refine lignin into low molecular weight (LMW) and high molecular weight (HMW) fractions. Lignin dispersity reduction were experimentally determined using four solvent mixtures, and benchmarked against eight pure solvents. Data outputs were used for modelling the integrated fractionation process. Dispersity reduction of up to 73% was achieved for the high value LMW fraction. Also, a 90% reduction of energy requirement was achieved with an optimized process incorporating a mechanical vapor compression system. This study showed that solvent mixtures involving water can significantly reduce the cost, environment, health and safety impacts of lignin fractionation. Techno-economic evaluation confirmed the economic viability of a large-scale process processing 50 tonne/day of lignin.


Assuntos
Lignina/química , Fracionamento Químico , Peso Molecular , Solventes
11.
Bioresour Technol ; 291: 121805, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351376

RESUMO

With a view to boost practical implementation of lignin conversion technologies, this paper assesses the availability of industrial lignin and evaluates pricing strategies applicable to multi-product biorefineries. The biorefineries, producing either denatured ethanol or sugar hydrolysate as a main product, can yield 43% and 61% of lignin residue (LR) comprising 33% and 23% of lignin by mass, respectively, without sacrificing the output of the main product and before electricity import has become indispensable. Analysis of the pricing strategies reveals that LR must be treated as a low-value by-product, and its minimum selling price (MSP) is driven mainly by the prevailing electricity price. Under the biorefinery net zero energy balance, and taking into account the LR market price adequacy, as well as the main probabilistic conditions, the upper range for the MSP is calculated at $43-70 and $18-37 per ton for biorefineries producing ethanol and hydrolysate, respectively.


Assuntos
Lignina/química , Custos e Análise de Custo , Eletricidade , Etanol/química , Indústrias , Lignina/economia
12.
Bioresour Technol ; 291: 121822, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352163

RESUMO

Catalytic fast pyrolysis of soda lignin was examined at different temperatures (500,600,700,800 and 900 °C) in the presence of three zeolites with different Si/Al ratio using the Py-GC/MS in order to investigate best catalytic system. The three zeolites are y-zeolite (8-9), mordenite (15-17), ZSM-5 (30-40), which have static pore sizes 0.74, 0.65, and 0.59 nm respectively. The shape and acidity of zeolites, as well as pyrolysis temperature, have a significant effect on product distribution in catalytic fast pyrolysis. Y-zeolite was the most effective catalytic system among all catalysts for deomethoxylation and dehydroxylation of small oxygenates as well as bulky oxygenates to produce aromatics. However, mordenite and ZSM-5 could not convert the large oxygenates due to size exclusion and pore blockage. Highest yield of aromatics with significant amount of aromatic dimers was obtained over y-zeolite and then yield of aromatics followed in order by mordenite and ZSM-5 at 800 °C.


Assuntos
Lignina/química , Zeolitas/química , Catálise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Temperatura Alta , Pirólise
13.
Bioresour Technol ; 289: 121704, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276990

RESUMO

Rhodococcus sp. YHY01 was studied to utilize various lignin derived aromatic compounds. It was able to utilize p-coumaric acid, cresol, and 2,6 dimethoxyphenol and resulted in biomass production i.e. 0.38 g dcw/L, 0.25 g dcw/L and 0.1 g dcw/L, and lipid accumulation i.e. 49%, 40%, 30%, respectively. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value for p-coumaric acid (13.4 mM), cresol (7.9 mM), and 2,6 dimethoxyphenol (3.4 mM) was analyzed. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solubilized barley straw lignin fraction was used as a carbon source for Rhodococcus sp. YHY01 and resulted in 0.130 g dcw/L with 39% w/w lipid accumulation. Major fatty acids were palmitic acid (C16:0) 51.87%, palmitoleic acid (C16:l) 14.90%, and oleic acid (C18:1) 13.76%, respectively. Properties of biodiesel produced from barley straw lignin were as iodine value (IV) 27.25, cetane number (CN) 65.57, cold filter plugging point (CFPP) 14.36, viscosity (υ) 3.81, and density (ρ) 0.86.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Hordeum/química , Lignina/metabolismo , Rhodococcus/metabolismo , Biomassa , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Lignina/química
14.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(25): 7082-7086, 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199642

RESUMO

Vitamins are important nutrients for many fermentations, but they are generally costly. Agricultural lignocellulose biomass contains considerable amounts of vitamin B compounds, but these water-soluble vitamins are easily lost into wastewater discharge during pretreatment or detoxification of lignocellulose in biorefinery processes. Here, we showed that the dry acid pretreatment and biodetoxification process allowed the preservation of significant amounts of vitamin B, which promoted l-lactic acid fermentation efficiency significantly. Supplementation with specific vitamin B compounds, VB3 and VB5, into corn stover hydrolysate led to further increases of cellulosic l-lactic acid yield and fermentation rates. This study provided a new solution for the enhancement of biorefinery fermentation efficiency by using vitamin B compounds in lignocellulose biomass.


Assuntos
Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Lignina/metabolismo , Pediococcus acidilactici/metabolismo , Complexo Vitamínico B/metabolismo , Fermentação , Hidrólise , Lignina/química , Pediococcus acidilactici/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caules de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/microbiologia , Resíduos/análise , Zea mays/química , Zea mays/metabolismo , Zea mays/microbiologia
15.
J Food Sci ; 84(6): 1420-1426, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31162865

RESUMO

Antioxidant activity of enzymatically modified soybean protein film with two different forms of added lignin (alkali lignin and lignosulfonate) was investigated using two stimulated food systems involving direct and indirect contact with soybean oil and fish fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE). For the direct system, control and lignin-doped films were added to oil vials which were stored at dark under 40 °C whereas for indirect, films were used to cover oil-containing glass vials stored under standard commercial lighting conditions. Autoxidation of oil samples in the direct contact system was determined by peroxide value (PV), color, headspace oxygen, and volatile compounds, while for the indirect contact system photoxidation was determined by using PV and color. For the direct contact system with soybean oil, the PV was significantly lower during storage for both lignins used compared to the control (packaging system without lignin film). There was not a significant effect of lignin on the color of the oils (P > 0.05). Modified films tested in this study did not have a significant effect on headspace oxygen contents of oil samples; however, it resulted in reduced volatile compounds for both soybean oil and fish oil samples. Based on our observation, soybean protein films with lignin showed a greater impact on soybean oil than fish oil, possibly because of high initial oxidation levels in the fish oil. Enzymatic modified soy protein films with lignin are alternative active packaging materials for highly sensitive to oxidation by radical and UV light. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Plastic packaging materials require the use of petroleum oil and are not biodegradable. Packaging materials made from renewable, biodegradable biopolymers are of great interest but often suffer from performance problems, such as weak mechanical properties compared to petroleum-based plastics. Applying modified biopolymeric film with lignin in the inner layer of food packaging system improved some aspects of their performance during storage, not only by preventing the migration of chemical compounds from the package to the food but also by radical scavenging activity and UV-blocking ability of the packaging system.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Biopolímeros/química , Óleos de Peixe , Embalagem de Alimentos/instrumentação , Lignina/química , Óleo de Soja , Animais , Ésteres , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Oxirredução , Proteínas de Soja/química
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(25): 6950-6961, 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150582

RESUMO

p-Quinone methide (QM) is formed as an intermediate during lignin biosynthesis. The aromatization of the QM by the attack of a nucleophile at the α-position of its side chain generates a phenolic hydroxy group in a growing polymer and creates stereoisomeric forms in the side chain. A series of ß-O-4-aryl ether QMs was reacted with water at 25 °C to replicate the formation of p-hydroxyphenyl (H) and guaiacyl (G) ß-O-4 structures in plant cell walls. Water addition occurred in 3-methoxy-substituted QMs (G-type QMs) with half-lives ( t1/2) between 13 and 15 min, at pH 7, in 50% water solution (dioxane-water, 1:1). The rate increased as the water concentration increased to 99% ( t1/2, 1.2-1.4 min). Similar solvent effects were observed for more reactive nonsubstituted QMs (H-type QMs with t1/2 of <1 min). Consequently, t1/2 of the H-type QMs was shorter than that of the G-type QMs under every solvent condition. Upon increasing the water concentration, the variation in the erythro/ threo ratios of the four dimeric ß-O-4 products increased. Interestingly, the effect of pH on the stereopreference, which was observed in 50% water solution, was small and became imperceptible as the water concentration increased to 99%, suggesting that the effect of the solvent, as well as the effect of the pH, plays an important role in understanding the reaction conditions in cell walls during lignin biosynthesis. The threo isomer was preferentially formed in the four dimeric ß-O-4 structures, which is inconsistent with the structural features of compression wood lignin rich in H-units. However, the erythro-selective formation was attained in an H-type QM at every pH studied (pH 3.5-7) by introducing a biphenyl structure into the ß-etherified ring moiety.


Assuntos
Indolquinonas/química , Lignina/química , Lignina/metabolismo , Modelos Químicos , Estrutura Molecular , Solventes/química , Estereoisomerismo , Água/química , Madeira/metabolismo
17.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 141: 225-230, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185367

RESUMO

The present study evaluated the role of nitric oxide (NO) in mediating adventitious root (AR) growth, lignification and related enzymatic changes in the hypocotyls of Vigna radiata. To meet the objectives, the changes in AR growth, lignin content, and the activities of enzymes-peroxidases, polyphenol oxidases, and phenylalanine ammonia lyases- with NO donor and its scavenger were monitored. Hypocotyls were cultivated in aqueous solution supplemented with different concentrations of SNP (sodium nitroprusside, NO donor compound) and its scavenging compound (2,4-carboxyphenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide; cPTIO). Specifically, at low concentrations, SNP induced AR growth, increased the total lignin content and altered the activities of related oxidoreductases- peroxidases, polyphenol oxidases and phenylalanine ammonia lyases- which are involved in lignin biosynthesis pathway. At higher concentrations, a decline in AR growth and lignification was noticed. We analysed the function of NO in AR formation by depleting the endogenous NO using scavenging compound cPTIO. Hypocotyls grown in a medium supplemented with scavenger cPTIO exhibited significant decline in AR growth and the activities of lignin synthesizing enzymes. Application of NO scavenger showed that stimulatory properties on root lignification may be owing to NO itself. In addition, changes in AR growth were significantly correlated with these modified biochemical activities. Our analysis revealed that NO supplementation induces prominent alterations in lignin level during AR formation and this might be due to an alteration in the activity of lignin biosynthetic enzymes, which further affected the polymerization of monolignols and AR growth.


Assuntos
Hipocótilo/enzimologia , Lignina/química , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vigna/enzimologia , Catecol Oxidase/metabolismo , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Fenilalanina Amônia-Liase/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/enzimologia
18.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 103(2): 323-329, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230134

RESUMO

In order to investigate the influence of different lignin sources on humic substance formation during composting, this study selected two lignin sources, including wood sawdust and maize straw, to be co-composted with pig manure. Humic substances (HS) were characterized based on their fluorescence characteristics and complexing behaviors with heavy metals. The results showed that lignin sources, especially wood sawdust, were more conducive in promoting the formation of humic acids (HAs) than inorganic matter. The fluorescence excitation-emission matrix spectra also proved the positive effects of lignin on the formation of HAs during the humification process. The binding capacities of HAs isolated from mature composts for Cu and Cd followed the order of WS-90 > MS-90 > I-90, indicating that organic bulking agents are superior at increasing the complexing capacity of HAs. This finding suggests that the co-composting of pig manure with ligneous bulking agents is more advantageous at reducing the environmental risk of heavy metals.


Assuntos
Compostagem/métodos , Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Lignina/química , Esterco/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Solo/química , Animais , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Suínos , Madeira/química
19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(22): 22284-22294, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152422

RESUMO

The lignin-based carbon fibers were prepared by electrospinning followed by stabilization, carbonization, and activation (i.e., steam activation, one-step KOH activation, and metal activation). The effect of carbonization temperature on prepared carbon fibers (CFs) was investigated. As a result, 800 °C is the most suitable carbonization temperature because the prepared carbon fibers possess greater specific surface area and pore volume. With the help of various characterization methods, the structural characteristics of the activated carbon fibers (ACFs) prepared by the three activation methods and the adsorption performance of toluene were compared. It was observed that the activated carbon fibers prepared by KOH one-step activation method (ACFK) exhibited higher specific surface area (1147.16 m2/g) and greater toluene adsorption (463 mg/g). Particularly, abundant microporous structures and surface functional groups play a vital role in the adsorption process. Further, the adsorption performance of toluene onto ACFK was further investigated in a gas-phase dynamic adsorption system and the results showed that ACFK has great potential application in adsorption of volatile organic compounds.


Assuntos
Álcalis/química , Carbono/química , Lignina/química , Tolueno/química , Adsorção , Fibra de Carbono , Carvão Vegetal , Propriedades de Superfície , Temperatura Ambiente , Tolueno/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis
20.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2033, 2019 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31048697

RESUMO

The ratio of syringyl (S) and guaiacyl (G) units in lignin has been regarded as a major factor in determining the maximum monomer yield from lignin depolymerization. This limit arises from the notion that G units are prone to C-C bond formation during lignin biosynthesis, resulting in less ether linkages that generate monomers. This study uses reductive catalytic fractionation (RCF) in flow-through reactors as an analytical tool to depolymerize lignin in poplar with naturally varying S/G ratios, and directly challenges the common conception that the S/G ratio predicts monomer yields. Rather, this work suggests that the plant controls C-O and C-C bond content by regulating monomer transport during lignin biosynthesis. Overall, our results indicate that additional factors beyond the monomeric composition of native lignin are important in developing a fundamental understanding of lignin biosynthesis.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Lignina/biossíntese , Populus/metabolismo , Catálise , Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Variação Genética , Lignina/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/metabolismo , Fenilpropionatos/química , Fenilpropionatos/metabolismo , Populus/genética
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