Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.492
Filtrar
1.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444669

RESUMO

The obesity pandemic has brought forth a scientific interest in food intake and sensory perception interactions. Olfactory perception and gustatory perception are very complex and under the influence of many factors, including the menstrual cycle. This study aims to clarify conflicting findings on the influence of the menstrual cycle on olfactory and gustatory perception. Women were assessed during four consecutive phases of one complete cycle (mid-follicular, ovulatory, mid-luteal, and late luteal phases (N = 21)), in contrast to women measured across the same phases belonging to two menstrual cycles (N = 29). Additional control groups were men (N = 17), postmenopausal women (N = 14), oral contraceptive users (N = 10), and women with an anovulatory cycle (N = 8). Olfactory threshold, odor discrimination, and identification were tested using the "Sniffin Sticks" test kit. Suprathreshold intensity and hedonic ratings for sweet, salty, sour, and bitter solutions were assessed. One-way ANOVA and ANOVA for repeated measurements was applied in the analysis, along with linear and trigonometric data fitting and linear mixed models. Linear increases in olfactory discrimination, identification, and overall olfactory performance were observed only in women followed across a complete menstrual cycle. Compared to other groups, these women displayed a cyclic pattern characterized by a predilection for sweet solution; reduced distaste for salty and sour solutions; and increased intensity perception of salty, sour, and bitter solutions towards the end of the cycle. These results suggest that a distinct hormonal milieu of a complete menstrual cycle may be affecting both olfactory and gustatory perception.


Assuntos
Ciclo Menstrual , Percepção Olfatória , Olfato , Percepção Gustatória , Paladar , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Limiar Gustativo , Adulto Jovem
2.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067560

RESUMO

Aging has been implicated in the alteration of taste acuity. Diet can affect taste sensitivity. We aimed to investigate the types of tastes altered in elderly Korean people and factors associated with taste alteration in relation to dietary intake and other factors. Elderly participants (≥65 years) and young adults were assessed to determine their recognition thresholds (RT) for sweet, salty, bitter, sour, and umami tastes. Elderly participants were further surveyed for dietary intake and non-nutritional factors. Five taste RTs were correlated with age, but only four taste RTs, except sweetness, differed between the elderly participants and young adults. Inadequate intake of iron, thiamin, folic acid, zinc, and phosphorus among the elderly participants was related to elevated taste RT levels, except for bitter taste. In both correlation and regression analyses, only salty and sour RTs were associated with energy, iron, thiamin, fiber, vitamin C, and riboflavin levels in the elderly participants. The elderly participants' taste RTs exhibited strong associations with quality of life (QOL) but showed partial relationships with physical activity, number of medicine intakes, social gatherings, and education. Taste sensitivity may decrease with age, which is further influenced by insufficient dietary intake, especially iron and thiamin, and QOL.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Dieta/psicologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Paladar , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Análise de Regressão , República da Coreia , Limiar Gustativo , Adulto Jovem
3.
Oral Health Prev Dent ; 19(1): 287-294, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34057338

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To analyse the taste function in a pool of untreated patients with oral lichen planus (OLP) with tongue lesions (n = 35) and without tongue lesions (n = 36) and to compare it to healthy subjects (n = 36). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Firstly, the subjective overall taste ability and impairment of the sensations of 'sweet', 'sour', 'salty' and 'bitter' were recorded in all three groups. Secondly, taste function was tested in all included subjects using the standardised 'Taste Strips' test. RESULTS: Data showed a statistically statistically significant difference in overall taste perception between OLP patients with tongue lesions and control subjects (p = 0.027) for the tested taste function. The sensation of 'sour' showed the most pronounced difference (p = 0.08). The subjective taste perception and that of individual taste qualities did not differ statistically significantly between the three groups, and the correlation between subjective and objective taste perception was low. There was also a low correlation between taste scores and the presence of lesions on different areas of the tongue. CONCLUSION: For patients with OLP experiencing a loss in appetite, a formal taste examination and subsequent counselling should be considered.


Assuntos
Líquen Plano , Percepção Gustatória , Humanos , Paladar , Limiar Gustativo , Língua
4.
Chem Senses ; 462021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33821988

RESUMO

The term oleogustus was recently proposed to describe a sixth basic taste that could guide preference for fatty foods and dishes to an extent. However, experimental data on food preference based on fatty acid (FA) content is scarce. Our aim was to examine the role of FA profile of oils and preparations as well as FA sensory thresholds on the palatability of salty and sweet culinary preparations representative of traditional Spanish Mediterranean cooking. In this study, we used three oils with similar texture and odor profile but different in their FA composition (saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated) and compared subjects in regard to their FA detection threshold and perceived pleasantness and intensity. Our results indicate that whereas saturated FAs cannot be detected at physiological concentrations, individuals can be categorized as tasters and nontasters, according to their sensory threshold to linoleic acid, which is negatively associated with perceived intensity (r = -0.393, P < 0.001) but positively with palatability (r = 0.246, P = 0.018). These differences may be due to a possible response to a fat taste. This sixth taste, or oleogustus. would allow establishing differences in taste intensity/palatability considering the FA profile of the culinary preparations. Given that tasters can detect linoleic and oleic acid at lower concentrations than nontasters, a greater amount of unsaturated FAs in culinary preparations could provoke an unpleasant experience. This finding could be relevant in the context of the culinary sector and to further our understanding of food preference and eating behavior.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/análise , Preferências Alimentares/fisiologia , Óleos Vegetais/química , Limiar Gustativo/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Culinária , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
5.
Physiol Behav ; 236: 113412, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823177

RESUMO

Recent studies have demonstrated the critical role of the sonic hedgehog in the sensory perception of taste. Salivary sonic hedgehog stimulates taste bud stem cells, also acts as a taste bud growth factor, and contributes to the receptors' development and longevity in the taste buds. This study's objective was to investigate the possible relationship between taste sensitivity and sonic hedgehog expression in saliva in normal-weight and pre-obese/obese participants (totally 46 male (47.8%) and female (52.2%) aged 19-44 were recruited). Thresholds for the six tastes (sweet, salty, bitter, sour, umami and fat) were investigated using 3-Alternate Forced Choice Methodology. Saliva was collected with the draining method for sonic hedgehog expression analysis. The results indicated significantly higher thresholds for sweet, bitter and fat in pre-obese /obese adults than normal-weight adults (p<0.05). The sonic hedgehog expression was also lower in pre-obese /obese participants than normal-weight participants (p<0.05). Furthermore, sonic hedgehog expression was higher in hypersensitive participants than hyposensitive participants (p<0.05) only among normal-weight individuals, with no significant difference in sonic hedgehog expression level by taste sensitivity in pre-obese/obese individuals (p>0.05). Sonic hedgehog expression level was negatively correlated with body mass index, sweet, salty, bitter and fat taste threshold. The study results indicated that sonic hedgehog expression level acted on taste sensitivity in normal-weight participants, with greater expression in hypersensitive individuals than hyposensitive individuals.


Assuntos
Papilas Gustativas , Paladar , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Proteínas Hedgehog , Humanos , Masculino , Saliva , Percepção Gustatória , Limiar Gustativo , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Food Sci ; 86(5): 2061-2074, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33884627

RESUMO

Nineteen compounds, including ten esters, six acids, and three alcohols, were characterized and considered as significant tastants and aromas in Baijiu (Chinese Liquor). The flavor (retronasal) threshold values (FTVs) of these 19 compounds were determined by the 10 samples test method in hydroalcoholic solutions (46% v/v in ethanol). The FTVs of the compounds were calculated based on the best estimate threshold method. All the FTVs determined by the professional Chinese Baijiu tasters were lower than those by the nonprofessional tasters. For instance, the detection (2.31 mg/kg) and recognition (11.74 mg/kg) values of ethyl hexanoate determined by the nonprofessional group were higher than the respectively corresponding values 0.44 and 3.80 mg/kg determined by the professional group. All of the odor activity values (OAVs) of ethyl valerate (OAV: 1176.00 to 2321.17), ethyl octanoate (OAV: 6841.20 to 7851.60), and 1-butanol (OAV: 26.78 to 39.72) in Gujinggong Baijiu were more than 10-fold larger than their dose-over-threshold values (DoTs), for which the DoTs of ethyl valerate, ethyl octanoate, and 1-butanol were 92.84 to 183.25, 180.03 to 206.62, 1.18 to 1.75, respectively. On the contrary, the OAVs of ethyl heptanoate (OAV: 3.60 to 5.70) and isoamyl alcohol (OAV: 1.18 to 1.57) were lower than their corresponding DoTs at 152.62 to 241.63 and 12.26 to 16.41. The results demonstrated that it is necessary to consider and compare their DoTs and OAVs simultaneously on evaluating the contribution of flavor compounds in Baijiu. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Sensory evaluation of threshold values of various flavor compounds could be significantly affected by their existing matrix. Most of the published results of the flavor threshold value of compounds were determined from the matrix such as beer, whiskey, red wine, rather than Chinese Baijiu. The results of this work not only could provide valuable information for flavor studies of Chinese Baijiu but also give useful information for the Baijiu industry to quality control.


Assuntos
Aromatizantes/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Odorantes/análise , Limiar Gustativo , Paladar/fisiologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Adulto , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800789

RESUMO

The consumption of phenol-rich foods is limited by their prominent bitterness and astringency. This issue has been addressed by adding sweet tastes, which suppress bitterness, but this is not a complete solution since individuals also differ in their preference for sweetness. In this study, we aimed at identifying groups of consumers differing in sweetness optima and sensory-liking patterns. To this end, increasing concentrations of sucrose were added to a chocolate pudding base. This allowed us to (1) investigate if individual differences in sensory responses are associated with different sweet liking optima in a product context, (2) define the psychological and oro-sensory profile of sweet liker phenotypes derived using a product context, and (3) assess if individuals differing in sweet liking optima differ also in consumption and liking of phenol-rich foods and beverages as a function of their sensory properties (e.g., sweeter vs. more bitter and astringent products). Individuals (1208; 58.4% women, 18-69 years) were characterised for demographics, responsiveness to 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP), personality traits and attitudes toward foods. Three clusters were identified based on correlations between sensory responses (sweetness, bitterness and astringency) and liking of the samples: liking was positively related to sweetness and negatively to bitterness and astringency in High and Moderate Sweet Likers, and the opposite in Inverted U-Shaped. Differences between clusters were found in age, gender and personality. Furthermore, the Inverted-U Shaped cluster was found to have overall healthier food behaviours and preferences, with higher liking and consumption of phenol-rich vegetables and beverages without added sugar. These findings point out the importance of identifying the individual sensory-liking patterns in order to develop more effective strategies to promote the acceptability of healthy phenol-rich foods.


Assuntos
Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Alimentos Fortificados/análise , Fenol , Edulcorantes/análise , Limiar Gustativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Personalidade , Propiltiouracila , Adulto Jovem
9.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668367

RESUMO

Differences in sour-taste thresholds have been identified in cognition-related diseases. Diet is a modulator of cognitive health, and taste perception influences dietary preferences and habits. Heritable genetics and polymorphisms in the KCNJ2 gene involved in the transduction of sour taste have been linked to variations in sour taste and non-gustatory functions. However, relationships between sour taste genetics, mild cognitive impairment, and diet quality are yet to be elucidated. This study investigated the associations between the presence of the KCNJ2-rs236514 variant (A) allele, diet quality indices, and mild cognitive impairment evaluated by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), in a secondary cross-sectional analysis of data from the Retirement Health & Lifestyle Study. Data from 524 elderly Australians (≥65y) were analyzed, using standard least squares regression and nominal logistic regression modeling, with demographic adjustments applied. Results showed that the presence of the KCNJ2-A allele is associated with increased proportions of participants scoring in the range indicative of mild or more severe cognitive impairment (MMSE score of ≤26) in the total cohort, and males. These associations remained statistically significant after adjusting for age, sex, and diet quality indices. The absence of association between the KCNJ2-A allele and cognitive impairment in women may be related to their higher diet quality scores in all indices. The potential link between sour taste genotype and cognitive impairment scores may be due to both oral and extra-oral functions of sour taste receptors. Further studies are required on the role and relationship of neurotransmitters, sour taste genotypes and sour taste receptors in the brain, and dietary implications, to identify potential risk groups or avenues for therapeutic or prophylactic interventions.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/genética , Dieta Saudável/estatística & dados numéricos , Disgeusia/genética , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Idoso/genética , Canais de Potássio Corretores do Fluxo de Internalização/genética , Idoso , Alelos , Austrália , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Disgeusia/psicologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores Sexuais , Percepção Gustatória/genética , Limiar Gustativo/genética
10.
Food Chem ; 351: 129291, 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33639427

RESUMO

Bitterness is a common aversive flavor attribute of foods associated with low consumer acceptance. Untargeted LC-MS flavoromic profiling was utilized to identify endogenous compounds that influence the generation of the bitter compound 9,12,13-trihydroxy-trans-10-octadecenoic acid (pinellic acid) during bread making. A diverse sample set of wheat germplasm was chemically profiled. The corresponding pinellic acid concentrations after dough formation were modeled by orthogonal partial least squares (OPLS) with good fit (R2Y = 0.8) and predictive ability (Q2 = 0.6). The most predictive feature (negatively correlated), postulated to interfere with the biosynthetic pathway, was identified as schaftoside, an apigenin di-C-glycoside. Recombination experiments involving the addition of schaftoside to flour prior to breadmaking resulted in a 26% decrease in pinellic acid formation and significantly lower perceived bitterness intensity in whole wheat bread. This work provides novel understanding of bitter generation pathways in wheat products and new strategies to improve flavor profiles and consumer acceptability.


Assuntos
Pão/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Triticum/química , Agentes Aversivos/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Farinha/análise , Humanos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Análise de Componente Principal , Limiar Gustativo , Triticum/metabolismo
11.
Food Chem ; 347: 129085, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33493837

RESUMO

Zanthoxylum Bungeanum Maxim. is an important seasoning in Chinese cooking, but its bitter taste limits its use by some consumers. In this study, metabolomic analysis based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatograph-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) was used to screen out a vast number of potential non-volatile bitter compounds in Z. bungeanum. Results showed that there were 37 potential bitter compounds in Z. bungeanum, and possible mechanisms underlying its bitter taste were provided. Further, instrumental analyses combined with sensory evaluation were used to identify the key bitter compounds in Gou jiao, a wild variant of Z. Bungeanum with a strong bitter taste. Totally 15 key bitter compounds were identified, most of which have a low bitterness recognition threshold. This study is the first comprehensive identification of non-volatile bitter compounds in Z. bungeanum and provides a basis for future investigations into mitigating bitterness and uncovering how the interaction between different bitter compounds affects taste.


Assuntos
Agentes Aversivos/análise , Metabolômica/métodos , Paladar/fisiologia , Zanthoxylum/química , Adulto , Agentes Aversivos/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Feminino , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Limiar Gustativo , Adulto Jovem , Zanthoxylum/metabolismo
12.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther ; 377(1): 133-145, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33468642

RESUMO

Human taste threshold measurements often are used to infer tastant receptor functionality. However, taste thresholds can be influenced by receptor-independent variables. Examination of the full range of taste-active concentrations by taste discrimination has been hampered by logistics of testing multiple concentrations in replicate with human subjects. We developed an automated rapid throughput operant methodology for taste discrimination and applied it to concentration-response analysis of human taste. Tastant solutions (200 µl) drawn from a 96-well plate and self-administered to the tongue served as discriminative stimuli for money-reinforced responses on a touch-sensitive display. Robust concentration-response functions for "basic taste" stimuli were established, with particular focus on agonists of the taste 1 receptor member 2-taste 1 receptor member 3 heterodimer receptor (TAS1R2/R3). With a training cue of 100 mM sucrose, EC50 values of 56, 79, and 310 µM and 40 mM were obtained for rebaudioside A, sucralose, acesulfame potassium, and sucrose, respectively. Changing the sucrose training cue to 300 mM had no impact, but changing to 30 mM resulted in slight leftward shifts in potencies. A signal detection method also was used to determine values of d', a probabilistic value for discriminability, which indicated that 5 mM was near the limits of detection for sucrose. With repeated testing, both EC50 values and 5 mM sucrose d' values were established for each individual subject. The results showed little correspondence between threshold sensitivities and EC50 values for sucrose. We conclude that concentration-response analysis of taste discrimination provides a more reliable means of inferring receptor function than measurement of discriminability at the lowest detectable tastant concentrations. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Many inferences about human tastant receptor functionality have been made from taste threshold measurements, which can be influenced by variables unrelated to receptors. We herein report a new methodology that enables rigorous concentration-response analysis of human taste discrimination and its use toward quantitative characterization of tastant agonist activity. Our data suggest that taste discrimination concentration-response functions are a more reliable reflection of underlying receptor activity than threshold measures obtained at the lowest detectable tastant concentrations.


Assuntos
Discriminação Psicológica , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Limiar Gustativo , Adulto , Automação Laboratorial/instrumentação , Automação Laboratorial/métodos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/instrumentação , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Sacarose/farmacologia , Percepção Gustatória , Língua/efeitos dos fármacos , Língua/metabolismo , Língua/fisiologia
13.
Primates ; 62(2): 389-394, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011867

RESUMO

The artificial sweetener isomalt is widely used due to its low caloric, non-diabetogenic and non-cariogenic properties. Although the sweetening potency of isomalt has been reported to be lower than that of sucrose, no data on the sensitivity of humans for this polyol are available. Using an up-down, two-alternative forced choice staircase procedure we therefore determined taste detection thresholds for isomalt in human subjects (n = 10; five females and five males) and compared them to taste preference thresholds, determined using a two-bottle preference test of short duration, in a highly frugivorous nonhuman primate, the spider monkey (n = 4; one female, three males). We found that both species detected concentrations of isomalt as low as 20 mM. Both humans and spider monkeys are less sensitive to isomalt than to sucrose, which is consistent with the notion of the former being a low-potency sweetener. The spider monkeys clearly preferred all suprathreshold concentrations tested over water, suggesting that, similar to humans, they perceive isomalt as having a purely sweet taste that is indistinguishable from that of sucrose. As isomalt, like most sweet-tasting polyols, may elicit gastric distress when consumed in large quantities, the present findings may contribute to the choice of appropriate amounts and concentrations of this sweetener when it is employed as a sugar substitute or food additive for human consumption. Similarly, the taste preference threshold values of spider monkeys for isomalt reported here may be useful for determining how much of it should be used when it is employed as a low-caloric sweetener for frugivorous primates kept on a vegetable-based diet, or when medication needs to be administered orally.


Assuntos
Ateles geoffroyi/fisiologia , Dissacarídeos , Álcoois Açúcares , Limiar Gustativo , Adulto , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Edulcorantes , Percepção Gustatória
14.
Acta Paediatr ; 110(3): 875-880, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681564

RESUMO

AIM: Better understanding of aspects of taste in adolescents is needed since it has bearings on food policies, food industry and pharmaceutical design. Furthermore, taste preferences likely play a role in overeating and anorexia. We aimed to validate a questionnaire about taste preferences and dietary habits along with measurements of sense of smell and taste. METHODS: We included adolescents from nearby schools in Aarhus, Denmark, from 2017 to 2019. Scoring preferences and habits on a Likert scale, they completed a food item questionnaire. Their chemosensation was tested by the Sniffin' Sticks and Taste Drop Test. RESULTS: We included 100 adolescents: 53 males, 47 females; average age: 15.9 years (12-17 years). Retest of the questionnaire showed good reliability (Cohen's kappa: 0.5953). Snacks scored the highest average liking (4.48), whereas starches had the highest frequency of consumption (3.64). Bitter taste threshold was positively associated with liking and familiarity with vegetables (P = .032; P = .012), respectively. Healthy self-reported dietary habits were associated with a higher self-reported consumption of vegetables and a decreased consumption of snacks. CONCLUSION: Adolescents preferred unhealthy food items, but they also reported more frequent consumption of healthy than unhealthy food items. A higher threshold for the bitter taste, that is, being less sensitive to bitter taste, was associated with higher liking and familiarity of vegetables.


Assuntos
Paladar , Verduras , Adolescente , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Limiar Gustativo
15.
Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg ; 50(4): 522-529, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736915

RESUMO

This study aimed to examine the relationships between subjective taste sensations and electrogustometry (EGM) findings in patients with taste disturbances according to the presence of burning mouth (BM) symptoms. Forty-six patients were included and asked to complete a questionnaire that contained questions on subjective taste sensations for the four basic taste qualities and the pattern of taste disorders such as ageusia, hypogeusia and dysgeusia. EGM was performed to measure detection thresholds. To examine the influence of BM symptoms, patients were divided into two groups: patients with and without BM symptoms. The patients consisted of 11 men and 35 women. The group without BM symptoms (n=26) had significantly lower degrees of subjective taste sensations for all taste qualities and higher correlation levels between subjective taste sensations and EGM thresholds than the group with BM symptoms (n=20). The patterns of taste disorders also showed more significant associations with the levels of subjective taste sensations in the patients without BM symptoms compared with those with BM symptoms. In conclusion, patients with taste disorders without BM symptoms had more severe taste disturbances than those with BM symptoms. The pathophysiology of taste disturbances differs according to the presence or absence of BM symptoms.


Assuntos
Úlceras Orais , Paladar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Parestesia , Distúrbios do Paladar , Limiar Gustativo
16.
Br J Nutr ; 125(2): 203-211, 2021 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32814612

RESUMO

To examine the associations of salt perception with salt intake and blood pressure levels in general populations, we performed a cross-sectional study in two communities where salt intake level is different, Akita and Osaka in Japan. Taste perception (detection for certain taste and recognition for salt taste) was determined using a Na-impregnated test strip for 1024 Akita and 1199 Osaka adults aged 30-74 years. The proportions of detection for 0·1 % salt were 61, 62, 79, and 79 % in Akita men, Osaka men, Akita women and Osaka women, respectively. The corresponding proportions of not recognising of 1·6 % salt taste (>1·6 %) were 34, 30, 16 and 21 %. Detection threshold was higher in Akita than in Osaka for women aged 60-74 years, and recognition threshold was lower in Akita than in Osaka for women aged 30-59 and 60-74 years. The high detection (≥0·4 %) and recognition (>1·6 %) thresholds of salt taste were associated with higher salt intake scores for Akita men aged 30-59 years, whose detection and recognition thresholds tended be positively associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP and DBP) after adjustment for potential confounders. Among Akita elderly men, detection threshold tended to be positively associated with SBP and DBP, while among Akita middle-aged women, recognition threshold was associated with SBP. In conclusion, the high thresholds of salt perception were inversely associated with salt intake for Akita middle-aged men and with blood pressure levels for Akita middle-aged and elderly men and middle-aged women.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Sódio na Dieta/análise , Percepção Gustatória/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Hipertensão/etiologia , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Limiar Gustativo/fisiologia
17.
Ear Nose Throat J ; 100(2_suppl): 169S-173S, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33236918

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Olfactory dysfunction is relatively high in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. The aim of this study is to investigate the incidence of olfactory disorder objectively in patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The study included 31 healthy controls and 59 COVID-19 patients who were diagnosed and treated in the COVID departments in a tertiary hospital. The patients with corona virus infection were screened by a questionnaire and were classified into 2 groups as either group 2 (patients without self-reported smell loss) or group 3 (patients with self-reported smell loss). Age and gender matched healthy controls who do not have chronic nasal condition or nasal surgery history comprised the control group (group 1). All of the patients and subjects in the control group were tested by the Sniffin' Sticks test. All of the answers and scores were recorded, and the comparisons were made. RESULTS: The rate of self-reported smell and taste loss in all COVID-19 patients in this study was 52.5% and 42%, respectively. There was a significant difference in threshold, discrimination, identification, and Threshold, Discrimination, Identification (TDI) scores between groups 1 and 2. When the comparisons between group 1 and 3 were made, again threshold, discrimination, identification, and TDI scores were significantly different. The comparison between groups 2 and 3 demonstrated a significant difference in discrimination, identification, and TDI scores, but threshold score was not different statistically. With questionnaire, the rate of olfactory dysfunction in COVID-19 patients was 52.5%, but with objective test, the rate was calculated as 83%. CONCLUSION: Olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions are common in COVID-19 patients. According to findings with the objective test method in this study, smell disorder in COVID-19 patients was much higher than those detected by questionnaires.


Assuntos
Ageusia/diagnóstico , Anosmia/diagnóstico , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Autorrelato , Limiar Sensorial , Adulto , Ageusia/etiologia , Ageusia/fisiopatologia , Anosmia/etiologia , Anosmia/fisiopatologia , COVID-19/complicações , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Odorantes , SARS-CoV-2 , Limiar Gustativo , Adulto Jovem
18.
Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf ; 19(6): 3755-3773, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33337055

RESUMO

Sweet taste perception is a key factor in the establishment of the food pattern with nonstatic thresholds. Indeed, taste sensitivity can be influenced by physiological factors (age and sex), pathologies (obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus), and acquired habits (tobacco and alcohol consumption). In order to elucidate how these variables influence the sucrose detection threshold (DT) and recognition threshold (RT), a systematic review and meta-analysis of the relevant literature were performed. After a comprehensive search in the PubMed and Scopus databases, a total of 48 studies were qualitatively considered, and 44 were meta-analyzed. The factors of aging (standard mean difference [SMD]: -0.46; 95% confidence interval (CI), -0.74 to -0.19; I2 : 73%; Tau2 : 0.18) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (SMD: 0.30; 95% CI, 0.06 to 0.55; I2 : 0%; Tau2 : 0.00) were found to significantly increase the sucrose RT, whereas the DT only increased in subjects with a higher body mass index (SMD: 0.58; 95% CI, 0.35 to 0.82; I2 : 0%; Tau2 : 0.00). No effects of sex and tobacco smoking were found, and associations with alcohol consumption could not be assessed, as it was included as a variable in only one study. Feasible mechanisms underlying changes in sucrose thresholds include the modulation of hormones involved in energy and body weight homeostasis, taste bud abundance, taste brain signaling, and the gut-brain axis. The present work provides insights into the variables that should be considered when assessing sweet taste sensitivity, discusses the mechanisms underlying differences in sweet taste, and highlights the need for further research in the field of personalized nutrition.


Assuntos
Preferências Alimentares , Percepção Gustatória/fisiologia , Limiar Gustativo/fisiologia , Envelhecimento , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Índice de Massa Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Sacarose , Edulcorantes , Fumar Tabaco
19.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0237270, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001974

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to elucidate the prognostic factors of the patients with taste disorders who were treated with popular and common medication in Japan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study on the medical charts of a total of 255 patients with taste disorders who were treated primarily with oral medication including a zinc agent. RESULTS: The factors below were significantly linked with poor prognosis: 1) male gender, 2) taste disorders that began 3 months before starting treatment and 3) a severe taste disorder grade at the initial visit. CONCLUSIONS: We have concluded that the prognosis for the patients with taste disorders who were treated by popular and standard medication therapy in Japan recently was significantly linked to gender, the period of 3 months before starting the treatment and the severity of the disorder at the time of diagnosis. In addition, we recognized some limitations we should resolve in further research including a method of measuring "umami" and so on. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Better awareness of these factors should be clinically useful when we manage patients with taste disorders. Earlier treatment should be started to cure the symptoms.


Assuntos
Carnosina/análogos & derivados , Compostos Organometálicos/uso terapêutico , Distúrbios do Paladar/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carnosina/administração & dosagem , Carnosina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Compostos Organometálicos/administração & dosagem , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Paladar/efeitos dos fármacos , Paladar/fisiologia , Distúrbios do Paladar/fisiopatologia , Limiar Gustativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Limiar Gustativo/fisiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem , Compostos de Zinco/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Zinco/uso terapêutico
20.
Nutrients ; 12(9)2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899702

RESUMO

Educational hospitalization of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) may slow the progression of renal dysfunction. However, the educational aspect that is more effective has not been identified to date. In this study, patients with CKD were evaluated for gustatory threshold for salty taste and received augmented salt reduction guidance under educational hospitalization at Nagasaki University Hospital from October 2016. In total, 277 eligible patients were enrolled and hospitalized from 2012 to 2019 (mean age of 69.2 years; men comprised 62.1%). We compared 141 patients (Group A) who were educated in the hospital after October 2016 and 136 patients (Group B) who received standard education in the hospital before October 2016. The changes in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (ΔeGFR) after hospitalization and dialysis induction rate within one year after hospitalization were evaluated. The ΔeGFR was significantly improved in Group A compared to Group B (A: 1.05 mL/min/1.73 m2/month, B: 0.55 mL/min/1.73 m2/month; p = 0.02). The dialysis induction rate was significantly lower in Group A than in Group B (A: 8.5%, B: 15.5%; p = 0.001). These trends were also observed by multivariate analyses. In conclusion, educational hospitalization with enhanced salt reduction guidance may reduce the risk of end-stage renal disease.


Assuntos
Dieta Hipossódica/psicologia , Falência Renal Crônica/prevenção & controle , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/psicologia , Sódio na Dieta/análise , Idoso , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Hospitalização , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Diálise Renal/estatística & dados numéricos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Limiar Gustativo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...