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1.
Food Chem ; 346: 128900, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33418409

RESUMO

Curcumin is a bioactive food component, with poor bioaccessibility due to low water solubility and stability. Spray drying retained and in fact enhanced curcumin-whey protein isolate (WPI) complexation via desolvation, lowering the amount of unbound curcumin to <5% wt after drying, forming microparticles with better water solubility, stability, and bioaccessibility than raw curcumin. The desolvated microparticles encapsulated 3.47 ± 0.05 mg/g curcumin, almost one order of magnitude higher than the un-desolvated sample 0.37 ± 0.03 mg/g. After incorporation into yogurt, the rapid-release formula liberated 87% curcumin, whereas the targeted-release one discharged 44% before entering the simulated intestinal condition. Most of the yogurt sensory properties were not adversely affected, except for colour and curcumin flavour. This study proposed a strategy in which food ingredients containing hydrophobic bioactive small molecules can be incorporated into a food matrix to improve bioaccessibility and targeted release, without affecting their sensory properties.


Assuntos
Curcumina/química , Microesferas , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/química , Antioxidantes/química , Cor , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Limiar Sensorial , Solubilidade , Iogurte/análise
2.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 172: 108631, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33346072

RESUMO

AIMS: To characterize the distribution and severity of sensory neuropathy using a portable quantitative sensory testing (QST) device in diabetic patients (DM) hospitalized with severe COVID-19 infection. METHODS: Four patients with diabetes and severe SARS-CoV-2 requiring non-invasive ventilation for a protracted duration underwent clinical, laboratory and radiologic assessment and detailed evaluation of neuropathic symptoms, neurological assessment, QST on the dorsum of the foot and face using NerveCheck Master with assessment of taste and smell. RESULTS: All four subjects developed neuropathic symptoms characterized by numbness in the feet with preserved reflexes. QST confirmed symmetrical abnormality of vibration and thermal thresholds in both lower limbs in all patients and an abnormal heat pain threshold on the face of two patients and altered taste and smell. CONCLUSIONS: Severe COVID-19 infection with hypoxemia is associated with neuropathic symptoms and widespread sensory dysfunction in patients with DM.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Neuropatias Diabéticas/epidemiologia , Transtornos das Sensações/epidemiologia , Limiar Sensorial/fisiologia , Idoso , Comorbidade , Neuropatias Diabéticas/diagnóstico , Neuropatias Diabéticas/etiologia , Neuropatias Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exame Neurológico , Transtornos das Sensações/etiologia , Transtornos das Sensações/fisiopatologia
3.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 22(Suppl 1): S35-S44, 2020 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320249

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) are currently used by millions of adults and adolescents worldwide. Major respiratory symptoms, such as coughing reported by e-cig users, including patients with e-cig, or vaping, product use-associated lung injury (EVALI), indicate e-cig constituent-induced sensory irritation. However, e-cig constituent-induced nociceptive activity in nasal and tracheal respiratory epithelia (RE) and neuronal activation in the trigeminal ganglia and brainstem nuclei, which receive airway chemosensory inputs have not been examined and compared. Comparisons of physiological responses between freebase nicotine and nicotine salts are also missing. AIMS AND METHODS: Event-related potential (ERP) was recorded electrophysiologically to assess mouse nasal and tracheal RE chemosensory responses to various flavorings, nicotine, including freebase and nicotine salts, e-liquid mixtures, and tussigenic stimuli. Also, mice were subjected to inhalation exposure to aerosol of a vanilla-flavored e-liquid or air (control), and the activated-trigeminal nociceptive neurons and brainstem neurons were examined using immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Individual constituents and mixtures of e-liquids, capsaicin, and citric and acetic acids evoked significantly larger ERP in the nose than in the trachea with the exception of menthol. ERP responses to freebase nicotine were significantly larger than protonated nicotine. Four nicotine salts (benzoate, lactate, levulinate, and salicylate) induced similar responses. Compared with air-exposed mice, e-liquid aerosol-exposed mice showed a significant increase in numbers of activated trigeminal nociceptive neurons and brainstem neurons in the spinal trigeminal nucleus, paratrigeminal nucleus, and nucleus tractus solitarius. CONCLUSIONS: E-liquid constituents region-dependently stimulate airway nociceptive chemosensory systems, and freebase nicotine is more potent than protonated nicotine. IMPLICATIONS: Neural abnormalities have been implicated in the development of nasal and respiratory illnesses. The higher sensitivity of the nasal nociceptive chemosensory system to nicotine and flavorings may indicate a health risk for e-liquid aerosol-induced upper airway illnesses via neurogenic alteration and warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Aromatizantes/farmacologia , Irritantes/farmacologia , Mucosa Nasal/efeitos dos fármacos , Nicotina/farmacologia , Limiar Sensorial/efeitos dos fármacos , Traqueia/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
4.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0242406, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320861

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Sensory and motor nerve deficits are prevalent in older adults and are associated with loss of functional independence. We hypothesize that chronic kidney disease predisposes to worsening sensorimotor nerve function over time. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Participants were from the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study (N = 1121) with longitudinal data between 2000-01 (initial visit) and 2007-08 (follow-up visit). Only participants with non-impaired nerve function at the initial visit were included. The predictor was presence of CKD (estimated GFR ≤ 60 ml/min/1.73m2) from the 1999-2000 visit. Peripheral nerve function outcomes at 7-year follow-up were 1) Motor: "new" impairments in motor parameters (nerve conduction velocity NCV < 40 m/s or peroneal compound motor action potential < 1 mv) at follow-up, and 2) Sensory: "new" impairment defined as insensitivity to standard 10-g monofilament or light 1.4-g monofilament at the great toe and "worsening" as a change from light to standard touch insensitivity over time. The association between CKD and "new" or "worsening" peripheral nerve impairment was studied using logistic regression. RESULTS: The study population was 45.9% male, 34.3% Black and median age 75 y. CKD participants (15.6%) were older, more hypertensive, higher in BMI and had 2.37 (95% CI 1.30-4.34) fold higher adjusted odds of developing new motor nerve impairments in NCV. CKD was associated with a 2.02 (95% CI 1.01-4.03) fold higher odds of worsening monofilament insensitivity. CKD was not associated with development of new monofilament insensitivity. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-existing CKD leads to new and worsening sensorimotor nerve impairments over a 7-year time period in community-dwelling older adults.


Assuntos
Nervos Periféricos/fisiopatologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Condução Nervosa/fisiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/diagnóstico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/etiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Limiar Sensorial/fisiologia
5.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0237733, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027294

RESUMO

Measuring vibration perception threshold (VPT) accurately classifies and quantifies the severity of loss of vibration perception. A biothesiometer (Bio-thesiometer®; Bio Medical Instrument Co, Ohio, USA) appears to be the most suitable tool to determine VPT due to its low inter-rater variability and low occurence of adaption to the sensation. Different VPT values for a biothesiometer have been described, however, specification on age, height and different measurement locations is currently lacking. The objective of our study was to identify determinants of vibration perception in non-diabetic subjects, in order to provide individualized normal values of VPTs for clinical practice. Measurements of the vibration perception were performed on the big toes, insteps, lateral malleoli, and wrists. A total of 205 healthy subjects were included (108 (52.7%) males) with a median [interquartile range] age of 59 [51;64] (range 21-80) years. Mean height was 174.45 ± 9.20 cm and mean weight was 82.94 ± 14.84 kg, resulting in a mean BMI of 27.19 ± 4.00 kg/m2. In stepwise forward linear regression analyses, age (st. ß = 0.51, p < 0.001) and height (st. ß = 0.43, p < 0.001) were found to be the independent unmodifiable determinants of the VPT at the big toe. Regression coefficients for quantiles of the determinants age and height were incorporated in the corresponding regression equations. This study provides equations to calculate age- and height-specific normal values for VPT that can be used in clinical practice and in large research studies.


Assuntos
Limiar Sensorial/fisiologia , Vibração , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neuropatias Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valores de Referência , Adulto Jovem
6.
Neurology ; 95(19): e2697-e2706, 2020 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055277

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate small fiber innervation of the skin and its relationships with clinicometry of autism and peripheral afferents for contact heat-evoked potential (CHEP) and psychophysical measures of thermal thresholds. METHODS: We recruited 32 men with autism (26.5 ± 5.9 years) and conducted small fiber assessments of skin biopsy with quantifying intraepidermal nerve fiber (IENF) density, CHEP, quantitative sensory testing, and large fiber physiology of nerve conduction studies. Results were compared with age-matched controls and analyzed with clinical measures of autism. RESULTS: Patients with autism showed a lower IENF density than controls (5.53 ± 2.09 vs 11.13 ± 3.49 fibers/mm, p < 0.0001). The IENF density was reduced in 17 (53.1%) men with autism classified as skin denervation group. On psychophysics, 9 (28%) men with autism had elevated thermal thresholds, and the warm threshold of the big toe was negatively correlated with IENF density (p = 0.0073), indicating functional impairments of small fiber sensory nerves. IENF density was negatively correlated with CHEP amplitude in autism (p = 0.003), in contrast to the pattern of positive correlation in controls, indicating different processing of nociceptive afferent in autism. Clinically, IENF density was related to distinct tactile symptom patterns in the skin denervation vs normal innervation group, respectively. Furthermore, IENF density was associated with autistic symptoms measured by the Autism Spectrum Quotient in a U-shaped model (p = 0.014). CONCLUSIONS: These observations indicated that a substantial portion of individuals with autism had small fiber pathology, which was associated with tactile and autistic symptoms, providing structural and physiologic evidence for the involvement of peripheral sensory nerves in autism.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/fisiopatologia , Epiderme/patologia , Potenciais Somatossensoriais Evocados/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta , Fibras Nervosas/patologia , Condução Nervosa/fisiologia , Nociceptividade/fisiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Eletrodiagnóstico , Epiderme/inervação , Humanos , Masculino , Limiar da Dor , Limiar Sensorial , Adulto Jovem
7.
J. negat. no posit. results ; 5(9): 963-982, sept. 2020. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-199375

RESUMO

OBJETIVOS: El propósito de este estudio es comprobar los efectos de un entrenamiento de Vibración de Cuerpo Completo (VCC) de 8 semanas sobre el Umbral de Sensibilidad a la Vibración Periférica (USVP) en personas con Diabetes Mellitus (DM) tipo 2. CONFIGURACIÓN Y DISEÑO: Estudio controlado aleatorizado a doble ciego (ISRCTN16866781). MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Un total de 76 personas con DM tipo 2 son incluidas en el análisis estadístico, siendo repartidos 39 pacientes en el grupo de VCC y 37 pacientes en el grupo placebo. A ambos grupos se les aplicó un entrenamiento de 8 semanas de VCC, siendo 3 sesiones por semana, para ser en total 24 sesiones de VCC y de placebo. Se les evaluó el USVP a través del Biotensiómetro Vibratron II antes de la intervención y después de las 8 semanas de entrenamiento. ANÁLISIS ESTADÍSTICO UTILIZADO: Para comprobar que los grupos eran comparables en la línea base en cuanto a las características de los participantes se realizó una prueba T para muestras independientes. Para determinar si la intervención de VCC había tenido efecto sobre el USVP, se realizó un ANCOVA, utilizando como covariable el nivel inicial del USVP. La significación estadística fue establecida en P <,05. RESULTADOS: El grupo de VCC y el grupo placebo fueron comparables en la línea base en todas las variables incluídas para la caracterización de la muestra. El entrenamiento de VCC no tuve ningún efecto estadísticamente significativo sobre el USVP. CONCLUSIONES: Tras un entrenamiento de Vibración de Cuerpo Completo de 8 semanas de duración no hubo efectos sobre el umbral de sensibilidad a la vibración periférica


AIMS: The purpose of this study is to assess the effects of an 8-week Whole Body Vibration (WBV) training on the Peripheral Vibration Sensitivity Threshold (PVST) in people with Diabetes Mellitus (DM) type 2. SETTING AND DESIGN: A double-blind randomized controlled study (ISRCTN16866781). Methods and Material: A total of 76 people with DM type 2 are included in the statistical analysis, 39 patients in the WBV group and 37 patients in the placebo group. Both groups were given 8 weeks of WBV training, 3 sessions per week, for a total of 24 sessions of WBV and placebo. The PVST was assessed through the Biotensiometer Vibratron II before the intervention and after the 8 weeks of training. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: To check that the groups were comparable at the baseline in terms of participant characteristics, a T-test for independent samples was performed. To determine whether the WBV intervention had had an effect on the PVST, an ANCOVA was performed, using the initial level of the PVST as a covariate. Statistical significance was established at P <.05. RESULTS: The WBV group and the placebo group were comparable at baseline on all variables included for sample characterization. The WBV training had no statistically significant effect on the PVST. CONCLUSIONS: After 8 weeks of Whole Body Vibration training there was no effect on the Peripheral Vibration Sensitivity Threshold


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Terapia por Exercício/estatística & dados numéricos , Vibração/uso terapêutico , Limiar Sensorial/classificação , Avaliação de Resultado de Intervenções Terapêuticas , Complicações do Diabetes/prevenção & controle , Dor nas Costas/terapia , Método Duplo-Cego , Efeito Placebo
8.
J. negat. no posit. results ; 5(9): 983-997, sept. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-199376

RESUMO

OBJETIVOS: El propósito de este estudio es determinar la correlación entre el Umbral de Sensibilidad a la Vibración Periférica (USVP) y el cuestionario de salud del pie FHSQ. CONFIGURACIÓN Y DISEÑO: Estudio de corte transversal descriptivo (ISRCTN16866781). MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Un total de 88 personas con DM tipo 2 han sido incluidas en el análisis estadístico, siendo 55 hombres y 33 mujeres. A ambos grupos se les evaluó el USVP a través del Biotensiómetro Vibratron II y se les aplicó el cuestionario de salud del pie (FHSQ). ANÁLISIS ESTADÍSTICO UTILIZADO: Para comprobar que los grupos eran comparables en la línea base en cuanto a las características y el género de los participantes se realizó una prueba T para muestras independientes y un análisis de U-Mann Whitney. Para establecer el grado de correlación entre las 8 dimensiones del cuestionario FHSQ y el USVP se utilizó el coeficiente de correlación de Spearman, dado que las puntuaciones de las 8 dimensiones del FHSQ seguían una distribución no paramétrica. Para disminuir la probabilidad de cometer un error de tipo I, al tratarse de una correlación múltiple, se ha aplicado la corrección de Bonferroni, estableciendo el nivel de significación en p<.006. RESULTADOS: No existe asociación estadísticamente significativa entre el USVP y las dimensiones del cuestionario de salud del pie FHSQ, tras aplicarle la corrección de Bonferroni. CONCLUSIONES: En este estudio no se ha encontrado ninguna asociación estadísticamente significativa, tras la aplicación de la corrección de Bonferroni, entre el Umbral de la Sensibilidad a la Vibración Periférica y el cuestionario de la salud de pie Foot Health Status Questionnaire (FHSQ)


AIMS: The purpose of this study is to determine the correlation between the Peripheral Vibration Sensitivity Threshold (PVST) and the Foot Health Status Questionnaire (FHSQ). SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A descriptive cross-sectional study (ISRCTN16866781). METHODS AND MATERIALS: A total of 88 people with DM type 2 were included in the statistical analysis, 55 men and 33 women. Both groups were evaluated the PVST through the Vibratron II Biotensiometer and the Foot Health Status Questionnaire (FHSQ). STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: To check that the groups were comparable at the baseline in terms of participant characteristics and gender, were carried out a T-test for independent samples and a U-Mann Whitney analysis. To establish the degree of correlation between the 8 dimensions of the FHSQ questionnaire and the PVST, the Spearman correlation coefficient was used, given that the scores of the 8 dimensions of the FHSQ followed a non-parametric distribution. To reduce the probability of committing a type I error, since it is a multiple correlation, the Bonferroni correction has been applied, establishing the significance level at p<.006. RESULTS: There is no statistically significant association between the PVST and the dimensions of the FHSQ, after applying Bonferroni's correction. CONCLUSIONS: In this study no statistically significant association was found, after the application of Bonferroni's correction, between the recording of the Peripheral Vibration Sensitivity Threshold test and the Foot Health Status Questionnaire (FHSQ)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Terapia por Exercício/estatística & dados numéricos , Vibração/uso terapêutico , Limiar Sensorial/classificação , Pé Diabético/diagnóstico , Avaliação de Resultado de Intervenções Terapêuticas , Complicações do Diabetes/prevenção & controle , Psicometria/instrumentação , Estudos Transversais , Antropometria/métodos
9.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0232784, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32639956

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Rod and cone photoreceptor-specific tests can be time-consuming. A new non-invasive test is described. The test is based on the measurement of flicker modulation thresholds with rod- and cone-enhanced visual stimuli, which requires only minimum adaptation time. Here, we investigated how the rod-and cone-mediated flicker thresholds vary with age. METHODS: Monocular thresholds with rod and cone-enhanced stimuli were measured in 140 healthy adults, (age range: 18-75 years), foveally (0°) and at four parafoveal locations, at an eccentricity of 5° in each of the four quadrants using five, adaptive, interleaved staircases. Temporal frequencies, stimulus sizes, background luminance and spectral composition, were adjusted appropriately to achieve approximately 1 log unit separation in sensitivity between the rod- and cone-enhanced stimuli. Spectrally calibrated, 'neutral density' filters were used to enable adequate control of display luminance for rod enhanced stimuli. RESULTS: The magnitude of central and parafoveal rod thresholds was significantly higher than the central and parafoveal cone thresholds, respectively (p < 0.001) in both the age groups. However, the rate of increase in central rod thresholds (y = 0.45x-12.79; linear regression equation) was not significantly steeper than the rate of increase in central (y = 0.29x-8.53) cone thresholds (p = 0.15). Centrally, cone thresholds showed a better correlation with rod central thresholds for the age > 45 years (Spearman correlation, ρ = 0.74, p < 0.001) compared to age ≤ 45 years (ρ = 0.41, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Thresholds with rod- and cone-enhanced stimuli are largely invariant below 45 years of age and increase rapidly above this age. This age-wise normative database can be used as an effective functional-marker to assess photoreceptor sensitivities in retinal diseases.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Fusão Flicker/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa , Células Fotorreceptoras Retinianas Cones/citologia , Células Fotorreceptoras Retinianas Bastonetes/citologia , Limiar Sensorial/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Laryngol Otol ; 134(7): 571-576, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32605666

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An objective evaluation of coronavirus disease 2019 in the first days of infection is almost impossible, as affected individuals are generally in home quarantine, and there is limited accessibility for the operator who should perform the test. To overcome this limitation, a recently validated psychophysical self-administered test was used, which can be performed remotely in the assessment of early-stage coronavirus disease 2019 patients. METHODS: Olfactory and gustatory functions were objectively assessed in 300 patients in the first 7 days from coronavirus disease 2019 symptom onset. RESULTS: Seventy per cent of the patients presented olfactory and/or gustatory disorders. The dysfunctions detected were mainly complete anosmia (47 per cent) or ageusia (38 per cent). A significant correlation was found between taste dysfunction and female gender (odds ratio = 1.936, p = 0.014) and fever (odds ratio = 2.132, p = 0.003). CONCLUSION: The psychophysical evaluation protocol proposed is an effective tool for the fast and objective evaluation of patients in the early stages of coronavirus disease 2019. Chemosensitive disorders have been confirmed to be frequent and early symptoms of the coronavirus infection, and, in a significant number of cases, they are the first or only manifestation of coronavirus disease 2019.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Técnicas e Procedimentos Diagnósticos , Transtornos do Olfato/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Distúrbios do Paladar/diagnóstico , Telemedicina , Ácido Acético , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Chocolate , Café , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Produtos Domésticos , Humanos , Itália , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antissépticos Bucais , Transtornos do Olfato/fisiopatologia , Pandemias , Extratos Vegetais , Autorrelato , Limiar Sensorial , Fatores Sexuais , Sabões , Especiarias , Distúrbios do Paladar/fisiopatologia , Limiar Gustativo , Terpenos , Cremes Dentais , Vinho
11.
Science ; 368(6495): 1108-1113, 2020 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32499439

RESUMO

Enabling near-infrared light sensitivity in a blind human retina may supplement or restore visual function in patients with regional retinal degeneration. We induced near-infrared light sensitivity using gold nanorods bound to temperature-sensitive engineered transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. We expressed mammalian or snake TRP channels in light-insensitive retinal cones in a mouse model of retinal degeneration. Near-infrared stimulation increased activity in cones, ganglion cell layer neurons, and cortical neurons, and enabled mice to perform a learned light-driven behavior. We tuned responses to different wavelengths, by using nanorods of different lengths, and to different radiant powers, by using engineered channels with different temperature thresholds. We targeted TRP channels to human retinas, which allowed the postmortem activation of different cell types by near-infrared light.


Assuntos
Cegueira/terapia , Ouro , Raios Infravermelhos , Nanotubos , Degeneração Retiniana/terapia , Limiar Sensorial/efeitos da radiação , Canais de Cátion TRPC/fisiologia , Visão Ocular/efeitos da radiação , Animais , Cegueira/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Potenciais Evocados Visuais/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados Visuais/efeitos da radiação , Engenharia Genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estimulação Luminosa , Ratos , Células Fotorreceptoras Retinianas Cones/fisiologia , Células Fotorreceptoras Retinianas Cones/efeitos da radiação , Degeneração Retiniana/fisiopatologia , Células Ganglionares da Retina/fisiologia , Células Ganglionares da Retina/efeitos da radiação , Limiar Sensorial/fisiologia , Serpentes , Canais de Cátion TRPC/genética , Canais de Cátion TRPV/genética , Canais de Cátion TRPV/fisiologia , Visão Ocular/fisiologia , Córtex Visual/fisiopatologia , Córtex Visual/efeitos da radiação
12.
Head Neck ; 42(7): 1570-1576, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32357379

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chemosensitive disorders are very frequent in the early stages of COVID-19 and in paucisymptomatic cases. These patients are typically placed in home quarantine. This study has the aim of validating a new olfactory and gustatory objective evaluation test in these patients. METHODS: Thirty-three home-quarantined COVID-19 patients have undergone a self-administered chemosensitive test the day before the control swab. On this occasion, the patients underwent operator-administered already validated tests. The results were finally compared. RESULTS: The differences between the results of the two tests were not significant for both the olfaction (P =.201) and the taste (P =.180). CONCLUSION: The olfactory and gustatory evaluation by self-administered test can be considered a valid tool, fundamental for obtaining objective qualitative and quantitative data on the extent of chemosensitive disorders in home-quarantined COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Transtornos do Olfato/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Autorrelato , Limiar Sensorial , Distúrbios do Paladar/diagnóstico , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Olfato/virologia , Pandemias , Quarentena , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Distúrbios do Paladar/virologia
13.
Head Neck ; 42(7): 1560-1569, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437022

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Objective data on chemosensitive disorders during COVID-19 are lacking in the Literature. METHODS: Multicenter cohort study that involved four Italian hospitals. Three hundred and forty-five COVID-19 patients underwent objective chemosensitive evaluation. RESULTS: Chemosensitive disorders self-reported by 256 patients (74.2%) but the 30.1% of the 89 patients who did not report dysfunctions proved objectively hyposmic. Twenty-five percentage of patients were seen serious long-lasting complaints. All asymptomatic patients had a slight lowering of the olfactory threshold. No significant correlations were found between the presence and severity of chemosensitive disorders and the severity of the clinical course. On the contrary, there is a significant correlation between the duration of the olfactory and gustatory symptoms and the development of severe COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Patients under-report the frequency of chemosensitive disorders. Contrary to recent reports, such objective testing refutes the proposal that the presence of olfactory and gustatory dysfunction may predict a milder course, but instead suggests that those with more severe disease neglect such symptoms in the setting of severe respiratory disease.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Transtornos do Olfato/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Limiar Sensorial , Distúrbios do Paladar/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Olfato/virologia , Pandemias , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Distúrbios do Paladar/virologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Muscle Nerve ; 62(2): 226-232, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32388856

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Fatigue is a recognized manifestation of immune-mediated neuropathies, but its causes and implications are unclear. In this study, we explored the correlates of fatigue among a number of clinical parameters in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) to better understand potential contributing factors and resulting consequences. METHODS: Twenty-six clinically stable patients with CIDP underwent assessments of motor and sensory function, disability, quality of life, and depression and anxiety. Experienced fatigue was assessed by using the Rasch-built Fatigue Severity Scale and the Checklist of Individual Strength. RESULTS: The two fatigue scales provided evidence of significant intercorrelation. Only depression scores and grip strength predicted experienced fatigue levels in multivariate regression analyses. Fatigue scores inversely correlated with strength, sensory, disability, and quality of life scores. DISCUSSION: Experienced fatigue is likely multifactorial in CIDP, with both physical and neuropsychiatric components. Fatigue is associated with lower functional and quality-of-life outcomes in CIDP.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Fadiga/fisiopatologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Polirradiculoneuropatia Desmielinizante Inflamatória Crônica/fisiopatologia , Qualidade de Vida , Limiar Sensorial/fisiologia , Idoso , Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Fadiga/psicologia , Feminino , Força da Mão , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Polirradiculoneuropatia Desmielinizante Inflamatória Crônica/psicologia
15.
Laryngorhinootologie ; 99(7): 453-459, 2020 07.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32323285

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The active butanol detection thresholds (B-DT), determined using the sniffin' sticks, show a high intra- and inter-individual test-retest reliability, although the internal stimulus concentration may vary considerably depending on the dilution of the external stimulus concentration with odorless ambient air during active sniffing. There are various hypotheses for this surprising result. In this study, it should be tested whether a larger respiratory effort (vigor) under physical stress changes the active B-DT. METHODS: In 28 young, healthy, normosmic adults, sitting on a stationary bicycle ergometer at rest phase, during aerobic exercise and in the recovery phase, the monorhinal B-DT using Sniffin' Sticks were determined. Various vital parameters such as blood pressure, heart frequency, body temperature, respiratory frequency and blood lactate characterized the three test phases. The individual stress perception was estimated according to the Borg scale. RESULTS: The B-DT did not change in the three test phases. All examined vital parameters were significantly larger in the loading phase than in the resting phase. In the case of a moderate to severe stress sensation (Borg-scale: 13-15), an aerobic physical stress could be confirmed on the basis of the vital parameters. CONCLUSIONS: The investigations support the hypothesis that vigor is not the decisive factor for a constant olfactory perception of external equal stimulus concentrations. The integration of internal stimulus concentration and nasal flow velocity and the empirical evaluation of the current odor concentration probably play a greater role.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Olfato , Olfato , Butanóis , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Odorantes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Limiar Sensorial
16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 6528, 2020 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32300187

RESUMO

Somatosensory processing can be probed empirically through vibrotactile psychophysical experiments. Psychophysical approaches are valuable for investigating both normal and abnormal tactile function in healthy and clinical populations. To date, the test-retest reliability of vibrotactile detection and discrimination thresholds has yet to be established. This study sought to assess the reproducibility of vibrotactile detection and discrimination thresholds in human adults using an established vibrotactile psychophysical battery. Fifteen healthy adults underwent three repeat sessions of an eleven-task battery that measured a range of vibrotactile measures, including reaction time, detection threshold, amplitude and frequency discrimination, and temporal order judgement. Coefficients of variation and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated for the measures in each task. Linear mixed-effects models were used to test for length and training effects and differences between tasks within the same domain. Reaction times were shown to be the most reproducible (ICC: ~0.9) followed by detection thresholds (ICC: ~0.7). Frequency discrimination thresholds were the least reproducible (ICC: ~0.3). As reported in prior studies, significant differences in measures between related tasks were also found, demonstrating the reproducibility of task-related effects. These findings show that vibrotactile detection and discrimination thresholds are reliable, further supporting the use of psychophysical experiments to probe tactile function.


Assuntos
Discriminação Psicológica/fisiologia , Córtex Somatossensorial/fisiologia , Percepção do Tato/fisiologia , Tato/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Física , Psicofísica/tendências , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Limiar Sensorial/fisiologia , Vibração , Adulto Jovem
17.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 82(6): 2963-2984, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32346824

RESUMO

Means and standard deviations of psychophysical measurements are first and second statistical moments that reflect neural mechanisms underlying the measured sensation: for example, standard deviations of hue matches are difference-thresholds that reflect the color pathways' spectral response. Might memory psychophysics yield similar insight into neural mechanisms underlying recognition? Five experiments measured memory means and difference-thresholds: Means of monochromatic hue matches made from memory hardly changed with memory time. Hue memory remained consistent even though the variability of those matches increased exponentially as memory time increased to 14 s. This indicates the loss of accuracy in the memory resulted from a random decay of the stored information. Nevertheless, the hue memory difference-thresholds as a function of wavelength continued to resemble sensory difference-threshold functions as memory time increased. Similar results obtained by dichoptic matches indicated this resemblance was not a retinal effect. Line and grating orientation memory difference-thresholds also retained their similarity to sensory difference-threshold functions as memory time increased. The similarity was not some artifact of measuring difference-thresholds by matching because such results were also obtained using a forced-choice method. Similarity of memory discrimination functions to sensory functions is quantitative evidence that, despite decay, activity retrieved from memory resembles the sensory responses used when two stimuli are compared simultaneously. Feasibility of this conclusion was tested by modeling the memory-matching procedure. It produced difference-thresholds resembling those obtained with simultaneous matches when the stored signal had decayed to 10%. Together these results provide "inside" evidence that cortical activity resembling sensory responses underlie recognition.


Assuntos
Percepção de Cores , Memória , Limiar Diferencial , Humanos , Psicofísica , Limiar Sensorial
18.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231334, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32275736

RESUMO

Subthreshold stochastic vestibular stimulation (SVS) is thought to enhance vestibular sensitivity and improve balance. However, it is unclear how SVS affects standing and walking when balance is challenged, particularly when the eyes are open. It is also unclear how different methods to determine stimulation intensity influence the effects. We aimed to determine (1) whether SVS affects stability when balance is challenged during eyes-open standing and overground walking tasks, and (2) how the effects differ based on whether optimal stimulation amplitude is derived from sinusoidal or cutaneous threshold techniques. Thirteen healthy adults performed balance-unchallenged and balance-challenged standing and walking tasks with SVS (0-30 Hz zero-mean, white noise electrical stimulus) or sham stimulation. For the balance-challenged condition, participants had inflatable rubber hemispheres attached to the bottom of their shoes to reduce the control provided by moving the center of pressure under their base of support. In different blocks of trials, we set SVS intensity to either 50% of participants' sinusoidal (motion) threshold or 80% of participants' cutaneous threshold. SVS reduced medial-lateral trunk velocity root mean square in the balance-challenged (p < 0.05) but not in the balance-unchallenged condition during standing. Regardless of condition, SVS decreased step-width variability and marginally increased gait speed when walking with the eyes open (p < 0.05). SVS intensity had minimal effect on the standing and walking measures. Taken together, our results provide insight into the effectiveness of SVS at improving balance-challenged, eyes-open standing and walking performance in healthy adults.


Assuntos
Marcha , Equilíbrio Postural , Vestíbulo do Labirinto/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Neurológicos , Postura , Limiar Sensorial , Processos Estocásticos , Potenciais Evocados Miogênicos Vestibulares
19.
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg ; 73(8): 1482-1489, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32276769

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Tibial nerve entrapment is highly prevalent in diabetic subjects, resulting in significantly more neuropathic complaints and concomitant sensory disturbances. The study aim was to assess the impact of tarsal tunnel syndrome (TTS) and sensory loss at baseline on incident diabetic foot ulceration (DFU) in diabetic patients, since decompressing the tibial nerve might change the natural history of the disease. METHODS: In this study, 113 subjects with TTS (69 bilateral, 23 left-sided and 21 right-sided) participating in the prospective Rotterdam Diabetic Foot Study were compared to 303 diabetic controls without TTS, regarding incident DFU. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox's regression analysis were used to determine the independent hazard of baseline variables for new DFU. RESULTS: The median observation period was 836.5 days (IQR, 459-1077.8). In bilateral TTS, 17.4% (95% CI: 8.4-26.3%) of subjects experienced DFU versus 8.3% (95% CI: 5.1-11.6%) in controls (left or right) during follow-up (p = 0.0036). In left-sided TTS, no subjects versus 6.2% (95% CI: 3.4-9.0%) in controls had DFUs (p = 0.243). Incident ulceration was seen in 14.3% (95% CI: -0.7% to -29.3%) of right-sided TTS subjects versus 4.1% (95% CI: 1.5-6.3%) in controls (p = 0.034). Besides HbA1c, diminished sensation at the hallux independently increased the risk of ulceration, in patients with (HR: 4.692, p = 0.003) and without (HR: 2.307, p = 0.002) prior DFU. DISCUSSION: Elevated sensory thresholds in TTS render diabetic patients at a higher risk for DFU. With effective surgery, TTS is likely to be an amenable factor to potentially prevent diabetic foot disease and thereby reduce amputation risk. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II.


Assuntos
Pé Diabético/fisiopatologia , Síndrome do Túnel do Tarso/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Estudos Prospectivos , Limiar Sensorial
20.
Int J Circumpolar Health ; 79(1): 1749001, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32264773

RESUMO

Objectives: To characterise cold sensitivity using a semi-structured interview, physical examination, thermal quantitative sensory testing (QST), and laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA). Methods: Eight women and four men, ages 22-74, with cold sensitivity were interviewed and examined by an occupational physician. Thermal perception thresholds were established using QST, on the pulp of the index and little finger of the most affected hand. Skin perfusion in the dorsum of the hand was measured using LASCA, at baseline, after two-minute 12°C water immersion, and during rewarming. Results: The physical examination yielded few findings indicative of vascular or neurosensory pathology. One subject (8%) had impaired thermal perception thresholds. LASCA at baseline showed absent proximal-distal perfusion gradients in six subjects (50%), and a dyshomogeneous perfusion pattern in five (42%). Perfusion on a group level was virtually unchanged by cold stress testing (median 52.5 PU; IQR 9.0 before versus 51.3 PU; IQR 27.2 afterwards). Conclusions: Physical examination and thermal QST offered little aid in diagnosing cold sensitivity, which challenges the neurosensory pathophysiological hypothesis. LASCA indicated disturbances in microvascular regulation and could prove a useful tool in future studies on cold sensitivity.


Assuntos
Temperatura Baixa , Medição da Dor/métodos , Limiar Sensorial/fisiologia , Pele/irrigação sanguínea , Adulto , Idoso , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Hipotermia Induzida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valores de Referência , Vasoconstrição/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
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