Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 15 de 15
Filtrar
Filtros adicionais











País/Região como assunto
Intervalo de ano
1.
Biotechnol Appl Biochem ; 66(2): 192-201, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30578642

RESUMO

Limonin, a compound of highly oxidized triterpenoids, has potential functions in preventing or slowing the occurrences of many diseases. In this study, five different bacterial strains were isolated and identified from Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr. cv. Shatian Yu. Morphological characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequencing identified them as Bacillus spp, in which two limonin-producing endophytes named P and P9 were discovered by high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry using an inorganic salt medium and two natural media; also the production was greater in natural medium 1 (4.377 and 0.299 mg/L, respectively) than in natural medium 2 (0.159 and 0.025 mg/L, respectively). The growth and fermentation characteristics of strain P were studied, and during the liquid cultivation of Bacillus sp. P, limonin began to accumulate at the eighth hour in the inorganic salt medium, peaked at the 16th hour, and then decreased sharply. Single-factor experiments revealed that the optimum fermentation conditions for limonin production included 14-H-old cells, 15% inoculum, and 3 g/L glucose.


Assuntos
Bacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bacillus/isolamento & purificação , Citrus/microbiologia , Limoninas/biossíntese
2.
BMC Plant Biol ; 18(1): 230, 2018 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30314459

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neem tree serves as a cornucopia for triterpenoids called limonoids that are of profound interest to humans due to their diverse biological activities. However, the biosynthetic pathway that plant employs for the production of limonoids remains unexplored for this wonder tree. RESULTS: Herein, we report the tracing of limonoid biosynthetic pathway through feeding experiments using 13C isotopologues of glucose in neem cell suspension. Growth and development specific limonoid spectrum of neem seedling and time dependent limonoid biosynthetic characteristics of cell lines were established. Further to understand the role of mevalonic acid (MVA) and methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathways in limonoid biosynthesis, Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC)- tandem mass spectrometry based structure-fragment relationship developed for limonoids and their isotopologues have been utilized. Analyses of labeled limonoid extract lead to the identification of signature isoprenoid units involved in azadirachtin and other limonoid biosynthesis, which are found to be formed through mevalonate pathway. This was further confirmed by treatment of cell suspension with mevinolin, a specific inhibitor for MVA pathway, which resulted in drastic decrease in limonoid levels whereas their biosynthesis was unaffected with fosmidomycin mediated plastidial methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway inhibition. This was also conspicuous, as the expression level of genes encoding for the rate-limiting enzyme of MVA pathway, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) was comparatively higher to that of deoxyxylulose-phosphate synthase (DXS) of MEP pathway in different tissues and also in the in vitro grown cells. Thus, this study will give a comprehensive understanding of limonoid biosynthetic pathway with differential contribution of MVA and MEP pathways. CONCLUSIONS: Limonoid biosynthesis of neem tree and cell lines have been unraveled through comparative quantification of limonoids with that of neem tree and through 13C limonoid isotopologues analysis. The undifferentiated cell lines of neem suspension produced a spectrum of C-seco limonoids, similar to parental tissue, kernel. Azadirachtin, a C-seco limonoid is produced in young tender leaves of plant whereas in the hard mature leaves of tree, ring intact limonoid nimocinol accumulates in high level. Furthermore, mevalonate pathway exclusively contributes for isoprene units of limonoids as evidenced through stable isotope labeling and no complementation of MEP pathway was observed with mevalonate pathway dysfunction, using chemical inhibitors.


Assuntos
Azadirachta/metabolismo , Vias Biossintéticas , Limoninas/biossíntese , Ácido Mevalônico/metabolismo , Terpenos/metabolismo , Azadirachta/química , Células Cultivadas , Eritritol/análogos & derivados , Marcação por Isótopo , Limoninas/química , Limoninas/metabolismo , Ácido Mevalônico/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Plântula/química , Plântula/metabolismo , Fosfatos Açúcares , Terpenos/química
3.
Chemistry ; 22(33): 11719-27, 2016 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27383693

RESUMO

The absolute stereostructures of trangmolins A-F (1-6), limonoids with three new and one known topologies of the rings A and B, were unambiguously determined by NMR spectroscopic investigations, single-crystal XRD analysis, and quantum-chemical electronic circular dichroism calculations. Compounds 1-3 contain a hexahydro-1H-inden-4-one motif, compound 4 comprises a hexahydro-2,6-methanobenzofuran-7-one cage, and compound 5 consists of a hexahydro-2H-2,8-epoxychromene scaffold. The C1-C30 linkage in 1-3 and the C3-C30 connection in 4 form two unprecedented types of ring A/B-fused carbobicyclic cores: viii and ix. The oxidative cleavage of the C2-C3 bond in 5 and heterocyclization in 4 and 5 constitute the unprecedented tricyclic 6/6/5 ring A/B(1) /B(2) - and 6/5/6 ring A(1) A(2) /B-fused topologies, respectively, which are uncovered, for the first time, in the construction of limonoid architectures. The diverse cyclization patterns of 1-6 reveal an unparalleled structural plasticity of rings A and B in limonoid biosynthesis.


Assuntos
Limoninas/biossíntese , Limoninas/química , Dicroísmo Circular , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Estrutura Molecular
4.
J Sci Food Agric ; 95(1): 111-9, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24723118

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Terpenoids are major components of carotenoids, limonoids and aromas in citrus fruits, resulting in fruit coloration, bitterness and aroma. In this study the carotenoid, limonoid and volatile profiles of red-flesh Chuhong pummelo (CH) and pale green-flesh Feicui pummelo (FC) were investigated by HPLC and GC/MS. RESULTS: Large differences were found in constituents of carotenoids and limonoids in juice sacs and flavedo and of aromas in flavedo of the two pummelos. For carotenoids in juice sacs, CH contained 57 times the amount in FC, mainly all-trans-lycopene and phytoene, whereas in flavedo it contained only 25% of that in FC, the latter showing a high proportion of ß-carotene and other chloroplastic carotenoids. In comparison with FC, limonin and nomilin aglycone production was boosted in juice sacs of CH while being almost absent in flavedo. For volatiles in flavedo, the total amount was significantly higher in CH. PCA suggested that germacrene-type sesquiterpenoids, etc. were principal in distinguishing volatile profiles of the two pummelos. CONCLUSION: The data showed a different tissue-biased pattern of carotenoid and limonoid aglycone synthesis in pummelos with different flesh color, and the possible independently regulated synthesis of those metabolites in different fruit tissues. Furthermore, decreased carotenoid and limonoid aglycone production accompanied by increased accumulation of volatile terpenoids in flavedo of red-flesh CH was identified, indicating that a total capacity or a balance of production of various terpenoids might exist in pummelo fruit tissues. It was also suggested that substrate concentration is not the key factor affecting product concentrations during the synthesis of monoterpene derivatives.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/análise , Carotenoides/biossíntese , Citrus/química , Limoninas/análise , Limoninas/biossíntese , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Benzoxepinas/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Citrus/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Licopeno , Pigmentação , Olfato , Especificidade da Espécie , Terpenos/análise , Terpenos/metabolismo
5.
Food Chem ; 145: 963-9, 2014 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24128570

RESUMO

The main bitter compounds (nomilin, limonin and naringin) in the fruit tissues of 'Guoqing No.1' Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) were determined throughout the fruit development of 3 consecutive growing seasons. Although fluctuating largely at the corresponding developing stages of the 3 years, the contents of these compounds in fruit tissues mostly displayed a declining trend, which implied that the rhythm of the metabolism of these bitter compounds was not consistent among years and was largely growing season dependent. Regarding their distribution, fruit flavedo might be a weak sink that contained the lowest level of naringin, while the segment membrane accumulated large amount of limonin and nomilin, which indicated a possible tissue bias pattern for biosynthesis or accumulation of those compounds. Partial correlation coefficient analysis revealed a synergistic accumulation of naringin and the two limonoid aglycones in fruit tissues during fruit development, indicating an integrated metabolism of flavonoids and limonoids.


Assuntos
Citrus/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo , Flavonoides/biossíntese , Frutas/metabolismo , Limoninas/biossíntese , Benzoxepinas/análise , China , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Citrus/química , Citrus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flavanonas/análise , Flavanonas/biossíntese , Flavonoides/análise , Frutas/química , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Limoninas/análise , Poncirus/química , Poncirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poncirus/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estações do Ano , Sensação , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Paladar , Quimeras de Transplante
6.
Appl Biochem Biotechnol ; 171(6): 1351-61, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23955295

RESUMO

Batch cultivation of Azadirachta indica hairy roots was carried out in different liquid-phase bioreactor configurations (stirred-tank, bubble column, bubble column with polypropylene basket, and polyurethane foam disc as root supports) to investigate possible scale-up of the A. indica hairy root culture for in vitro production of the biopesticide azadirachtin. The hairy roots failed to grow in the conventional bioreactor designs (stirred tank and bubble column). However, modified bubble column reactor (with polyurethane foam as root support) configuration facilitated high-density culture of A. indica hairy roots with a biomass production of 9.2 g l(-1)dry weight and azadirachtin yield of 3.2 mg g(-1) leading to a volumetric productivity of azadirachtin as 1.14 mg l(-1) day(-1). The antifeedant activity in the hairy roots was also evaluated by no choice feeding tests with known concentrations of the hairy root powder and its solvent extract separately on the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria. The hairy root powder and its solvent extract demonstrated a high level of antifeedant activity (with an antifeedant index of 97 % at a concentration of 2 % w/v and 83 % at a concentration of 0.05 % (w/v), respectively, in ethanol).


Assuntos
Azadirachta/metabolismo , Biotecnologia/métodos , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Inseticidas/metabolismo , Limoninas/biossíntese , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Animais , Azadirachta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Reatores Biológicos , Biotecnologia/instrumentação , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/instrumentação , Meios de Cultura/metabolismo , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Gafanhotos/efeitos dos fármacos , Gafanhotos/fisiologia , Inseticidas/química , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Cinética , Limoninas/química , Limoninas/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento
7.
Bioprocess Biosyst Eng ; 35(9): 1549-53, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22580745

RESUMO

Present investigation involves hairy root cultivation of Azadirachta indica in a modified stirred tank reactor under optimized culture conditions for maximum volumetric productivity of azadirachtin. The selected hairy root line (Az-35) was induced via Agrobacterium rhizogenes LBA 920-mediated transformation of A. indica leaf explants (Coimbatore variety, India). Liquid culture of the hairy roots was developed in a modified Murashige and Skoog medium (MM2). To further enhance the productivity of azadirachtin, selected growth regulators (1.0 mg/l IAA and 0.025 mg/l GA(3)), permeabilizing agent (0.5 % v/v DNBP), a biotic elicitor (1 % v/v Curvularia (culture filtrate)) and an indirectly linked biosynthetic precursor (50 mg/l cholesterol) were added in the growth medium on 15th day of the hairy root cultivation period in shake flask. Highest azadirachtin production (113 mg/l) was obtained on 25th day of the growth cycle with a biomass of 21 g/l DW. Further, batch cultivation of hairy roots was carried out in a novel liquid-phase bioreactor configuration (modified stirred tank reactor with polyurethane foam as root support) to investigate the possible scale-up of the established A. indica hairy root culture. A biomass production of 15.2 g/l with azadirachtin accumulation in the hairy roots of 6.4 mg/g (97.28 mg/l) could be achieved after 25 days of the batch cultivation period, which was ~27 and ~14 % less biomass and azadirachtin concentration obtained respectively, in shake flasks. An overall volumetric productivity of 3.89 mg/(l day) of azadirachtin was obtained in the bioreactor.


Assuntos
Azadirachta , Biomassa , Reatores Biológicos , Limoninas/biossíntese , Células Vegetais/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas , Azadirachta/citologia , Azadirachta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/citologia , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo
8.
Appl Biochem Biotechnol ; 167(6): 1818-30, 2012 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22246729

RESUMO

The vast untapped potential of hairy root cultures as a stable source of biologically active chemicals has focused the attention of scientific community toward its commercial exploitation. However, the major bottleneck remains its successful scale-up. Due to branching, the roots form an interlocked matrix that exhibits resistance to oxygen transfer. Thus, present work was undertaken to develop cultivation strategies like optimization of inlet gas composition (in terms of % (v/v) O(2) in air), air-flow rate and addition of oxygen vectors in the medium, to curb the oxygen transfer limitations during hairy root cultivation of Azadirachta indica for in vitro azadirachtin (a biopesticide) production. It was found that increasing the oxygen fraction in the inlet air (in the range, 20-100% (v/v) O(2) in air) increased the azadirachtin productivity by approximately threefold, to a maximum of 4.42 mg/L per day (at 100% (v/v) O(2) in air) with respect to 1.68 mg/L per day in control (air with no oxygen supplementation). Similarly, increasing the air-flow rate (in the range, 0.3-2 vvm) also increased the azadirachtin productivity to a maximum of 1.84 mg/L per day at 0.8 vvm of air-flow rate. On the contrary, addition of oxygen vectors (in the range, 1-4% (v/v); hydrogen peroxide, toluene, Tween 80, kerosene, silicone oil, and n-hexadecane), decreased the azadirachtin productivity with respect to control (1.76 mg/L per day).


Assuntos
Limoninas/biossíntese , Meliaceae/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Biomassa , Eletroforese em Gel de Ágar
9.
Appl Biochem Biotechnol ; 166(2): 365-78, 2012 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22083394

RESUMO

Azadirachtin, a well-known biopesticide is a secondary metabolite conventionally extracted from the seeds of Azadirachta indica. The present study involved in vitro azadirachtin production by developing hairy roots of A. indica via Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation of A. indica explants. Liquid culture of hairy roots was established in shake flask to study the kinetics of growth and azadirachtin production. A biomass production of 13.3 g/L dry weight (specific growth rate of 0.7 day(-1)) was obtained after 25 days of cultivation period with an azadirachtin yield of 3.3 mg/g root biomass. To overcome the mass transfer limitation in conventionally used liquid-phase reactors, batch cultivation of hairy roots was carried out in gas-phase reactors (nutrient spray and nutrient mist bioreactor) to investigate the possible scale-up of A. indica hairy root culture. The nano-size nutrient mist particles generated from the nozzle of the nutrient mist bioreactor could penetrate till the inner core of the inoculated root matrix, facilitating uniform growth during high-density cultivation of hairy roots. A biomass production of 9.8 g/L dry weight with azadirachtin accumulation of 2.8 mg/g biomass (27.4 mg/L) could be achieved in 25 days of batch cultivation period, which was equivalent to a volumetric productivity of 1.09 mg/L per day of azadirachtin.


Assuntos
Azadirachta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Azadirachta/metabolismo , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Técnicas de Cultura/métodos , Limoninas/biossíntese , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultura/instrumentação , Gases/química , Cinética
10.
Appl Biochem Biotechnol ; 151(2-3): 307-18, 2008 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18392561

RESUMO

The seeds of Azadirachta indica contain azadirachtin and other limonoids, which can be used as a biopesticide for crop protection. Significant variability and availability of seed only in arid zones has triggered biotechnological production of biopesticides to cope up with its huge requirement. Batch cultivation of A. indica suspension culture was carried out in statistically optimized media (25.0 g/l glucose, 5.7 g/l nitrate, 0.094 g/l phosphate and 5 g/l inoculum) in 3 l stirred tank bioreactor. This resulted in 15.5 g/l biomass and 0.05 g/l azadirachtin production in 10 days leading to productivity of 5 mg l(-1) day(-1). Possible inhibition by the limiting substrates (C, N, P) were also studied and maximum inhibitory concentrations identified. The batch kinetic/inhibitory data were then used to develop and identify an unstructured mathematical model. The batch model was extrapolated to simulate continuous cultivation with and without cell retention in the bioreactor. Several offline computer simulations were done to identify right nutrient feeding strategies (with respect to key limiting substrates; carbon, nitrate and phosphate) to maintain non-limiting and non-inhibitory substrate concentrations in bioreactor. One such continuous culture (with cell retention) simulation was experimentally implemented. In this cultivation, the cells were propagated batch-wise for 8 days. It was then converted to continuous cultivation by feeding MS salts with glucose (75 g/l), nitrate (10 g/l), and phosphate (0.5 g/l) at a feed rate of 500 ml/day and withdrawing the spent medium at the same rate. The above continuous cultivation (with cell retention) demonstrated an improvement in cell growth to 95.8 g/l and intracellular accumulation of 0.38 g/l azadirachtin in 40 days leading to an overall productivity of 9.5 mg l(-1) day(-1).


Assuntos
Azadirachta/metabolismo , Inseticidas/síntese química , Limoninas/biossíntese , Biomassa , Reatores Biológicos , Células Cultivadas , Simulação por Computador , Cinética , Modelos Teóricos
11.
J Biosci ; 33(1): 113-20, 2008 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18376076

RESUMO

The present study aimed to elucidate the effect of nutritional alteration on biomass content and azadirachtin production in cell suspensions of the elite neem variety crida-8. Variations in total nitrogen availability in the medium in terms of different ratios of nitrate: ammonium showed that the ratio 4:1 revealed a profound effect, leading to a 1.5-fold increase in the total extracellular azadirachtin production (5.59 mg/l) over the standard MS medium. Reduction in sucrose (15 mg/l) in the medium exhibited a reduction in biomass and absence of azadirachtin, whereas total phosphate reduction raised intracellular azadirachtin production (6.98 mg/l). An altered medium with a nitrate: ammonium ratio of 4:1 coupled with complete elimination of phosphate enhanced biomass by 36% (59.36 g/l).


Assuntos
Azadirachta/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Limoninas/biossíntese , Azadirachta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biomassa , Células Cultivadas , Meios de Cultura/química , Cinética
12.
Chemistry ; 14(4): 1129-44, 2008.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18046683

RESUMO

Thirteen limonoids with a new carbon skeleton, the xylogranatins F-R (1-13), have been isolated from the seeds of a Chinese mangrove, Xylocarpus granatum; two recently reported compounds, xylogranatins C and D were also isolated. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data and chemical methods. The absolute configurations of these compounds were determined by using the modified Mosher MTPA ester method and by quantum chemical circular dichroism (CD) calculations. Xylogranatins F-Q are the first aromatic B-ring limonoids found in nature. They belong to two substructural classes, of which one (1-3) contains a pyridine ring while the other one (4-12) contains a central furan core. Xylogranatins C and R can be considered to be key biosynthetic intermediates, while xylogranatin D, the only limonoid found so far with a carbon skeleton that conatains a C(30)-C(9) linkage, is apparently an artifact. The structures of these compounds suggest a new biogenetic pathway to tetranortriterpenoids. Xylogranatins F, G and R were found to exhibit marked antifeedant activity against the third instar larvae of Mythimna separata (Walker) at a concentration of 1 mg mL(-1). The most potent compound tested was xylogranatin G. Its AFC(50) (concentration for 50 % antifeedant activity) values at the exposure times of 24 and 48 h were 0.31 and 0.30 mg mL(-1), respectively.


Assuntos
Limoninas/química , Limoninas/farmacologia , Meliaceae/química , Animais , Dicroísmo Circular , Furanos/isolamento & purificação , Lepidópteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Limoninas/biossíntese , Limoninas/isolamento & purificação , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular , Estereoisomerismo
13.
Org Lett ; 9(17): 3383-6, 2007 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17650011

RESUMO

Chuktabularins A-D (1-4), four novel 16-norphragmalin-type limonoids that feature unprecedented skeletons with a biosynthetically extended C2 or C3 unit at C-15 forming a unique 2,7-dioxabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane moiety, were isolated from the stem bark of Chukrasia tabularis. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis and computer modeling. The biosynthetic pathway of 1-4 was postulated.


Assuntos
Limoninas/química , Casca de Planta/química , Vias Biossintéticas , Limoninas/biossíntese , Limoninas/isolamento & purificação , Estrutura Molecular
14.
J Biotechnol ; 128(2): 281-9, 2007 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17109981

RESUMO

Azadirachtin is one of the most potent biopesticides so far developed from a plant sources. Influence of different culture media and elicitation on growth and production of azadirachtin by hairy root cultures of Azadirachta indica was studied. Out of the three media tested, namely Ohyama and Nitsch, Gamborg's and Murashige and Skoog's basal media, hairy roots cultured on Ohyama and Nitsch's basal medium produced maximum yield of azadirachtin (0.0166% dry weight, DW). Addition of biotic elicitor enhanced the production of azadirachtin by approximately 5-fold (0.074% DW), while signal compounds such as jasmonic acid and salicylic acid showed a approximately 6 (0.095% DW) and approximately 9-fold (0.14% DW) enhancement, respectively, in the production of azadirachtin as compared to control cultures on Ohyama and Nitsch medium. Extracts from hairy roots were found to be superior to those from the leaves for antifeedant activity against the larvae of Spodoptera litura.


Assuntos
Azadirachta/metabolismo , Inseticidas/metabolismo , Limoninas/biossíntese , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Animais , Azadirachta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biomassa , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Meios de Cultura , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Controle de Insetos , Inseticidas/isolamento & purificação , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Larva , Limoninas/isolamento & purificação , Limoninas/farmacologia , Oxilipinas , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia , Spodoptera
15.
Phytochemistry ; 65(19): 2705-9, 2004 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15464158

RESUMO

A method combining solid-phase extraction and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography is described for the isolation of two key metabolites in the limonoid biosynthetic pathway critical to citrus quality. Potassium salts of limonoate A-ring lactone and nomilinoate A-ring lactone were isolated from young Chandler pummelo seedlings and characterized on the basis of proton and carbon NMR data.


Assuntos
Citrus/química , Lactonas/química , Lactonas/isolamento & purificação , Limoninas/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Citrus/metabolismo , Limoninas/biossíntese , Limoninas/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Estrutura Molecular
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA