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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(39): e17311, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574860

RESUMO

Immune infiltration of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is closely associated with the patients' prognosis. However, previous studies have not interpreted the difference of infiltrating immune cells in NPC.We comprehensively analyzed the tumor-infiltrating immune cells present in NPC for the first time, which was based on a scientific deconvolution algorithm (CIBERSORT) and the gene expression data of GSE64634. The fractions of 22 immune cells were assessed to reveal the associations between normal samples and NPC samples.Profiles of immune infiltration vary significantly between normal samples and NPC samples, and the variation could characterize the individual differences. NPC samples contained a higher proportion for M1 macrophages, whereas memory B cells and CD4 memory resting T cells were relatively lower.Our data suggest that the differences in the infiltrating immune cells in NPC and these differences would probably facilitate patient consultation and individualized treatment.


Assuntos
Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas , Adulto , Algoritmos , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/patologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/patologia , China , Correlação de Dados , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Memória Imunológica , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/classificação , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/patologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/imunologia , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/patologia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/imunologia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/patologia , Prognóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
2.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 37 Suppl 118(3): 217-224, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464681

RESUMO

Despite the well-established role of B cells in the pathogenesis of primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS), the beneficial role of B-cell depletion therapy with rituximab remains elusive in this condition, contrary to other autoimmune diseases. Although early, small-scale studies showed promising results, two recent large randomised controlled trials did not meet their primary end-points. It is evident from most trials that rituximab has a positive impact on B-cell numbers and activity, both in the peripheral blood and in salivary glands, but clinical outcomes vary among studies. We review here the evidence to date of B-cell depletion in pSS, analysing the underlying causes for the discrepancies in different studies and their limitations. We also discuss the potential use of peripheral and salivary gland biomarkers for patient stratification and targeted patient selection. Overall, rituximab remains a plausible treatment for pSS provided future studies address the shortfalls that emerged from our current knowledge of the use of B-cell depletion in this condition.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Síndrome de Sjogren , Linfócitos B/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Humanos , Depleção Linfocítica , Glândulas Salivares , Síndrome de Sjogren/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Sjogren/imunologia
3.
Arerugi ; 68(6): 661-667, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31308331
4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2935, 2019 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270335

RESUMO

Trace elements play important roles in human health, but little is known about their functions in humoral immunity. Here, we show an important role for iron in inducing cyclin E and B cell proliferation. We find that iron-deficient individuals exhibit a significantly reduced antibody response to the measles vaccine when compared to iron-normal controls. Mice with iron deficiency also exhibit attenuated T-dependent or T-independent antigen-specific antibody responses. We show that iron is essential for B cell proliferation; both iron deficiency and α-ketoglutarate inhibition could suppress cyclin E1 induction and S phase entry of B cells upon activation. Finally, we demonstrate that three demethylases, KDM2B, KDM3B and KDM4C, are responsible for histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9) demethylation at the cyclin E1 promoter, cyclin E1 induction and B cell proliferation. Thus, our data reveal a crucial role of H3K9 demethylation in B cell proliferation, and the importance of iron in humoral immunity.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/imunologia , Proliferação de Células , Histonas/química , Histonas/imunologia , Imunidade Humoral , Lisina/imunologia , Animais , Linfócitos B/química , Linfócitos B/citologia , Ciclo Celular , Células Cultivadas , Ciclina E/genética , Ciclina E/imunologia , Desmetilação , Proteínas F-Box/genética , Proteínas F-Box/imunologia , Histonas/genética , Ferro/metabolismo , Histona Desmetilases com o Domínio Jumonji/genética , Histona Desmetilases com o Domínio Jumonji/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Lisina/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteínas Oncogênicas/genética , Proteínas Oncogênicas/imunologia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Linfócitos T/citologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia
5.
Vet Microbiol ; 235: 86-92, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282383

RESUMO

Although PCV2 infections generally cause mild disease in pigs, concurrent co-infections with other pathogens can damage the immune system and cause more severe diseases, collectively termed porcine circovirus associated diseases (PCVAD). Involvement of porcine parvovirus (PPV, a common cause of reproductive failure in naïve dams) in PCVAD caused by PCV2, has been reported. As this co-infection can be difficult to eliminate, there is a critical need to develop an effective vaccine to protect against PPV or synergistic effects of PCV2 and PPV under field conditions. In this study, we designed chimeric PCV2 virus-like particles (cVLPs) displaying a B-cell epitope derived from PPV1 structural protein around the surface of the 2-fold axes of PCV2 VLPs, based on 3D-structure analysis of the PCV2 capsid. The cVLPs were successfully prepared, verified by transmission electron microscopy and chromatography, with robust antibody titers against PCV2 and PPV1 produced in mice and guinea pigs. In addition, in guinea pigs challenged with 106 TCID50 PCV2, cVLPs conferred more effective immune protection (based on viral load) than a commercial PCV2 vaccine. Finally, antibody responses and immune protection against PPV were also evaluated. In guinea pigs vaccinated with cVLPs, although PPV antibodies detected by a hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay appeared later after vaccination in the PCV2 cVLPs group than in the commercial PPV vaccine group, there were fewer PPV genomic DNA copies in the PCV2 cVLPs group than in a PBS group. In conclusion, guinea pigs vaccinated with cVLPs developed effective protective immunity against PCV2 challenge, with some protective immunity against PPV. This study provided valuable research data to pursue molecular design of chimeric epitopes PCV2 VLPs.


Assuntos
Infecções por Circoviridae/veterinária , Coinfecção/veterinária , Epitopos de Linfócito B/imunologia , Imunidade Humoral , Infecções por Parvoviridae/veterinária , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Infecções por Circoviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Circoviridae/prevenção & controle , Circovirus/imunologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Feminino , Cobaias , Camundongos , Infecções por Parvoviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/prevenção & controle , Parvovirus Suíno/imunologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia , Vacinas de Partículas Semelhantes a Vírus/imunologia
6.
Life Sci ; 231: 116688, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348950

RESUMO

The extended infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), one of the most frequent infectious agents in humans, may cause gastritis, peptic ulcers, gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, and gastric cancer. During H. pylori infection, different kinds of inflammatory cells such as dendritic cells, macrophages, neutrophils, mast cells, eosinophils, T cells and B cells are accumulated into the stomach. The interactions between chemokines and their respective receptors recruit particular types of the leukocytes that ultimately determine the nature of immune response and therefore, have a main influence on the consequence of infection. The suitable production of chemokines especially in the early stages of H. pylori infection shapes appropriate immune responses that contribute to the H. pylori elimination. The unbalanced expression of the chemokines can contribute in the induction of inappropriate responses that result in the tissue damage or malignancy. Thus, chemokines and their receptors may be promising potential targets for designing the therapeutic strategies against various types H. pylori-related gastrointestinal disorders. In this review, a comprehensive explanation regarding the roles played by chemokines in H. pylori-mediated peptic ulcer, gastritis and gastric malignancies was provided while presenting the potential utilization of these chemoattractants as therapeutic elements.


Assuntos
Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Quimiocinas/farmacologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/terapia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Quimiocinas CXC/imunologia , Quimiocinas CXC/metabolismo , Mucosa Gástrica/metabolismo , Gastrite , Infecções por Helicobacter/complicações , Infecções por Helicobacter/imunologia , Helicobacter pylori/imunologia , Helicobacter pylori/metabolismo , Helicobacter pylori/patogenicidade , Humanos , Receptores CXCR/imunologia , Receptores CXCR/metabolismo , Receptores de Quimiocinas/imunologia , Receptores de Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Estômago/patologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(29): e16390, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31335688

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Sjögren's syndrome (SS) often causes lymphoproliferative disorders such as malignant lymphoma and macroglobrinemia. Approximately 5% of long-term follow-up SS patients develop malignant lymphoma. Recently, the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily cluster of differentiation 30 (CD30) has been thought to be implicated in malignant cells in organs affected by Hodgikin lymphoma or in a prognostic marker of diffuse large B cell lymphoma. In this study, we investigated CD30 expression in lacrimal gland and conjunctiva in patients with SS. METHODS: We examined lacrimal gland and conjunctival tissues for the diagnosis from 3 female SS patients with a median age of 51 and 3 female chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) patients with a median age of 41. Histological analysis of these tissues of the remaining samples was conducted by methods including immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy (#20090277). We analyzed the expression and localization of cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4), cluster of differentiation 8 (CD8), cluster of differentiation 20 (CD20), CD30, and Interferon-γ in tissue sections prepared from lacrimal glands and conjunctiva in 3 each of SS and cGVHD patients. RESULTS: There were more B cells and plasma cells in lobules of SS-affected lacrimal glands than in those of their cGVHD-affected counterparts. Interferon-γ was expressed on endothelia of capillaries in SS-affected lacrimal gland and conjunctival tissues whereas it was expressed on fibroblasts in their GVHD-affected equivalents. Furthermore, lacrimal glands and conjunctiva disordered by SS had a greater number of CD30 cells than those disordered by cGVHD. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that CD30 cells are increased in lacrimal glands and conjunctiva affected by SS and that a subset of SS patients are thereby at risk of development malignant lymphoma.


Assuntos
Túnica Conjuntiva , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro , Antígeno Ki-1 , Aparelho Lacrimal , Linfoma/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Sjogren , Adulto , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Túnica Conjuntiva/imunologia , Túnica Conjuntiva/patologia , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/diagnóstico , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/imunologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/patologia , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Interferon gama/sangue , Antígeno Ki-1/análise , Antígeno Ki-1/imunologia , Aparelho Lacrimal/imunologia , Aparelho Lacrimal/patologia , Microscopia Eletrônica/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Plasmócitos/imunologia , Prognóstico , Síndrome de Sjogren/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Sjogren/imunologia , Síndrome de Sjogren/patologia
8.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2423, 2019 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31160559

RESUMO

The germinal center (GC) reaction in Peyer's patches (PP) requires continuous access to antigens, but how this is achieved is not known. Here we show that activated antigen-specific CCR6+CCR1+GL7- B cells make close contact with M cells in the subepithelial dome (SED). Using in situ photoactivation analysis of antigen-specific SED B cells, we find migration of cells towards the GC. Following antigen injection into ligated intestinal loops containing PPs, 40% of antigen-specific SED B cells bind antigen within 2 h, whereas unspecifc cells do not, indicating B cell-receptor involvment. Antigen-loading is not observed in M cell-deficient mice, but is unperturbed in mice depleted of classical dendritic cells (DC). Thus, we report a M cell-B cell antigen-specific transporting pathway in PP that is independent of DC. We propose that this antigen transporting pathway has a critical role in gut IgA responses, and should be taken into account when developing mucosal vaccines.


Assuntos
Células Apresentadoras de Antígenos/imunologia , Antígenos/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Células Epiteliais/imunologia , Nódulos Linfáticos Agregados/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos B/imunologia , Animais , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Centro Germinativo/imunologia , Imunoglobulina A/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Camundongos
9.
Scand J Immunol ; 90(3): e12795, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31148206

RESUMO

Antigen-specific molecules of the immune system, namely antibodies, the membrane immunoglobulins (mIgs) of B cells and T cell receptors (TcRs), can all signal their interaction with antigen. There are different mechanisms by which this signalling could occur. These mechanisms can be divided into two general categories: allosteric and non-allosteric. In allosteric mechanisms, the monovalent binding of the antigen to the receptor triggers a conformational change at the binding site that is propagated to an invariant part of the receptor, a change recognized by a sensing unit. We argue allosteric mechanisms are implausible. Non-allosteric mechanisms depend on steric effects due to the antigen's size and/or multivalency. We consider two non-allosteric mechanisms by which the mIg of B cells has been envisaged to signal its interaction with antigen: the popular cross-linking model and the dissociation activation model. We argue, on the basis of both experimental observations and physiological considerations, that the dissociation activation model, developed by Reth and his colleagues, is uniquely plausible.


Assuntos
Anticorpos/imunologia , Antígenos/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos B/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Humanos , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/imunologia
10.
Malar J ; 18(1): 188, 2019 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151441

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ability of a malaria antigen to induce effective, long-lasting immune responses is important for the development of a protective malaria vaccine. Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein-8 (PvMSP8) has been shown to be immunogenic in natural P. vivax infections and produces both cell-mediated and antibody-mediated immunity. Thus, PvMSP8 has been proposed as a vaccine candidate following fusion with other merozoite antigens in blood stage vaccine design. Here, the long-term responses of antibodies and memory B cells (MBCs) specific to PvMSP8 in individuals were monitored in a longitudinal cohort study. METHODS: Both cross-sectional surveys and cohort studies were utilized to explore the persistence of antibody and MBC responses to PvMSP8. Antibody titers were detected in individuals with acute disease and those who recovered from an infection for 4 years. The dominant peptide epitope of PvMSP8 recognized by naturally acquired antibodies was examined to observe the durability of the post-infection antibody response. PvMSP8-specific MBCs were also in subjects 4 years post-infection using an enzyme-linked immunospot assay. RESULTS: The prevalence of antibodies to PvMSP8 was high during and after infection. The antibody levels in individual responders were monitored for up to 12 months post-infection and showed that most patients maintained their seropositive response. Interestingly, the anti-PvMSP8 antibody responses stably persisted in some patients who had recovered from an infection for 4 years. Positive PvMSP8-specific MBCs were also detected at 4 years post-infection. However, analysis in these individuals showed no correlation with the presence or titer of circulating antibody. CONCLUSION: PvMSP8 had the ability to induce a long-term humoral immune response. The antibodies and MBCs specific for this antigen developed and persisted in subjects who acquired a natural P. vivax infection. Inclusion of the PvMSP8 antigen in blood stage vaccine design should be considered.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Imunidade Humoral , Memória Imunológica , Malária Vivax/imunologia , Plasmodium vivax/imunologia , Proteínas de Protozoários/imunologia , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Antígenos de Protozoários/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas de Protozoários/sangue , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Nat Immunol ; 20(7): 852-864, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213723

RESUMO

Dendritic cells (DC) are currently classified as conventional DCs (cDCs) and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs). Through a combination of single-cell transcriptomic analysis, mass cytometry, in vivo fate mapping and in vitro clonal assays, here we show that, at the single-cell level, the priming of mouse hematopoietic progenitor cells toward the pDC lineage occurs at the common lymphoid progenitor stage, indicative of early divergence of the pDC and cDC lineages. We found the transcriptional signature of a pDC precursor stage, defined here, in the IL-7Rα+ common lymphoid progenitor population and identified Ly6D, IL-7Rα, CD81 and CD2 as key markers of pDC differentiation, which distinguish pDC precursors from cDC precursors. In conclusion, pDCs developed in the bone marrow from a Ly6DhiCD2hi lymphoid progenitor cell and differentiated independently of the myeloid cDC lineage.


Assuntos
Antígenos Ly/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas/citologia , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Células Progenitoras Linfoides/citologia , Células Progenitoras Linfoides/metabolismo , Células Progenitoras Mieloides/citologia , Células Progenitoras Mieloides/metabolismo , Animais , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Células da Medula Óssea/citologia , Células da Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Citometria de Fluxo , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Camundongos , Transcriptoma
12.
Nature ; 571(7763): 122-126, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31189952

RESUMO

Antibodies secreted into mucosal barriers serve to protect the host from a variety of pathogens, and are the basis for successful vaccines1. In type I mucosa (such as the intestinal tract), dimeric IgA secreted by local plasma cells is transported through polymeric immunoglobulin receptors2 and mediates robust protection against viruses3,4. However, owing to the paucity of polymeric immunoglobulin receptors and plasma cells, how and whether antibodies are delivered to the type II mucosa represented by the lumen of the lower female reproductive tract remains unclear. Here, using genital herpes infection in mice, we show that primary infection does not establish plasma cells in the lamina propria of the female reproductive tract. Instead, upon secondary challenge with herpes simplex virus 2, circulating memory B cells that enter the female reproductive tract serve as the source of rapid and robust antibody secretion into the lumen of this tract. CD4 tissue-resident memory T cells secrete interferon-γ, which induces expression of chemokines, including CXCL9 and CXCL10. Circulating memory B cells are recruited to the vaginal mucosa in a CXCR3-dependent manner, and secrete virus-specific IgG2b, IgG2c and IgA into the lumen. These results reveal that circulating memory B cells act as a rapidly inducible source of mucosal antibodies in the female reproductive tract.


Assuntos
Anticorpos/imunologia , Linfócitos B/citologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Movimento Celular/imunologia , Memória Imunológica/imunologia , Vagina/citologia , Vagina/imunologia , Animais , Formação de Anticorpos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Feminino , Herpes Simples/imunologia , Herpes Simples/virologia , Herpesvirus Humano 2/imunologia , Imunização , Imunoglobulina A/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Interferon gama/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Receptores CXCR3/imunologia , Vagina/virologia
13.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1970, 2019 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036800

RESUMO

Several tolerance checkpoints exist throughout B cell development to control autoreactive B cells and prevent the generation of pathogenic autoantibodies. FcγRIIb is an Fc receptor that inhibits B cell activation and, if defective, is associated with autoimmune disease, yet its impact on specific B cell tolerance checkpoints is unknown. Here we show that reduced expression of FcγRIIb enhances the deletion and anergy of autoreactive immature B cells, but in contrast promotes autoreactive B cell expansion in the germinal center and serum autoantibody production, even in response to exogenous, non-self antigens. Our data thus show that FcγRIIb has opposing effects on pre-immune and post-immune tolerance checkpoints, and suggest that B cell tolerance requires the control of bystander germinal center B cells with low or no affinity for the immunizing antigen.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/imunologia , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Tolerância Imunológica/imunologia , Receptores de IgG/metabolismo , Algoritmos , Animais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Centro Germinativo , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Receptores de IgG/genética , Software
14.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2201, 2019 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101814

RESUMO

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is the prototypic systemic autoimmune disease. It is thought that many common variant gene loci of weak effect act additively to predispose to common autoimmune diseases, while the contribution of rare variants remains unclear. Here we describe that rare coding variants in lupus-risk genes are present in most SLE patients and healthy controls. We demonstrate the functional consequences of rare and low frequency missense variants in the interacting proteins BLK and BANK1, which are present alone, or in combination, in a substantial proportion of lupus patients. The rare variants found in patients, but not those found exclusively in controls, impair suppression of IRF5 and type-I IFN in human B cell lines and increase pathogenic lymphocytes in lupus-prone mice. Thus, rare gene variants are common in SLE and likely contribute to genetic risk.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Quinases da Família src/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Linfócitos B/citologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Linhagem Celular , Núcleo Celular/imunologia , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Criança , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Células HEK293 , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Fatores Reguladores de Interferon/imunologia , Fatores Reguladores de Interferon/metabolismo , Interferon Tipo I/imunologia , Interferon Tipo I/metabolismo , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/sangue , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Quinases da Família src/metabolismo
15.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2153, 2019 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31089128

RESUMO

The gut commensal Bacteroides fragilis or its capsular polysaccharide A (PSA) can prevent various peripheral and CNS sterile inflammatory disorders. Fatal herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) results from immune pathology caused by uncontrolled invasion of the brainstem by inflammatory monocytes and neutrophils. Here we assess the immunomodulatory potential of PSA in HSE by infecting PSA or PBS treated 129S6 mice with HSV1, followed by delayed Acyclovir (ACV) treatment as often occurs in the clinical setting. Only PSA-treated mice survived, with dramatically reduced brainstem inflammation and altered cytokine and chemokine profiles. Importantly, PSA binding by B cells is essential for induction of regulatory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells secreting IL-10 to control innate inflammatory responses, consistent with the lack of PSA mediated protection in Rag-/-, B cell- and IL-10-deficient mice. Our data reveal the translational potential of PSA as an immunomodulatory symbiosis factor to orchestrate robust protective anti-inflammatory responses during viral infections.


Assuntos
Bacteroides fragilis/imunologia , Encefalite por Herpes Simples/imunologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Herpesvirus Humano 1/imunologia , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/imunologia , Aciclovir/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Bacteroides fragilis/metabolismo , Cercopithecus aethiops , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Encefalite por Herpes Simples/tratamento farmacológico , Encefalite por Herpes Simples/virologia , Feminino , Herpesvirus Humano 1/patogenicidade , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/imunologia , Humanos , Interleucina-10/genética , Interleucina-10/imunologia , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/metabolismo , Simbiose/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Células Vero
16.
Life Sci ; 228: 152-157, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31055088

RESUMO

Allergic skin disease is the most common skin condition, and considerably affects patients' life quality because of its recurrence and pruritus. Numbers of studies point out that immune cells, including mast cells and T cells, play pathogenic roles in allergic skin diseases, and share similarities in the activation and secretion of cytokines. Calcium Release-Activated Calcium Modulator 1(CRACM1/ORAI1) is a subtype of Ca2+ membrane channel, causing Ca2+ influx into the cells. As a second messenger, Ca2+ is an essential element that regulates immune responses, especially in the development and function of T and B cells. Thus, ORAI1 is considered to participate in allergic diseases. However, the specific mechanism of ORAI1 in skin disorders is still unclear. In order to investigate the roles of ORAI1 in allergic skin disorders, we reviewed the related articles and concluded that ORAI1 could be a potential therapeutic target for allergic skin diseases.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade/imunologia , Imunidade Celular , Proteína ORAI1/imunologia , Dermatopatias/imunologia , Animais , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Cálcio/imunologia , Dermatite Atópica/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatite Atópica/imunologia , Descoberta de Drogas , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Dermatopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Urticária/tratamento farmacológico , Urticária/imunologia
17.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 138: 156-171, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31092372

RESUMO

The association of HCV-infection with B-lymphomas is supported by the regression of most indolent/low-grade lymphomas following anti-viral therapy. Studies on direct and indirect oncogenic mechanisms have elucidated the pathogenesis of HCV-associated B-lymphoma subtypes. These include B-lymphocyte proliferation and sustained clonal expansion by HCV-envelope protein stimulation of B-cell receptors, and prolonged HCV-infected B-cell growth by overexpression of an anti-apoptotic BCL-2 oncogene caused by the increased frequency of t(14;18) chromosomal translocations in follicular lymphomas. HCV has been implicated in lymphomagenesis by a "hit-and-run" mechanism, inducing enhanced mutation rate in immunoglobulins and anti-oncogenes favoring immune escape, due to permanent genetic damage by double-strand DNA-breaks. More direct oncogenic mechanisms have been identified in cytokines and chemokines in relation to NS3 and Core expression, particularly in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. By reviewing genetic alterations and disrupted signaling pathways, we intend to highlight how mutually non-contrasting mechanisms cooperate with environmental factors toward progression of HCV-lymphoma.


Assuntos
Hepatite C/complicações , Linfoma de Células B/genética , Linfoma de Células B/patologia , Linfoma de Células B/virologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/virologia , Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinogênese/patologia , Hepacivirus , Humanos
18.
Curr Top Microbiol Immunol ; 421: 229-265, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31123892

RESUMO

Helicobacter pylori is a prevalent human pathogen that successfully establishes chronic infection, which leads to clinically significant gastric diseases including chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease (PUD), and gastric cancer (GC). H. pylori is able to produce a persistent infection due in large part to its ability to hijack the host immune response. The host adaptive immune response is activated to strategically and specifically attack pathogens and normally clears them from the infected host. Since B and T lymphocytes are central mediators of adaptive immunity, in this chapter we review their development and the fundamental mechanisms regulating their activation in order to understand how some of the normal processes are subverted by H. pylori. In this review, we place particular emphasis on the CD4+ T cell responses, their subtypes, and regulatory mechanisms because of the expanding literature in this area related to H. pylori. T lymphocyte differentiation and function are finely orchestrated through a series of cell-cell interactions, which include immune checkpoint receptors. Among the immune checkpoint receptor family, there are some with inhibitory properties that are exploited by tumor cells to facilitate their immune evasion. Gastric epithelial cells (GECs), which act as antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in the gastric mucosa, are induced by H. pylori to express immune checkpoint receptors known to sway T lymphocyte function and thus circumvent effective T effector lymphocyte responses. This chapter reviews these and other mechanisms used by H. pylori to interfere with host immunity in order to persist.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/patologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/imunologia , Helicobacter pylori/imunologia , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Linfócitos T/patologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Mucosa Gástrica/imunologia , Mucosa Gástrica/microbiologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Humanos , Linfócitos T/imunologia
19.
Parasitol Res ; 118(6): 1943-1952, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31069533

RESUMO

The recombinant heavy chain myosin of Brugia malayi (Bm-Myo) has earlier been reported as a potent vaccine candidate in our lab. Subsequently, we further enhanced its efficacy employing heterologous DNA prime/protein boost (Myo-pcD+Bm-Myo) immunization approach that produced superior immune-protection than protein or DNA vaccination. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of heterologous prime boost vaccination in combination with CpG, synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) adjuvant in BALB/c mice. The results showed that CpG/Myo-pcD+Bm-Myo conferred 84.5 ± 0.62% protection against B. malayi infective larval challenge which was considerably higher than Myo-pcD+Bm-Myo (75.6 ± 1.10%) following immunization. Although, both the formulations of immunization elicited robust production of specific IgG antibody and their isotypes (IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b, and IgG3); however, CpG/Myo-pcD+Bm-Myo predominantly enhanced the level of IgG2a suggesting Th1 biased immune response in presence of CpG. Furthermore, spleen isolated from mice that immunized with CpG/Myo-pcD+Bm-Myo had greater accumulation of CD4+, CD8+, and CD19+ B cells and there was an augmented expression of co-stimulatory molecules CD40, CD86 on host dendritic cells (DCs). In contrast to Myo-pcD+Bm-Myo group, the splenocytes of CpG/Myo-pcD+Bm-Myo immunized mice developed comparatively higher pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-2 and IFN-γ leaving anti-inflammatory cytokine levels unchanged. Moreover, CpG formulation also upregulated the RNA expression of IL-12 and TNF-α in spleenocytes. The current findings suggest that the use of CpG would be more advantageous as an adjuvant predominantly in DNA/protein prime boost vaccine against Bm-Myo and presumably also for filarial infection.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/sangue , Brugia Malayi/imunologia , Cadeias Pesadas de Miosina/imunologia , Vacinas Protozoárias/imunologia , Vacinas de DNA/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Brugia Malayi/genética , Citocinas/sangue , Feminino , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Vacinação/métodos
20.
Parasitol Res ; 118(6): 1987-1992, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31069535

RESUMO

Malaria remains a significant worldwide public health problem. To address biological questions, researchers rely on the experimental murine model. For decades, chloroquine (CQ) and pyrimethamine (Pyr) have been used to clear Plasmodium infections in experimental animals using standardised accepted protocols and, because of this, drug-treated controls are rarely included. However, there is limited data available on the modulation of anti-malarial immunity, including generation of memory B cells, when these drugs are administered days after malaria infection. We investigated B cell responses to an important malaria glycolipid, glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI), and the hapten nitrophenol (NP), with or without standard CQ and Pyr treatment using the murine model. At day 14, CQ/Pyr treatment significantly suppressed the frequency of NP+IgG1+ memory B cells in NP-KLH-immunised mice. Furthermore, CQ/Pyr-treated NP-KLH-immunised mice did not have significantly higher cellular counts of NP+ B cells, germinal centre B cells, nor NP+IgG1+ memory B cells than naïve mice (CQ/Pyr treated and untreated). CQ/Pyr-treated GPI-KLH-immunised mice did not have significantly higher cellular counts of GPI+ B cells than naïve untreated mice. By day 28, this effect appeared to resolve since all immunised mice, whether treated or untreated, had significantly higher B cell proliferative responses than naïve mice (CQ/Pyr treated and untreated) for the majority of B cell phenotypes. The current study emphasises the potential for drug modulation of antigenic B cell responses when using standardised malaria treatment protocols in the experimental murine model. It is recommended that drug-treated controls are included when using experimental malaria infections to address biological questions.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Glicosilfosfatidilinositóis/imunologia , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Nitrofenóis/imunologia , Plasmodium/imunologia , Pirimetamina/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/imunologia , Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Antimaláricos/efeitos adversos , Cloroquina/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Imunização , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Malária/imunologia , Malária/parasitologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pirimetamina/efeitos adversos
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