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1.
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 35(7): 577-582, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537240

RESUMO

Objective To investigate the roles of Th1 cytokines tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and multifunctional T cells in nucleotides binding oligomer domain 2 knockout (NOD2-/-) mice infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) H37Ra. Methods Mouse models of pulmonary infection were established by tracheal instillation of MTB strain H37Ra into NOD2-/- mice and C57BL/6 mice (n=10 each group). Lung tissues were removed and stained by HE staining and pathological scores were evaluated 4 weeks after infection. The levels of TNF-α and IFN-γ in the lung homogenates were detected by ELISA, and the ratio of multifunctional CD4+ T and CD8+ T cells in the spleen were examined by flow cytometry. Results MTB infection promoted lung inflammation of NOD2-/- mice. The levels of TNF-α and IFN-γ in the lung tissues of NOD2-/- mice increased. Compared with normal saline group, TNF-α+, IFN-γ+ cells and TNF-α+IFN-γ+ cells in CD4+/CD8+T cells significantly increased in NOD2-/- mice and C57BL/6 mice after the infection. TNF-α+CD4+T cells, IFN-γ+CD4+T cells and IFN-γ+CD8+T cells in MTB-infected NOD2-/- mice were significantly higher than those in MTB-infected C57BL/6 mice. Conclusion H37Ra can induce Th1 immune response in NOD2-/- mice.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Células Th1/imunologia , Tuberculose/imunologia , Animais , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Interferon gama/imunologia , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/microbiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Proteína Adaptadora de Sinalização NOD2/genética , Baço/citologia , Baço/imunologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
2.
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 35(7): 641-648, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537249

RESUMO

Objective To investigate the expression of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and inducible costimulatory molecules (ICOS) on peripheral T lymphocytes of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to determine its relationship with disease severity. Methods The study included 30 RA patients and 26 healthy people. Flow cytometry was used to detect the ratio of CD3+CD8+ effector memory T cells (Tem) and follicular helper T (Tfh) cells in peripheral blood, and then to detect the proportion of PD-1 and ICOS-positive cells in lymphocyte subsets. Correlation between them and 28 joint disease activity scores (DAS28) was assessed by Spearman correlation analysis. Results The absolute number of Tem and Tfh cells in the RA group was higher than that in the healthy group. The expression of ICOS and PD-1 in the RA group was higher than that in the healthy group. There was a positive correlation between the expression of ICOS and PD-1 on peripheral CD3+CD8+ Tem and Tfh cells and DAS28 in RA group. Conclusion PD-1 and ICOS on peripheral CD3+CD8+ Tem and Tfh cells may be involved in the development of RA and may be an indicator of RA activity.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/patologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Memória Imunológica , Proteína Coestimuladora de Linfócitos T Induzíveis/metabolismo , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Artrite Reumatoide/metabolismo , Humanos
3.
Anticancer Res ; 39(9): 4737-4742, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519573

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: There are several unresolved issues regarding the combined treatment with an immune checkpoint inhibitor and anti-angiogenic agent for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients. The purpose of this study was to address the inhibitory effects of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression on growth and sensitivity to sunitinib in the mouse RCC RenCa model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We established RenCa/sh-PD-L1 by transfecting RenCa cells with a plasmid carrying a short hairpin RNA targeted against PD-L1. The growth pattern of RenCa/sh-PD-L1 with or without sunitinib was compared to that of RenCa cells transfected with control plasmid alone (RenCa/Co). RESULTS: No significant difference in growth or sensitivity to sinitinib was noted between RenCa/sh-PD-L1 and RenCa/Co cells in vitro. The tumor volume in mice subcutaneously injected with RenCa/sh-PD-L1 was significantly smaller than that with RenCa/Co. Treatment of mice bearing each tumor with sunitinib resulted in a significant reduction of the RenCa/sh-PD-L1 tumor compared to the RenCa/Co tumor. Moreover, infiltration by CD8+ T cells of RenCa/sh-PD-L1 tumors was significantly higher than that of RenCa/Co tumors, irrespective of treatment with sunitinib. CONCLUSION: Suppressed expression of PD-L1 could increase tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T cells and result in growth inhibition as well as enhanced sensitivity to sunitinib in the RenCa model.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Neoplasias Renais/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Sunitinibe/farmacologia , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Renais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Camundongos , Carga Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 17(1): 87, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387604

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adoptive T cell-transfer (ATC) therapy is a highly promising cancer-treatment approach. However, in vivo-administered T cells tend to disperse, with only a small proportion reaching the tumour. To remedy this, magnetic targeting of T cells has been recently explored. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) functionalised with antibodies were attached to effector T cells and magnetically recruited to tumour sites under MRI guidance. In this study, we investigated whether 3-aminopropyl-triethoxysilane (APS)-coated MNPs directly attached to CD8+ T cell membranes could also magnetically target and accumulate tumour-specific CD8+ T cells in solid tumours using an external magnetic field (EMF). As it has been shown that T cells associated with APS-coated MNPs are retained in lymph nodes (LNs), and tumour-draining LNs are the most common sites of solid-tumour metastases, we further evaluated whether magnetic targeting of APS-MNP-loaded CD8+ T cells could cause them to accumulate in tumour-draining LNs. RESULTS: First, we show that antigen-specific CD8+ T cells preserve their antitumor activity in vitro when associated with APS-MNPs. Next, we demonstrate that the application of a magnetic field enhanced the retention of APS-MNP-loaded OT-I CD8+ T cells under flow conditions in vitro. Using a syngeneic mouse model, we found similar numbers of APS-MNP-loaded OT-I CD8+ T cells and OT-I CD8+ T cells infiltrating the tumour 14 days after cell transfer. However, when a magnet was placed near the tumour during the transfer of tumour-specific APS-MNP-loaded CD8+ T cells to improve tumour infiltration, a reduced percentage of tumour-specific T cells was found infiltrating the tumour 14 days after cell transfer, which was reflected in a smaller reduction in tumour size compared to tumour-specific CD8+ T cells transferred with or without MNPs in the absence of a magnetic field. Nonetheless, magnet placement near the tumour site during cell transfer induced infiltration of activated tumour-specific CD8+ T cells in tumour-draining LNs, which remained 14 days after cell transfer. CONCLUSIONS: The use of an EMF to improve targeting of tumour-specific T cells modified with APS-MNPs reduced the percentage of these cells infiltrating the tumour, but promoted the retention and the persistence of these cells in the tumour-draining LNs.


Assuntos
Transferência Adotiva , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/transplante , Linfonodos/patologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/química , Neoplasias Experimentais/terapia , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular , Proliferação de Células , Sobrevivência Celular , Feminino , Linfonodos/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/patologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Transplante de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Experimentais/imunologia , Neoplasias Experimentais/patologia , Propilaminas/química , Silanos/química
5.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 341, 2019 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296257

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides is a widespread tick species in China and other South East Asian countries, where it is the vector of many pathogens. The objective of this study was to study the role of serpin (serine protease inhibitor) during the tick-host interaction. METHODS: The differentiation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDC) was induced in vitro, and the effect of RHS2 on the maturation of DCs was evaluated. The effects of RHS2 on T cell activation and cytotoxic T lymphocytes' (CTLs) activity were analyzed by flow cytometry. Antibody subtypes after immunization of mice with RHS2 and OVA were determined. RESULTS: RHS2 can inhibit the differentiation of bone marrow-derived cells into DCs and promote their differentiation into macrophages. RHS2 can inhibit the maturation of DCs and the expression of CD80, CD86 and MHCII. The number of CD3+CD4+ and CD3+CD8+ T cells secreting IFN-γ, IL-2 and TNF-α was decreased, and the number of CD3+CD4+ T cells secreting IL-4 was increased, indicating that RHS2 can inhibit the activation of CD4 T cells and CD8 T cells, leading to inhibition of Th1 immune response. RHS2 inhibits the elimination of target cells by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. After immunization of mice with RHS2 and OVA, serum IgG2b was significantly reduced and IgM was increased. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that RHS2 has an inhibitory effect on the host immune response. Ticks have evolved various ways to circumvent adaptive immunity. Their serpin inhibits BMDC differentiation to reduce immune responses.


Assuntos
Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Imunomodulação , Ativação Linfocitária , Rhipicephalus/química , Serpinas/imunologia , Animais , Células da Medula Óssea/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Serpinas/genética
6.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 52: e20190101, 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340370

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-1 associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM) is a disease caused by human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-I) that mainly infects CD4 T cells-for example, those of the CD4+CD25hiFOXP3+ [Treg] phenotype-where it inhibits forkhead box protein P3 (FOXP3) expression and promotes interferon-γ (IFN-γ) expression. However, the role it exerts on regulatory B cells (CD19+CD24hiCD38hi; Breg) is unknown. METHODS: The frequencies of Treg and Breg cells was evaluated and the Th1 profiles were assessed in TSP/HAM patients and healthy control subjects. RESULTS: Low percentages of Breg cells and high production of IFN-γ were observed in patients compared to those in healthy control subjects. CONCLUSIONS: The low percentage of Breg cells in patients and the increase in the frequency of Th1 cells suggest an imbalance in the control of the inflammatory response that contributes to the immunopathogenesis of TSP/HAM.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B Reguladores/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Interferon gama/imunologia , Paraparesia Espástica Tropical/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Adolescente , Linfócitos B Reguladores/virologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/virologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Paraparesia Espástica Tropical/virologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/virologia , Carga Viral
7.
Braz J Infect Dis ; 23(3): 151-159, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271732

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV infection harms adaptive cellular immunity mechanisms. Long-term virological control by combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) reduces the risk of mycobacterial infections. Thus, we aimed to study cellular responses to mycobacterial antigens in 20 HIV-infected adolescents with at least one year of virological control (HIV-RNA <40 copies/mL) and 20 healthy adolescents. METHODS: We evaluated CD8 and γδ T-cell degranulation by measurement of CD107a membrane expression after stimulation with lysates from BCG (10 µg/mL) and H37RA Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb, 10 µg/mL). Immune activation and antigen-presenting ability were also assessed by determination of HLA-DR, CD80, and CD86 markers. RESULTS: TCR γδ T-cell CD107a expression was similar between groups in response to mycobacterial antigens, and lower in the HIV-infected group in response to mitogen. Higher baseline HLA-DR expression and lower mycobacterial-stimulated expression was found within the HIV-infected group. CONCLUSIONS: Similar degranulation in stimulated CD8+ and TCR γδ T-cells from HIV-infected adolescents, when compared to healthy controls suggests long-term immunological preservation with immune reconstitution under successful cART. However, differences in HLA-DR expression may represent ongoing inflammation and lower specific responses in HIV-infected youth. These features may be relevant in the context of the precocity and severity of vertically acquired HIV infection.


Assuntos
Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/imunologia , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T alfa-beta/imunologia , Tuberculose/imunologia , Apresentação do Antígeno/imunologia , Antígenos de Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
8.
Nature ; 571(7766): 565-569, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31316206

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder with motor symptoms linked to the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra compacta. Although the mechanisms that trigger the loss of dopaminergic neurons are unclear, mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation are thought to have key roles1,2. An early-onset form of Parkinson's disease is associated with mutations in the PINK1 kinase and PRKN ubiquitin ligase genes3. PINK1 and Parkin (encoded by PRKN) are involved in the clearance of damaged mitochondria in cultured cells4, but recent evidence obtained using knockout and knockin mouse models have led to contradictory results regarding the contributions of PINK1 and Parkin to mitophagy in vivo5-8. It has previously been shown that PINK1 and Parkin have a key role in adaptive immunity by repressing presentation of mitochondrial antigens9, which suggests that autoimmune mechanisms participate in the aetiology of Parkinson's disease. Here we show that intestinal infection with Gram-negative bacteria in Pink1-/- mice engages mitochondrial antigen presentation and autoimmune mechanisms that elicit the establishment of cytotoxic mitochondria-specific CD8+ T cells in the periphery and in the brain. Notably, these mice show a sharp decrease in the density of dopaminergic axonal varicosities in the striatum and are affected by motor impairment that is reversed after treatment with L-DOPA. These data support the idea that PINK1 is a repressor of the immune system, and provide a pathophysiological model in which intestinal infection acts as a triggering event in Parkinson's disease, which highlights the relevance of the gut-brain axis in the disease10.


Assuntos
Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/microbiologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/fisiopatologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Doença de Parkinson/genética , Doença de Parkinson/microbiologia , Proteínas Quinases/deficiência , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Animais , Apresentação do Antígeno/imunologia , Autoantígenos/imunologia , Axônios/patologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , Citrobacter rodentium/imunologia , Citrobacter rodentium/patogenicidade , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/imunologia , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/patologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/imunologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/patologia , Feminino , Intestinos/imunologia , Intestinos/patologia , Levodopa/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias/imunologia , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Neostriado/imunologia , Neostriado/microbiologia , Neostriado/patologia , Neostriado/fisiopatologia , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Proteínas Quinases/imunologia , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/deficiência , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/imunologia
9.
Vet Microbiol ; 235: 1-9, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282365

RESUMO

Oral immunization is a commonly employed route for inducing local immunity. However, the application of oral immunization is limited by the short-term persistence of immunity, particularly for inactivated viruses. The ultimate goal for mucosal vaccination is to stimulate protective immunological memory. In the intestine, long-term persistence of immunity is related to CD4+CD8+ memory T-cells. In this study, piglets were orally immunized with Bacillus subtilis spores (B.s) plus whole inactivated porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV WIV), followed by booster oral immunization. Initially, the results showed that B.s plus PEDV WIV enhanced the anti-PEDV capability on mucosal surfaces, as evidenced by plaque reduction neutralization tests in serum and intestinal fluid. Elevated antigen-specific IgG titers in the serum and IgA titers in saliva, feces and nasal washing liquid were also observed. Meanwhile, B.s plus PEDV WIV increased the area of Peyer's patches and the number of intraepithelial lymphocytes in the ileum of piglets. Similarly, the percentage of CD4+CD8+ memory T-cells were upregulated and proliferation ability of antigen-specific memory T-cell was strengthened in intestinal mucosal-associated lymphocytes, which was accompanied with increased expression of CCR9 after oral immunization with B.s plus PEDV WIV. In addition, the activation of memory T-cells is correlated with the increased mRNA expression of Toll-like receptor 2 and 4, as well as interleukin-6 and induced by B.s. Collectively, the study provided further insight into the potential immunopotentiator ability of B.s to assist PEDV WIV in the potentiation of immunity by upregulating memory CD4+CD8+ T cells via oral immunization.


Assuntos
Bacillus subtilis/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Memória Imunológica , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/imunologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Imunização/métodos , Imunização Secundária , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Esporos/imunologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/imunologia , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Regulação para Cima , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/imunologia
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 588, 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277590

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV controllers (HICs) are a rare group of HIV-1-infected individuals able to naturally control viral replication. Several studies have identified the occurrence of HIV dual infections in seropositive individuals leading to disease progression. In HICs, however, dual infections with divergent outcomes in pathogenesis have been described. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we present a case report of a HIC diagnosed in late 1999 who displayed stable CD4+ T cell levels and low plasmatic viral load across 12 years of follow-up. In early 2013, the patient started to present an increase in viral load, reaching a peak of 10,000 copies/ml in early 2014, followed by an oscillation of viremia at moderate levels in the following years. The genetic diversity of env proviral quasispecies from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was studied by single genome amplification (SGA) at six timepoints across 2009-2017. Phylogenetic analyses of env sequences from 2009 and 2010 samples showed the presence of a single subtype B variant (called B1). Analyses of sequences from 2011 and after revealed an additional subtype B variant (called B2) and a subsequent dominance shift in the proviral quasispecies frequencies, with the B2 variant becoming the most frequent from 2014 onwards. Latent syphilis related to unprotected sexual intercourse was diagnosed a year before the first detection of B2, evidencing risk behavior and supporting the superinfection hypothesis. Immunologic analyses revealed an increase in CD8+ and CD4+ T cell immune activation following viremia increase and minor T cell subset alterations during follow-up. HIV-specific T cell responses remained low throughout the follow-up period. CONCLUSIONS: Altogether, these results show that loss of viremia control in the HIC was associated with superinfection. These data alert to the negative consequences of reinfection on HIV pathogenesis, even in patients with a long history of viremia control and an absence of disease progression, reinforcing the need for continued use of adequate prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/fisiologia , Superinfecção/virologia , Replicação Viral/fisiologia , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/virologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/virologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , HIV-1/patogenicidade , Antígenos HLA-B/genética , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/virologia , Masculino , Filogenia , RNA Viral/sangue , Sífilis/diagnóstico , Carga Viral , Viremia/tratamento farmacológico , Viremia/virologia
11.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2387, 2019 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31160572

RESUMO

Senescent cells accumulate in human tissues during ageing and contribute to age-related pathologies. The mechanisms responsible for their accumulation are unclear. Here we show that senescent dermal fibroblasts express the non-classical MHC molecule HLA-E, which interacts with the inhibitory receptor NKG2A expressed by NK and highly differentiated CD8+ T cells to inhibit immune responses against senescent cells. HLA-E expression is induced by senescence-associated secretary phenotype-related pro-inflammatory cytokines, and is regulated by p38 MAP kinase signalling in vitro. Consistently, HLA-E expression is increased on senescent cells in human skin sections from old individuals, when compared with those from young, and in human melanocytic nevi relative to normal skin. Lastly, blocking the interaction between HLA-E and NKG2A boosts immune responses against senescent cells in vitro. We thus propose that increased HLA-E expression contributes to persistence of senescent cells in tissues, thereby suggesting a new strategy for eliminating senescent cells during ageing.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Senescência Celular/imunologia , Fibroblastos/imunologia , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Subfamília C de Receptores Semelhantes a Lectina de Células NK/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Envelhecimento/patologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Derme/citologia , Fibroblastos/patologia , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Nevo Pigmentado/congênito , Nevo Pigmentado/imunologia , Nevo Pigmentado/patologia , Fenótipo , RNA Interferente Pequeno , Transdução de Sinais , Pele/imunologia , Pele/patologia , Adulto Jovem , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/imunologia
12.
Nature ; 571(7764): 211-218, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207603

RESUMO

Exhausted CD8+ T (Tex) cells in chronic infections and cancer have limited effector function, high co-expression of inhibitory receptors and extensive transcriptional changes compared with effector (Teff) or memory (Tmem) CD8+ T cells. Tex cells are important clinical targets of checkpoint blockade and other immunotherapies. Epigenetically, Tex cells are a distinct immune subset, with a unique chromatin landscape compared with Teff and Tmem cells. However, the mechanisms that govern the transcriptional and epigenetic development of Tex cells remain unknown. Here we identify the HMG-box transcription factor TOX as a central regulator of Tex cells in mice. TOX is largely dispensable for the formation of Teff and Tmem cells, but it is critical for exhaustion: in the absence of TOX, Tex cells do not form. TOX is induced by calcineurin and NFAT2, and operates in a feed-forward loop in which it becomes calcineurin-independent and sustained in Tex cells. Robust expression of TOX therefore results in commitment to Tex cells by translating persistent stimulation into a distinct Tex cell transcriptional and epigenetic developmental program.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , Epistasia Genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética , Animais , Calcineurina/metabolismo , Sinalização do Cálcio , Retroalimentação Fisiológica , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Genótipo , Memória Imunológica , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fatores de Transcrição NFATC/metabolismo , Evasão Tumoral
13.
Nature ; 571(7764): 265-269, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207605

RESUMO

Cytotoxic T cells are essential mediators of protective immunity to viral infection and malignant tumours and are a key target of immunotherapy approaches. However, prolonged exposure to cognate antigens often attenuates the effector capacity of T cells and limits their therapeutic potential1-4. This process, known as T cell exhaustion or dysfunction1, is manifested by epigenetically enforced changes in gene regulation that reduce the expression of cytokines and effector molecules and upregulate the expression of inhibitory receptors such as programmed cell-death 1 (PD-1)5-8. The underlying molecular mechanisms that induce and stabilize the phenotypic and functional features of exhausted T cells remain poorly understood9-12. Here we report that the development and maintenance of populations of exhausted T cells in mice requires the thymocyte selection-associated high mobility group box (TOX) protein13-15. TOX is induced by high antigen stimulation of the T cell receptor and correlates with the presence of an exhausted phenotype during chronic infections with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus in mice and hepatitis C virus in humans. Removal of its DNA-binding domain reduces the expression of PD-1 at the mRNA and protein level, augments the production of cytokines and results in a more polyfunctional T cell phenotype. T cells with this deletion initially mediate increased effector function and cause more severe immunopathology, but ultimately undergo a massive decline in their quantity, notably among the subset of TCF-1+ self-renewing T cells. Altogether, we show that TOX is a critical factor for the normal progression of T cell dysfunction and the maintenance of exhausted T cells during chronic infection, and provide a link between the suppression of effector function intrinsic to CD8 T cells and protection against immunopathology.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , Hepatite C Crônica/imunologia , Hepatite C Crônica/virologia , Proteínas de Grupo de Alta Mobilidade/metabolismo , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Coriomeningite Linfocítica/imunologia , Coriomeningite Linfocítica/virologia , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Doença Crônica , Citocinas/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Hepacivirus/imunologia , Fator 1-alfa Nuclear de Hepatócito/metabolismo , Humanos , Memória Imunológica , Vírus da Coriomeningite Linfocítica/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Fenótipo , Timócitos/citologia , Timócitos/imunologia , Transcrição Genética
14.
Nature ; 571(7764): 270-274, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207604

RESUMO

Tumour-specific CD8 T cell dysfunction is a differentiation state that is distinct from the functional effector or memory T cell states1-6. Here we identify the nuclear factor TOX as a crucial regulator of the differentiation of tumour-specific T (TST) cells. We show that TOX is highly expressed in dysfunctional TST cells from tumours and in exhausted T cells during chronic viral infection. Expression of TOX is driven by chronic T cell receptor stimulation and NFAT activation. Ectopic expression of TOX in effector T cells in vitro induced a transcriptional program associated with T cell exhaustion. Conversely, deletion of Tox in TST cells in tumours abrogated the exhaustion program: Tox-deleted TST cells did not upregulate genes for inhibitory receptors (such as Pdcd1, Entpd1, Havcr2, Cd244 and Tigit), the chromatin of which remained largely inaccessible, and retained high expression of transcription factors such as TCF-1. Despite their normal, 'non-exhausted' immunophenotype, Tox-deleted TST cells remained dysfunctional, which suggests that the regulation of expression of inhibitory receptors is uncoupled from the loss of effector function. Notably, although Tox-deleted CD8 T cells differentiated normally to effector and memory states in response to acute infection, Tox-deleted TST cells failed to persist in tumours. We hypothesize that the TOX-induced exhaustion program serves to prevent the overstimulation of T cells and activation-induced cell death in settings of chronic antigen stimulation such as cancer.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Proteínas de Grupo de Alta Mobilidade/metabolismo , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Neoplasias/imunologia , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/citologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Grupo de Alta Mobilidade/deficiência , Proteínas de Grupo de Alta Mobilidade/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Humanos , Memória Imunológica , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/citologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/metabolismo , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/patologia , Camundongos , Neoplasias/patologia , Fenótipo , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Transcrição Genética
15.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2416, 2019 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186412

RESUMO

Cancer response to immunotherapy depends on the infiltration of CD8+ T cells and the presence of tumor-associated macrophages within tumors. Still, little is known about the determinants of these factors. We show that LIF assumes a crucial role in the regulation of CD8+ T cell tumor infiltration, while promoting the presence of protumoral tumor-associated macrophages. We observe that the blockade of LIF in tumors expressing high levels of LIF decreases CD206, CD163 and CCL2 and induces CXCL9 expression in tumor-associated macrophages. The blockade of LIF releases the epigenetic silencing of CXCL9 triggering CD8+ T cell tumor infiltration. The combination of LIF neutralizing antibodies with the inhibition of the PD1 immune checkpoint promotes tumor regression, immunological memory and an increase in overall survival.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Quimiocina CXCL9/metabolismo , Fator Inibidor de Leucemia/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/farmacologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Humanos , Memória Imunológica , Fator Inibidor de Leucemia/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator Inibidor de Leucemia/metabolismo , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos SCID , Transplante de Neoplasias , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
16.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 68(7): 1195-1209, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177329

RESUMO

The anti-tumor efficacy of TCR-engineered T cells in vivo depends largely on less-differentiated subsets such as T cells with naïve-like T cell (TN) phenotypes with greater expansion and long-term persistence. To increase these subsets, we compared the generation of New York esophageal squamous cell carcinoma-1 (NY-ESO-1)-specific T cells under supplementation with either IL-2 or IL-7/IL-15. PBMCs were transduced with MS3II-NY-ESO-1-siTCR retroviral vector. T cell generation was adapted from a CD19-specific CART cell production protocol. Comparable results in viability, expansion and transduction efficiency of T cells under stimulation with either IL-2 or IL-7/IL-15 were observed. IL-7/IL-15 led to an increase of CD4+ T cells and a decrease of CD8+ T cells, enriched the amount of TN among CD4+ T cells but not among CD8+ T cells. In a 51Cr release assay, similar specific lysis of NY-ESO-1-positive SW982 sarcoma cells was achieved. However, intracellular cytokine staining revealed a significantly increased production of IFN-γ and TNF-α in T cells generated by IL-2 stimulation. To validate these unexpected findings, NY-ESO-1-specific T cell production was evaluated in another protocol originally established for TCR-engineered T cells. IL-7/IL-15 increased the proportion of TN. However, the absolute number of TN did not increase due to a significantly slower expansion of T cells with IL-7/IL-15. In conclusion, IL-7/IL-15 does not seem to be superior to IL-2 for the generation of NY-ESO-1-specific T cells. This is in sharp contrast to the observations in CD19-specific CART cells. Changes of cytokine cocktails should be carefully evaluated for individual vector systems.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Engenharia Celular/métodos , Imunoterapia Adotiva/métodos , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Neoplasias/terapia , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/imunologia , Antígenos CD19/metabolismo , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/transplante , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/transplante , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Meios de Cultura , Humanos , Interleucina-15/imunologia , Interleucina-2/imunologia , Interleucina-7/imunologia , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/genética
17.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2450, 2019 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164648

RESUMO

Tumor-associated myeloid cells regulate tumor growth and metastasis, and their accumulation is a negative prognostic factor for breast cancer. Here we find calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase (CaMKK2) to be highly expressed within intratumoral myeloid cells in mouse models of breast cancer, and demonstrate that its inhibition within myeloid cells suppresses tumor growth by increasing intratumoral accumulation of effector CD8+ T cells and immune-stimulatory myeloid subsets. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) isolated from Camkk2-/- mice expressed higher levels of chemokines involved in the recruitment of effector T cells compared to WT. Similarly, in vitro generated Camkk2-/- macrophages recruit more T cells, and have a reduced capability to suppress T cell proliferation, compared to WT. Treatment with CaMKK2 inhibitors blocks tumor growth in a CD8+ T cell-dependent manner, and facilitates a favorable reprogramming of the immune cell microenvironment. These data, credential CaMKK2 as a myeloid-selective checkpoint, the inhibition of which may have utility in the immunotherapy of breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/imunologia , Quinase da Proteína Quinase Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina/imunologia , Carcinoma/imunologia , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais/imunologia , Células Mieloides/imunologia , Evasão Tumoral/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Quinase da Proteína Quinase Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinase da Proteína Quinase Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina/genética , Quinase da Proteína Quinase Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina/metabolismo , Carcinoma/genética , Carcinoma/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Quimiocinas/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Técnicas In Vitro , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais/genética , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Transgênicos , Células Mieloides/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/imunologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Evasão Tumoral/genética
18.
Cancer Sci ; 110(8): 2386-2395, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206934

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have revolutionized the treatment of cancer by providing new options in addition to existing therapies. However, peptide vaccination therapies still represent an attractive approach, because of the antigen specificity. We identified survivin 2B peptide (SVN-2B), a 9-mer antigenic peptide encoded by survivin, and an SVN-2B peptide vaccine-based phase II randomized clinical trial targeting unresectable and refractory pancreatic carcinoma was undertaken. The SVN-2B peptide vaccine did not have any statistically significant clinical benefits in that study. Therefore, we undertook an autopsy study to analyze the immune status of the pancreatic cancer lesions at the histological level. Autopsies were carried out in 13 patients who had died of pancreatic cancer, including 7 who had received SVN-2B peptide vaccination and 6 who had not, as negative controls. The expression of immune-related molecules was analyzed by immunohistochemical staining. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes were analyzed by tetramer staining and enzyme-linked immunospot assay. Histological analysis revealed dense infiltration of CD8+ T cells in some lesions in patients who had received the SVN-2B peptide vaccine. A high rate of programmed cell death ligand 1 expression in cancer cells was observed in these cases, indicating that CTLs were induced by SVN-2B peptide vaccination and had infiltrated the lesions. The lack of a significant antitumor effect was most likely attributable to the expression of immune checkpoint molecules. These findings suggest that the combination of a tumor-specific peptide vaccine and an ICI might be a promising approach to the treatment of pancreatic carcinoma in the future.


Assuntos
Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/imunologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/terapia , Peptídeos/imunologia , Survivina/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Autopsia/métodos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Vacinação/métodos
19.
Cancer Sci ; 110(8): 2348-2356, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222843

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) therapy has achieved remarkable clinical benefit in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but our understanding of biomarkers that predict the response to ICB remain obscure. Here we integrated somatic mutational profile and clinicopathologic information from 113 NSCLC patients treated by ICB (CTLA-4/PD-1). High tumor mutation burden (TMB) and neoantigen burden were identified significantly associated with improved efficacy in NSCLC immunotherapy. Furthermore, we identified apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like (APOBEC) mutational signature was markedly associated with responding of ICB therapy (log-rank test, P = .001; odds ratio (OR), 0.18 [95% CI, 0.06-0.50], P < .001). The association with progression-free survival remained statistically significant after controlling for age, sex, histological type, smoking, PD-L1 expression, hypermutation, smoking signature and mismatch repair (MMR) (HR, 0.30 [95% CI, 0.12-0.75], P = .010). Combined high TMB with APOBEC signature preferably predict immunotherapy responders in NSCLC cohort. The CIBERSORT algorithm revealed that high APOBEC mutational activity samples were associated with increased infiltration of CD4 memory activated T cells, CD8+ T cells and natural killer (NK) cells, but reduced infiltration of regulatory T cells. Besides, individual genes mutation of IFNGR1 or VTCN1 were only found in responders; however, the PTEN mutation was only found in non-responders (Fisher's exact test, all P < .05). These findings may be applicable for guiding immunotherapy for patients with NSCLC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/imunologia , Imunidade/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Mutação/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade/imunologia , Memória Imunológica/genética , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação/imunologia , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Carga Tumoral/genética , Carga Tumoral/imunologia
20.
Nat Immunol ; 20(7): 879-889, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182807

RESUMO

CD8+ T cells and natural killer (NK) cells are central cellular components of immune responses against pathogens and cancer, which rely on interleukin (IL)-15 for homeostasis. Here we show that IL-15 also mediates homeostatic priming of CD8+ T cells for antigen-stimulated activation, which is controlled by a deubiquitinase, Otub1. IL-15 mediates membrane recruitment of Otub1, which inhibits ubiquitin-dependent activation of AKT, a kinase that is pivotal for T cell activation and metabolism. Otub1 deficiency in mice causes aberrant responses of CD8+ T cells to IL-15, rendering naive CD8+ T cells hypersensitive to antigen stimulation characterized by enhanced metabolic reprograming and effector functions. Otub1 also controls the maturation and activation of NK cells. Deletion of Otub1 profoundly enhances anticancer immunity by unleashing the activity of CD8+ T cells and NK cells. These findings suggest that Otub1 controls the activation of CD8+ T cells and NK cells by functioning as a checkpoint of IL-15-mediated priming.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Cisteína Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Interleucina-15/metabolismo , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Ativação Linfocitária/genética , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Cisteína Endopeptidases/deficiência , Enzimas Desubiquitinantes/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Metabolismo Energético , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Interleucina-15/genética , Melanoma Experimental , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Ligação Proteica , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Receptores de Interleucina-15/metabolismo , Tolerância a Antígenos Próprios/genética , Tolerância a Antígenos Próprios/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais , Especificidade do Receptor de Antígeno de Linfócitos T , Ubiquitinação
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