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1.
Anticancer Res ; 39(11): 5911-5918, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704815

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Double-negative T (DNT) cells are phenotypically CD3+CD4-CD8-T cells. This study aimed to investigate the anti-cancer activity of DNT cells against pancreatic cancer cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: DNT cells were isolated from human peripheral blood. The effect of DNT cells on proliferation and invasion of the human pancreatic cell line Panc-1 was assessed. Expression of Nrf2 and Fas in Panc-1 cells co-cultured with DNT cells was analyzed with RT-PCR. The supernatants of Panc-1 and DNT co-cultures were analyzed with ELISA for IFN-r and FasL levels. RESULTS: The isolated DNT cell phenotype was CD4-CD8-CD56- CD3+TCR (T cell receptor) α/ß+ T cells with more than 90% purity. Panc-1 cell proliferation was significantly inhibited by co-culture with DNT cells. Panc-1 cells co-cultured with DNT cells showed significantly reduced cell invasion. Panc-1 cells co-cultured with DNT cells showed increased Nrf2 and Fas mRNA expression. Increased INF-r and FasL levels were detected in the supernatants of co-cultures of DNT and pancreatic cells. CONCLUSION: DNT cells inhibited proliferation and invasion of human pancreatic cancer cells. The INF-r, Fas/FasL pathway and Nrf2 may be involved in the anti-cancer effect of DNT cells against human pancreatic cancer.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Técnicas de Cocultura/métodos , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/prevenção & controle , Apoptose , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Proteína Ligante Fas/metabolismo , Humanos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/imunologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T alfa-beta/metabolismo , Receptores de Interferon/metabolismo , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Receptor fas/metabolismo
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(41): e17525, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593126

RESUMO

To assess the intra-individual and inter-individuals biological variation and the effect of aging on lymphocyte T-cells subsets.We assessed lymphocyte phenotypes (CD3, CD4, and CD8 T-cells) in 89 HIV-1-infected and 88 uninfected white non-Hispanic men every 6 months, to examine the biological variation for those measurements, and the average change in lymphocyte phenotype over 34 years.The markers showed significant intra-individuality in HIV-infected and uninfected individuals with index of individuality of <1.4. No mean changes were seen over the 34 years, with the exception of percentage CD4T-cells in HIV-uninfected individuals.In the pre-HAART era, HIV-infected individuals experienced an increase in mean absolute CD3 T-cell numbers (11.21 cells/µL, P = 0.02) and absolute CD8 T-cell numbers (34.57 cell/µl, P < .001), and in the percentage of CD8 T-cells (1.45%, P < .001) per year and a significant decrease in mean absolute CD4 T-cell numbers (23.68 cells/µl, P < .001) and in the percentage of CD4 T-cells (1.49%, P < .001) per year.In the post-HAART era, no changes in mean levels were observed in absolute CD3 T-cell count (P = .15) or percentage (P = .99). Significant decreases were seen in mean count (8.56 cells/µl, P < .001) and percentage (0.59%, P < .001) of CD8 T-cells, and increases in mean absolute count (10.72 cells/µl, P < .001) and percentage (0.47%, P < .001) of CD4 T-cells.With the exception of CD4 (%), no average changes per year were seen in lymphocyte phenotype of HIV-uninfected men. The results of coefficients of variation of intra and inter-individuals of this study can be useful for HIV-1 infection monitoring and in addition the observation could be a useful guide for intra- and inter-individual coefficient variations, and establishing quality goal studies of different blood biomarkers in healthy and other diseases.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/imunologia , Variação Biológica da População/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/etnologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/estatística & dados numéricos , Variação Biológica da População/etnologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Complexo CD3/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexo CD3/imunologia , Complexo CD3/metabolismo , Antígenos CD4/imunologia , Antígenos CD4/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Senescência Celular/imunologia , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/metabolismo , Humanos , Los Angeles/epidemiologia , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo
3.
Nature ; 574(7777): 200-205, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31582858

RESUMO

The responses of CD8+ T cells to hepatotropic viruses such as hepatitis B range from dysfunction to differentiation into effector cells, but the mechanisms that underlie these distinct outcomes remain poorly understood. Here we show that priming by Kupffer cells, which are not natural targets of hepatitis B, leads to differentiation of CD8+ T cells into effector cells that form dense, extravascular clusters of immotile cells scattered throughout the liver. By contrast, priming by hepatocytes, which are natural targets of hepatitis B, leads to local activation and proliferation of CD8+ T cells but not to differentiation into effector cells; these cells form loose, intravascular clusters of motile cells that coalesce around portal tracts. Transcriptomic and chromatin accessibility analyses reveal unique features of these dysfunctional CD8+ T cells, with limited overlap with those of exhausted or tolerant T cells; accordingly, CD8+ T cells primed by hepatocytes cannot be rescued by treatment with anti-PD-L1, but instead respond to IL-2. These findings suggest immunotherapeutic strategies against chronic hepatitis B infection.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Apresentação Cruzada/imunologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatócitos/imunologia , Hepatócitos/virologia , Animais , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/citologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Cromatina/metabolismo , Feminino , Hepatite B/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B/virologia , Humanos , Tolerância Imunológica , Interleucina-2/imunologia , Interleucina-2/uso terapêutico , Macrófagos do Fígado/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Masculino , Camundongos , Transcriptoma/genética
4.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 145(12): 3055-3065, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522278

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Combined immunotherapy with anti-programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) and an inhibitor of cluster of differentiation 47 (CD47) have exhibited preliminary anti-tumor effect. Our study attempted to describe the PD-L1/CD47 expression status in pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma (PSC), and explore its survival impact and relevance with cytotoxic T lymphocytes and macrophages infiltration. METHODS: 148 patients with PSC who underwent surgeries were retrospectively reviewed. Tissue microarrays were conducted for immunohistochemistry (IHC) of PD-L1, CD47, CD8 and CD68. RESULTS: 54 (36.5%) and 78 (52.7%) cases were positive for PD-L1 and CD47, respectively, and 36 (24.3%) of them demonstrated PD-L1/CD47 co-expression. There was a significant correlation between PD-L1 and CD47 expression (P = 0.011). The median overall survival (OS) was 22.5 months (range 0.9-102.4 months). The univariate analysis demonstrated a significantly worse OS in cases with CD47 expression (hazard ratio [HR], 1.66; 95% CI, 1.14-2.42, P = 0.008) and PD-L1/CD47 co-expression (HR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.15-2.67, P = 0.009). The multivariate analysis demonstrated PD-L1/CD47 co-expression (HR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.17-2.87, P = 0.008), T stage, M stage, completeness of resection and adjuvant therapy were independent prognostic factors for OS. There was a significant relevance between PD-L1 expression and PD-L1/CD47 co-expression with higher densities of CD8-positive T lymphocytes (P = 0.004, 0.012, respectively) and CD68-positive macrophages (P = 0.026, 0.034, respectively). CONCLUSION: We demonstrated the PD-L1/CD47 co-expression status in PSC. PD-L1 expression correlated with CD47 expression, and PD-L1/CD47 co-expression correlated with poorer prognosis and may serve as a predictive biomarker for combined dual-targeting immunotherapy in PSC patients.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Antígeno CD47/metabolismo , Carcinoma/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , Carcinoma/patologia , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/métodos , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/patologia
5.
Anticancer Res ; 39(9): 4737-4742, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519573

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: There are several unresolved issues regarding the combined treatment with an immune checkpoint inhibitor and anti-angiogenic agent for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients. The purpose of this study was to address the inhibitory effects of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression on growth and sensitivity to sunitinib in the mouse RCC RenCa model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We established RenCa/sh-PD-L1 by transfecting RenCa cells with a plasmid carrying a short hairpin RNA targeted against PD-L1. The growth pattern of RenCa/sh-PD-L1 with or without sunitinib was compared to that of RenCa cells transfected with control plasmid alone (RenCa/Co). RESULTS: No significant difference in growth or sensitivity to sinitinib was noted between RenCa/sh-PD-L1 and RenCa/Co cells in vitro. The tumor volume in mice subcutaneously injected with RenCa/sh-PD-L1 was significantly smaller than that with RenCa/Co. Treatment of mice bearing each tumor with sunitinib resulted in a significant reduction of the RenCa/sh-PD-L1 tumor compared to the RenCa/Co tumor. Moreover, infiltration by CD8+ T cells of RenCa/sh-PD-L1 tumors was significantly higher than that of RenCa/Co tumors, irrespective of treatment with sunitinib. CONCLUSION: Suppressed expression of PD-L1 could increase tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T cells and result in growth inhibition as well as enhanced sensitivity to sunitinib in the RenCa model.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Neoplasias Renais/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Sunitinibe/farmacologia , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Renais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Camundongos , Carga Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Mol Immunol ; 112: 387-393, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288148

RESUMO

Programmed cell death 4 (Pdcd4) was found to be related to apoptosis upon first discovery. It was later found to play the role of tumor suppressor gene in a variety of tumors by inhibiting transcription and translation. Recently, it has been proposed that it may play an important role in some inflammatory diseases and in the immune response. In our previous study, deficiency of Pdcd4 was found to attenuate the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. This might be because deficiency of Pdcd4 may increase IL-10 expression and lipoautophagy by macrophages and attenuate the formation of foam cells. However, the effect of Pdcd4 on the subsets of T cells in hyperlipidemic mice still remained unclear. In the present study, results showed that Pdcd4 deficiency decreased the percentage of CD8+ T cells and increased that of regulatory T cells (Tregs) under hyperlipidemic conditions both in vitro and in vivo, which may be due to the reduced expression of co-stimulatory molecules CD28 and CD137, and the enhancive expression of co-inhibitory molecules CTLA-4. These results indicated that endogenous Pdcd4 promotes immune response mediated by T cells through regulation of the co-stimulatory molecules expression, which may contribute to the development of advanced atherosclerotic plaques. The current work provides new data to understand the role of Pdcd4 in different T cell subsets under hyperlipidemic microenvironment.


Assuntos
Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/deficiência , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Hiperlipidemias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/fisiologia , Antígenos CD28/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Células Espumosas/metabolismo , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Placa Aterosclerótica/metabolismo , Membro 9 da Superfamília de Receptores de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/metabolismo
7.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3000, 2019 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278254

RESUMO

Tumor-driven immune suppression is a major barrier to successful immunotherapy in ovarian carcinomas (OvCa). Among various mechanisms responsible for immune suppression, arginase-1 (ARG1)-carrying small extracellular vesicles (EVs) emerge as important contributors to tumor growth and tumor escape from the host immune system. Here, we report that small EVs found in the ascites and plasma of OvCa patients contain ARG1. EVs suppress proliferation of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells in vitro and in vivo in OvCa mouse models. In mice, ARG1-containing EVs are transported to draining lymph nodes, taken up by dendritic cells and inhibit antigen-specific T-cell proliferation. Increased expression of ARG1 in mouse OvCa cells is associated with accelerated tumor progression that can be blocked by an arginase inhibitor. Altogether, our studies show that tumor cells use EVs as vehicles to carry over long distances and deliver to immune cells a metabolic checkpoint molecule - ARG1, mitigating anti-tumor immune responses.


Assuntos
Arginase/metabolismo , Vesículas Extracelulares/imunologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/imunologia , Evasão Tumoral/imunologia , Animais , Arginase/antagonistas & inibidores , Arginase/imunologia , Ascite/imunologia , Ascite/patologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Comunicação Celular/imunologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/transplante , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos de Coortes , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/sangue , Neoplasias Ovarianas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia
8.
Cancer Sci ; 110(10): 3027-3037, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348591

RESUMO

We previously established a method to generate myeloid cells with a proliferative capability from pluripotent stem cells and designated them iPS-ML. Human iPS-ML cells share features with physiological macrophages including the capability to infiltrate into cancer tissues. We observed therapeutic effects of human iPS-ML cells expressing interferon ß (iPS-ML/interferon (IFN)-ß) in xenograft cancer models. However, assessment of host immune system-mediated therapeutic and adverse effects of this therapy is impossible by xenograft models. We currently evaluated the therapeutic effects of a mouse equivalent of human iPS-ML/IFN, a mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived myeloid cell line producing IFN (ES-ML/IFN). The ES-MLs producing IFN-ß (ß-ML) and IFN-γ (γ-ML) and originating from E14 ES cells derived from the 129 mouse strain (H-2b ) were generated, and the MHC (H-2Kb , Db , and I-Ab ) genes of the ES-ML/IFN were disrupted using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CAS9 method. We used the ES-ML/IFN to treat allogeneic BALB/c mice (H-2d ) transplanted with Colon26 cancer cells. Treatment with ß-ML but not with γ-ML cells repressed the growth of colon cancer in the peritoneal cavity and liver. The transferred ES-ML/IFN infiltrated into cancer tissues and enhanced infiltration of T cells into cancer tissues. ES-ML/IFN therapy increased the number of immune cells in the lymphoid organs. Sensitization of both cancer antigen-specific CD8+ T cells and natural killer (NK) cells were enhanced by the therapy, and CD8+ T cells were essential for the therapeutic effect, implying that donor MHC-deficient ß-ML exhibited a therapeutic effect through the activation of host immune cells derived from allogeneic recipient mice. The results suggested the usefulness of HLA-deficient human iPS-ML/IFN-ß cells for therapy of HLA-mismatched allogeneic cancer patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/terapia , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/citologia , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade/genética , Interferon beta/metabolismo , Células Mieloides/transplante , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias do Colo/imunologia , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Células Mieloides/citologia , Células Mieloides/metabolismo , Transplante Homólogo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
9.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2416, 2019 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186412

RESUMO

Cancer response to immunotherapy depends on the infiltration of CD8+ T cells and the presence of tumor-associated macrophages within tumors. Still, little is known about the determinants of these factors. We show that LIF assumes a crucial role in the regulation of CD8+ T cell tumor infiltration, while promoting the presence of protumoral tumor-associated macrophages. We observe that the blockade of LIF in tumors expressing high levels of LIF decreases CD206, CD163 and CCL2 and induces CXCL9 expression in tumor-associated macrophages. The blockade of LIF releases the epigenetic silencing of CXCL9 triggering CD8+ T cell tumor infiltration. The combination of LIF neutralizing antibodies with the inhibition of the PD1 immune checkpoint promotes tumor regression, immunological memory and an increase in overall survival.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Quimiocina CXCL9/metabolismo , Fator Inibidor de Leucemia/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/farmacologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Humanos , Memória Imunológica , Fator Inibidor de Leucemia/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator Inibidor de Leucemia/metabolismo , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos SCID , Transplante de Neoplasias , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
10.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 68(7): 1195-1209, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177329

RESUMO

The anti-tumor efficacy of TCR-engineered T cells in vivo depends largely on less-differentiated subsets such as T cells with naïve-like T cell (TN) phenotypes with greater expansion and long-term persistence. To increase these subsets, we compared the generation of New York esophageal squamous cell carcinoma-1 (NY-ESO-1)-specific T cells under supplementation with either IL-2 or IL-7/IL-15. PBMCs were transduced with MS3II-NY-ESO-1-siTCR retroviral vector. T cell generation was adapted from a CD19-specific CART cell production protocol. Comparable results in viability, expansion and transduction efficiency of T cells under stimulation with either IL-2 or IL-7/IL-15 were observed. IL-7/IL-15 led to an increase of CD4+ T cells and a decrease of CD8+ T cells, enriched the amount of TN among CD4+ T cells but not among CD8+ T cells. In a 51Cr release assay, similar specific lysis of NY-ESO-1-positive SW982 sarcoma cells was achieved. However, intracellular cytokine staining revealed a significantly increased production of IFN-γ and TNF-α in T cells generated by IL-2 stimulation. To validate these unexpected findings, NY-ESO-1-specific T cell production was evaluated in another protocol originally established for TCR-engineered T cells. IL-7/IL-15 increased the proportion of TN. However, the absolute number of TN did not increase due to a significantly slower expansion of T cells with IL-7/IL-15. In conclusion, IL-7/IL-15 does not seem to be superior to IL-2 for the generation of NY-ESO-1-specific T cells. This is in sharp contrast to the observations in CD19-specific CART cells. Changes of cytokine cocktails should be carefully evaluated for individual vector systems.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Engenharia Celular/métodos , Imunoterapia Adotiva/métodos , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Neoplasias/terapia , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/imunologia , Antígenos CD19/metabolismo , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/transplante , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/transplante , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Meios de Cultura , Humanos , Interleucina-15/imunologia , Interleucina-2/imunologia , Interleucina-7/imunologia , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/genética
11.
Nat Immunol ; 20(7): 879-889, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182807

RESUMO

CD8+ T cells and natural killer (NK) cells are central cellular components of immune responses against pathogens and cancer, which rely on interleukin (IL)-15 for homeostasis. Here we show that IL-15 also mediates homeostatic priming of CD8+ T cells for antigen-stimulated activation, which is controlled by a deubiquitinase, Otub1. IL-15 mediates membrane recruitment of Otub1, which inhibits ubiquitin-dependent activation of AKT, a kinase that is pivotal for T cell activation and metabolism. Otub1 deficiency in mice causes aberrant responses of CD8+ T cells to IL-15, rendering naive CD8+ T cells hypersensitive to antigen stimulation characterized by enhanced metabolic reprograming and effector functions. Otub1 also controls the maturation and activation of NK cells. Deletion of Otub1 profoundly enhances anticancer immunity by unleashing the activity of CD8+ T cells and NK cells. These findings suggest that Otub1 controls the activation of CD8+ T cells and NK cells by functioning as a checkpoint of IL-15-mediated priming.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Cisteína Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Interleucina-15/metabolismo , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Ativação Linfocitária/genética , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Cisteína Endopeptidases/deficiência , Enzimas Desubiquitinantes/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Metabolismo Energético , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Interleucina-15/genética , Melanoma Experimental , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Ligação Proteica , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Receptores de Interleucina-15/metabolismo , Tolerância a Antígenos Próprios/genética , Tolerância a Antígenos Próprios/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais , Especificidade do Receptor de Antígeno de Linfócitos T , Ubiquitinação
12.
PLoS Genet ; 15(6): e1008178, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199784

RESUMO

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic multi-factorial disorder characterized by the immune-mediated destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells. Variations at a large number of genes influence susceptibility to spontaneous autoimmune T1D in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, one of the most frequently studied animal models for human disease. The genetic analysis of these mice allowed the identification of many insulin-dependent diabetes (Idd) loci and candidate genes, one of them being Cd101. CD101 is a heavily glycosylated transmembrane molecule which exhibits negative-costimulatory functions and promotes regulatory T (Treg) function. It is abundantly expressed on subsets of lymphoid and myeloid cells, particularly within the gastrointestinal tract. We have recently reported that the genotype-dependent expression of CD101 correlates with a decreased susceptibility to T1D in NOD.B6 Idd10 congenic mice compared to parental NOD controls. Here we show that the knockout of CD101 within the introgressed B6-derived Idd10 region increased T1D frequency to that of the NOD strain. This loss of protection from T1D was paralleled by decreased Gr1-expressing myeloid cells and FoxP3+ Tregs and an enhanced accumulation of CD4-positive over CD8-positive T lymphocytes in pancreatic tissues. As compared to CD101+/+ NOD.B6 Idd10 donors, adoptive T cell transfers from CD101-/- NOD.B6 Idd10 mice increased T1D frequency in lymphopenic NOD scid and NOD.B6 Idd10 scid recipients. Increased T1D frequency correlated with a more rapid expansion of the transferred CD101-/- T cells and a lower proportion of recipient Gr1-expressing myeloid cells in the pancreatic lymph nodes. Fewer of the Gr1+ cells in the recipients receiving CD101-/- T cells expressed CD101 and the cells had lower levels of IL-10 and TGF-ß mRNA. Thus, our results connect the Cd101 haplotype-dependent protection from T1D to an anti-diabetogenic function of CD101-expressing Tregs and Gr1-positive myeloid cells and confirm the identity of Cd101 as Idd10.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD/genética , Antígenos Ly/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Pâncreas/metabolismo , Animais , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Haplótipos/genética , Humanos , Linfonodos/metabolismo , Linfonodos/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos Knockout , Células Mieloides/imunologia , Células Mieloides/metabolismo , Pâncreas/patologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo
13.
Nat Immunol ; 20(7): 890-901, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209400

RESUMO

Progenitor-like CD8+ T cells mediate long-term immunity to chronic infection and cancer and respond potently to immune checkpoint blockade. These cells share transcriptional regulators with memory precursor cells, including T cell-specific transcription factor 1 (TCF1), but it is unclear whether they adopt distinct programs to adapt to the immunosuppressive environment. By comparing the single-cell transcriptomes and epigenetic profiles of CD8+ T cells responding to acute and chronic viral infections, we found that progenitor-like CD8+ T cells became distinct from memory precursor cells before the peak of the T cell response. We discovered a coexpression gene module containing Tox that exhibited higher transcriptional activity associated with more abundant active histone marks in progenitor-like cells than memory precursor cells. Moreover, thymocyte selection-associated high mobility group box protein TOX (TOX) promoted the persistence of antiviral CD8+ T cells and was required for the programming of progenitor-like CD8+ T cells. Thus, long-term CD8+ T cell immunity to chronic viral infection requires unique transcriptional and epigenetic programs associated with the transcription factor TOX.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Infecção/etiologia , Análise de Célula Única , Animais , Biomarcadores , Imunoprecipitação da Cromatina , Epigênese Genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Memória Imunológica , Infecção/metabolismo , Coriomeningite Linfocítica/imunologia , Coriomeningite Linfocítica/virologia , Vírus da Coriomeningite Linfocítica/imunologia , Camundongos , Fatores de Tempo , Transcriptoma
14.
Nature ; 571(7764): 270-274, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207604

RESUMO

Tumour-specific CD8 T cell dysfunction is a differentiation state that is distinct from the functional effector or memory T cell states1-6. Here we identify the nuclear factor TOX as a crucial regulator of the differentiation of tumour-specific T (TST) cells. We show that TOX is highly expressed in dysfunctional TST cells from tumours and in exhausted T cells during chronic viral infection. Expression of TOX is driven by chronic T cell receptor stimulation and NFAT activation. Ectopic expression of TOX in effector T cells in vitro induced a transcriptional program associated with T cell exhaustion. Conversely, deletion of Tox in TST cells in tumours abrogated the exhaustion program: Tox-deleted TST cells did not upregulate genes for inhibitory receptors (such as Pdcd1, Entpd1, Havcr2, Cd244 and Tigit), the chromatin of which remained largely inaccessible, and retained high expression of transcription factors such as TCF-1. Despite their normal, 'non-exhausted' immunophenotype, Tox-deleted TST cells remained dysfunctional, which suggests that the regulation of expression of inhibitory receptors is uncoupled from the loss of effector function. Notably, although Tox-deleted CD8 T cells differentiated normally to effector and memory states in response to acute infection, Tox-deleted TST cells failed to persist in tumours. We hypothesize that the TOX-induced exhaustion program serves to prevent the overstimulation of T cells and activation-induced cell death in settings of chronic antigen stimulation such as cancer.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Proteínas de Grupo de Alta Mobilidade/metabolismo , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Neoplasias/imunologia , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/citologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Grupo de Alta Mobilidade/deficiência , Proteínas de Grupo de Alta Mobilidade/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Humanos , Memória Imunológica , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/citologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/metabolismo , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/patologia , Camundongos , Neoplasias/patologia , Fenótipo , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Transcrição Genética
15.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2019: 8492090, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31073275

RESUMO

The aim of this investigation was to assess expression of programmed death-1 (PD-1) and inflammatory status after hip fracture surgery in aged mice and to evaluate the effect of anti-PD-1 antibody intervention. Male C57BL/6 mice aged 22-28 months underwent hip fracture and femoral intramedullary pinning or a sham procedure. Expression of PD-1 was measured on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Additionally, the effects of anti-PD-1 antibody on lymphocyte apoptosis, cytokine production, bacterial clearance, and survival were determined. Expression of PD-1 on T cells was upregulated in mice after hip fracture and surgery compared to sham controls. Administration of anti-PD-1 antibody prevented T lymphocyte apoptosis, increased IFN-γ production in splenocytes, and decreased systemic inflammation. Antibody blockade of PD-1 significantly decreased susceptibility to bacteria and improved survival rates of aged mice after hip fracture and surgery followed by the induction of Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia. This study showed that hip fracture and surgical trauma cause significant increases in PD-1 expression in aged mice. Antibody blockade of PD-1 partially reverses T cell apoptosis, decreases the systemic inflammatory response and susceptibility to bacteria, and reduces mortality.


Assuntos
Anticorpos/uso terapêutico , Fraturas do Quadril/cirurgia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/imunologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos/imunologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Citocinas/isolamento & purificação , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Interferon gama , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
16.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 3495-3502, 2019 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31077581

RESUMO

BACKGROUND The use of adoptive T cell therapy has proven to be effective in some advanced malignancies. This study aimed to investigate the effects of lymphocyte-activation gene 3 (LAG-3) immune checkpoint receptor in the enrichment of tumor antigen-specific CD8⁺ T lymphocytes derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in patients with colorectal cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS Peripheral blood samples were obtained from 20 patients with colorectal cancer and apheresis was performed with enrichment and cell sorting to obtain CD8⁺LAG-3⁺ T cells, which were expanded using high-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2). T cell subsets were detected using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), and T cell receptor (TCR) sequencing was used to determine specific clone types. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot) and cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assays were used to measure cell avidity and cytotoxicity. RESULTS The cultured cells increased in number over time and had the greatest proliferative activity at 15 days, at which time the percentage of CD3⁺, CD3⁺CD8⁺, and CD8⁺CD28⁺ reached maximal levels. High purity CD8⁺LAG-3⁺ T cells were isolated by FACS and at 15 days. TCR sequencing showed that CD8⁺LAG-3⁺ T cells were oligoclonal, ELISpot identified increased production of tumor-specific IFN-γ, and the CCK-8 assay showed increased cytotoxicity when compared with pre-cultured CD8⁺LAG-3⁻ T cells. CONCLUSIONS In patients with colorectal cancer, CD8⁺LAG-3⁺ T cells showed more specific anti-tumor activity following cell culture in vitro, which supported the potential role for the LAG-3 immune checkpoint receptor in enriching tumor-specific T cells in patients with cancer.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD/genética , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Antígenos de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Antígenos CD28/imunologia , Complexo CD3/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , China , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T , Receptores Imunológicos/metabolismo
17.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 68(7): 1095-1106, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31104075

RESUMO

Checkpoint blockade immunotherapy is now a first-line treatment option for patients with melanoma. Despite achieving objective responses in about half of patients, the exact immune mechanisms elicited and those required for therapeutic success have not been clearly identified. Insight into these mechanisms is key for improving outcomes in a broader range of cancer patients. We used a murine melanoma model to track responses by different subsets of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) during checkpoint blockade immunotherapy. Tumors from treated mice had increased frequencies of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, which also showed evidence of functional reinvigoration and elevated effector cytokine production after immunotherapy. We predicted that increased T cell numbers and function within tumors reflected either infiltration by new T cells or clonal expansion by a few high-affinity tumor-reactive T cells. To address this, we compared TIL diversity before and after immunotherapy by sequencing the complementarity determining region 3 (CDR3) of all T cell receptor beta (TCRß) genes. While checkpoint blockade effectively slowed tumor progression and increased T cell frequencies, the diversity of intratumoral T cells remained stable. This was true when analyzing total T cells and when focusing on smaller subsets of effector CD4+ and CD8+ TIL as well as regulatory T cells. Our study suggests that checkpoint blockade immunotherapy does not broaden the T cell repertoire within murine melanoma tumors, but rather expands existing T cell populations and enhances effector capabilities.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Melanoma Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T alfa-beta/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Antígeno CTLA-4/antagonistas & inibidores , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Regiões Determinantes de Complementaridade/genética , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/metabolismo , Melanoma Experimental/imunologia , Melanoma Experimental/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T alfa-beta/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/imunologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
18.
Nat Immunol ; 20(6): 756-764, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31110315

RESUMO

Emerging data show that tissue-resident memory T (TRM) cells play an important protective role at murine and human barrier sites. TRM cells in the epidermis of mouse skin patrol their surroundings and rapidly respond when antigens are encountered. However, whether a similar migratory behavior is performed by human TRM cells is unclear, as technology to longitudinally follow them in situ has been lacking. To address this issue, we developed an ex vivo culture system to label and track T cells in fresh skin samples. We validated this system by comparing in vivo and ex vivo properties of murine TRM cells. Using nanobody labeling, we subsequently demonstrated in human ex vivo skin that CD8+ TRM cells migrated through the papillary dermis and the epidermis, below sessile Langerhans cells. Collectively, this work allows the dynamic study of resident immune cells in human skin and provides evidence of tissue patrol by human CD8+ TRM cells.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Memória Imunológica , Pele/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos/imunologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/imunologia , Epiderme/imunologia , Epiderme/metabolismo , Imunofluorescência , Humanos , Camundongos , Especificidade de Órgãos/imunologia , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/imunologia , Pele/metabolismo , Vacinas de DNA/genética , Vacinas de DNA/imunologia
19.
Immunity ; 50(6): 1498-1512.e5, 2019 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31097342

RESUMO

Despite compelling rates of durable clinical responses to programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) blockade, advances are needed to extend these benefits to resistant tumors. We found that tumor-bearing mice deficient in the chemokine receptor CXCR3 responded poorly to anti-PD-1 treatment. CXCR3 and its ligand CXCL9 were critical for a productive CD8+ T cell response in tumor-bearing mice treated with anti-PD-1 but were not required for the infiltration of CD8+ T cells into tumors. The anti-PD-1-induced anti-tumor response was facilitated by CXCL9 production from intratumoral CD103+ dendritic cells, suggesting that CXCR3 facilitates dendritic cell-T cell interactions within the tumor microenvironment. CXCR3 ligands in murine tumors and in plasma of melanoma patients were an indicator of clinical response to anti-PD-1, and their induction in non-responsive murine tumors promoted responsiveness to anti-PD-1. Our data suggest that the CXCR3 chemokine system is a biomarker for sensitivity to PD-1 blockade and that augmenting the intratumoral function of this chemokine system could improve clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Imunomodulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Receptores CXCR3/metabolismo , Animais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Epigênese Genética , Humanos , Ativação Linfocitária , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/patologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
20.
PLoS Pathog ; 15(5): e1007748, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145756

RESUMO

Epstein Barr virus (EBV) is one of the most ubiquitous human pathogens in the world, persistently infecting more than 90% of the adult human population. It drives some of the strongest human CD8+ T cell responses, which can be observed during symptomatic primary infection known as infectious mononucleosis (IM). Despite high viral loads and prolonged CD8+ T cell stimulation during IM, EBV enters latency and is under lifelong immune control in most individuals that experience this disease. We investigated whether changes in T cell function, as frequently characterized by PD-1 up-regulation, occur during IM due to the prolonged exposure to high antigen levels. We readily detected the expansion of PD-1 positive CD8+ T cells together with high frequencies of Tim-3, 2B4, and KLRG1 expression during IM and in mice with reconstituted human immune system components (huNSG mice) that had been infected with a high dose of EBV. These PD-1 positive CD8+ T cells, however, retained proliferation, cytokine production, and cytotoxic abilities. Multiple subsets of CD8+ T cells expanded during EBV infection, including PD-1+Tim-3+KLRG1+ cells that express CXCR5 and TCF-1 germinal center homing and memory markers, and may also contain BATF3. Moreover, blocking the PD-1 axis compromised EBV specific immune control and resulted in virus-associated lymphomagenesis. Finally, PD-1+, Tim-3+, and KLRG1+ CD8+ T cell expansion coincided with declining viral loads during low dose EBV infection. These findings suggest that EBV infection primes PD-1 positive CD8+ T cell populations that rely on this receptor axis for the efficient immune control of this ubiquitous human tumor virus.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/imunologia , Herpesvirus Humano 4/imunologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Carga Viral/imunologia , Adulto , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/virologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Citocinas/metabolismo , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/metabolismo , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/virologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID
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