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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(45): e22859, 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33157928

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This article will evaluate the effects of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) combined with chemotherapy on the immune function and quality of life of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and evaluate the published side effects. METHODS: The systematic review and meta-analysis will be conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis guidelines. The databases we will search include: PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, China Biomedicine, Wan fang Data, and Technology Periodical Database. The search date is from inception to June 30, 2020. There are no restrictions on the document language. The literatures included in this study are randomized controlled trials. The main results include ratio of CD3, CD4, CD8, CD4/CD8, NK cells, the level of IgA, IgG, IgM, and Karnofsky performance status score. The secondary result is to evaluate various side effects during treatment. We will use the Cochrane Collaboration tool to evaluate each study and use Review Manager software (RevMan, version 5.3) to merge and analyze the data. The 2 researchers will independently cross-screen the literature, extract data, and evaluate the quality. If there are differences, we will resolve them through discussion or consultation with a third reviewer. RESULTS: The results of this study will provide high-quality evidence for the effect of TCM combined with chemotherapy on the immune function and quality of life of patients with NSCLC. CONCLUSION: This article will comprehensively evaluate the effects of TCM combined with chemotherapy on the immune function and quality of life of patients with NSCLC, and provide evidence-based evidence for clinical practice. ETHICS: Since the data used in this study is based on previous trials and does not involve patient privacy, ethical approval is not required. STUDY REGISTRATION NUMBER: INPLASY202070071.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/terapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Qualidade de Vida , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Complexo CD3/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/sangue , Humanos , Isotipos de Imunoglobulinas/sangue , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Metanálise como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
2.
Tumour Biol ; 42(11): 1010428320971404, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33169632

RESUMO

Ovarian cancer is the most lethal of gynecological cancers with 5-year survival rate of ca. 45%. The most common histologic subtype is high-grade serous carcinoma, which typically is presented with advanced stage and development of chemoresistance. Therefore, new treatment options, including immunotherapies, are needed. Understanding the features of the immune cell populations in the tumor microenvironment is essential for developing personalized treatments and finding predictive biomarkers. Digital image analysis may enhance the accuracy and reliability of immune cell infiltration assessment in the tumor microenvironment. The aim of this study was to characterize tumor microenvironment in a retrospective cohort of high-grade serous carcinoma samples with whole-slide imaging and digital image analysis. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded high-grade serous carcinoma tumor tissue samples (n = 67) were analyzed for six immunohistochemical stainings: CD4, CD8, FoxP3, granzyme B, CD68, and CD163. The stained sample slides were scanned into a digital format and assessed using QuPath 0.1.2 and ImageJ software. Staining patterns were associated with clinicopathological data. The higher numbers of intraepithelial CD8+, CD163+, and granzyme B+ immune cells were associated with survival benefit when analyzed individually, while high levels of both CD8+ and granzyme B+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes were an independent prognostic factor in the Cox multivariate regression analysis (median progression-free survival; hazard ratio = 0.287, p = 0.002). Specimens taken after administration of neoadjuvant chemotherapy presented with lower FoxP3+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte density (Fisher's exact test, p = 0.013). However, none of the studied immunomarkers was associated with overall survival or clinical factors. Tumors having high amount of both intraepithelial CD8+ and granzyme B+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes showed better progression-free survival, possibly reflecting an activated immune state in the tumor microenvironment. The combined positivity of CD8 and granzyme B warrants further investigation with respect to predicting response to immune therapy. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy may have an effect on the tumor microenvironment and therefore on the response to immuno-oncologic or chemotherapy treatments.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD8/sangue , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/sangue , Granzimas/sangue , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Antígenos CD/sangue , Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica/sangue , Antígenos CD4/sangue , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/sangue , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptores de Superfície Celular/sangue , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5225, 2020 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067434

RESUMO

Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) have a lower risk of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, progression from infection to tuberculosis (TB) disease, TB morality and TB recurrence, when being treated with metformin. However, a detailed mechanistic understanding of these protective effects is lacking. Here, we use mass cytometry to show that metformin treatment expands a population of memory-like antigen-inexperienced CD8+CXCR3+ T cells in naive mice, and in healthy individuals and patients with T2D. Metformin-educated CD8+ T cells have increased (i) mitochondrial mass, oxidative phosphorylation, and fatty acid oxidation; (ii) survival capacity; and (iii) anti-mycobacterial properties. CD8+ T cells from Cxcr3-/- mice do not exhibit this metformin-mediated metabolic programming. In BCG-vaccinated mice and guinea pigs, metformin enhances immunogenicity and protective efficacy against M. tuberculosis challenge. Collectively, these results demonstrate an important function of CD8+ T cells in metformin-derived host metabolic-fitness towards M. tuberculosis infection.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Metformina/administração & dosagem , Animais , Vacina BCG/administração & dosagem , Vacina BCG/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/imunologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Feminino , Cobaias , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/imunologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/fisiologia , Tuberculose/etiologia , Tuberculose/imunologia , Tuberculose/microbiologia , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle
4.
Scand J Immunol ; 92(5): e12978, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969499

RESUMO

MHC class I molecules on the cellular surface display peptides that either derive from endogenous proteins (self or viral), or from endocytosis of molecules, dying cells or pathogens. The conventional antigen-processing pathway for MHC class I presentation depends on proteasome-mediated degradation of the protein followed by transporter associated with antigen-processing (TAP)-mediated transport of the generated peptides into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Here, peptides are loaded onto MHC I molecules before transportation to the cell surface. However, several alternative mechanisms have emerged. These include TAP-independent mechanisms, the vacuolar pathway and involvement of autophagy. Autophagy is a cell intrinsic recycling system. It also functions as a defence mechanism that removes pathogens and damaged endocytic compartments from the cytosol. Therefore, it appears likely that autophagy would intersect with the MHC class I presentation pathway to alarm CD8+ T cells of an ongoing intracellular infection. However, the importance of autophagy as a source of antigen for presentation on MHC I molecules remains to be defined. Here, original research papers which suggest involvement of autophagy in MHC I antigen presentation are reviewed. The antigens are from herpesvirus, cytomegalovirus and chlamydia. The studies point towards autophagy as important in MHC class I presentation of endogenous proteins during conditions of immune evasion. Because autophagy is a regulated process which is induced upon activation of, for example, pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), it will be crucial to use relevant stimulatory conditions together with primary cells when aiming to confirm the importance of autophagy in MHC class I antigen presentation in future studies.


Assuntos
Apresentação do Antígeno/imunologia , Antígenos/imunologia , Autofagia/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Retículo Endoplasmático/imunologia , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/metabolismo , Humanos , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/imunologia , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Transporte Proteico/imunologia
5.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0236921, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986722

RESUMO

The receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) is expressed in T cells after activation with antigen and is constitutively expressed in T cells from patients at-risk for and with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). RAGE expression was associated with an activated T cell phenotype, leading us to examine whether RAGE is involved in T cell signaling. In primary CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from patients with T1D or healthy control subjects, RAGE- cells showed reduced phosphorylation of Erk. To study T cell receptor signaling in RAGE+ or-T cells, we compared signaling in RAGE+/+ Jurkat cells, Jurkat cells with RAGE eliminated by CRISPR/Cas9, or silenced with siRNA. In RAGE KO Jurkat cells, there was reduced phosphorylation of Zap70, Erk and MEK, but not Lck or CD3ξ. RAGE KO cells produced less IL-2 when activated with anti-CD3 +/- anti-CD28. Stimulation with PMA restored signaling and (with ionomycin) IL-2 production. Silencing RAGE with siRNA also decreased signaling. Our studies show that RAGE expression in human T cells is associated with an activated signaling cascade. These findings suggest a link between inflammatory products that are found in patients with diabetes, other autoimmune diseases, and inflammation that may enhance T cell reactivity.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/metabolismo , Receptor para Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Adolescente , Adulto , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/patologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , Criança , Feminino , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Células Jurkat , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
6.
Nature ; 585(7824): 277-282, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879489

RESUMO

Abnormal epigenetic patterns correlate with effector T cell malfunction in tumours1-4, but the cause of this link is unknown. Here we show that tumour cells disrupt methionine metabolism in CD8+ T cells, thereby lowering intracellular levels of methionine and the methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and resulting in loss of dimethylation at lysine 79 of histone H3 (H3K79me2). Loss of H3K79me2 led to low expression of STAT5 and impaired T cell immunity. Mechanistically, tumour cells avidly consumed methionine and outcompeted T cells for methionine by expressing high levels of the methionine transporter SLC43A2. Genetic and biochemical inhibition of tumour SLC43A2 restored H3K79me2 in T cells, thereby boosting spontaneous and checkpoint-induced tumour immunity. Moreover, methionine supplementation improved the expression of H3K79me2 and STAT5 in T cells, and this was accompanied by increased T cell immunity in tumour-bearing mice and patients with colon cancer. Clinically, tumour SLC43A2 correlated negatively with T cell histone methylation and functional gene signatures. Our results identify a mechanistic connection between methionine metabolism, histone patterns, and T cell immunity in the tumour microenvironment. Thus, cancer methionine consumption is an immune evasion mechanism, and targeting cancer methionine signalling may provide an immunotherapeutic approach.


Assuntos
Sistema L de Transporte de Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Histonas/metabolismo , Metionina/metabolismo , Metilação , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Sistema L de Transporte de Aminoácidos/deficiência , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/citologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Histonas/química , Humanos , Camundongos , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT5/metabolismo
7.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(9): e1008870, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991634

RESUMO

The two T-box transcription factors T-bet and Eomesodermin (Eomes) are important regulators of cytotoxic lymphocytes (CTLs), such as activated CD8 T cells, which are essential in the fight against intracellular pathogens and tumors. Both transcription factors share a great degree of homology based on sequence analysis and as a result exert partial functional redundancy during viral infection. However, the actual degree of redundancy between T-bet and Eomes remains a matter of debate and is further confounded by their distinct spatiotemporal expression pattern in activated CD8 T cells. To directly investigate the functional overlap of these transcription factors, we generated a new mouse model in which Eomes expression is under the transcriptional control of the endogenous Tbx21 (encoding for T-bet) locus. Applying this model, we demonstrate that the induction of Eomes in lieu of T-bet cannot rescue T-bet deficiency in CD8 T cells during acute lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection. We found that the expression of Eomes instead of T-bet was not sufficient for early cell expansion or effector cell differentiation. Finally, we show that imposed expression of Eomes after acute viral infection promotes some features of exhaustion but must act in concert with other factors during chronic viral infection to establish all hallmarks of exhaustion. In summary, our results clearly underline the importance of T-bet in guiding canonical CTL development during acute viral infections.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Proteínas com Domínio T/metabolismo , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Proteínas Fetais/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Camundongos Transgênicos
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(38): 23730-23741, 2020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879009

RESUMO

Although plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) have been shown to play a critical role in generating viral immunity and promoting tolerance to suppress antitumor immunity, whether and how pDCs cross-prime CD8 T cells in vivo remain controversial. Using a pDC-targeted vaccine model to deliver antigens specifically to pDCs, we have demonstrated that pDC-targeted vaccination led to strong cross-priming and durable CD8 T cell immunity. Surprisingly, cross-presenting pDCs required conventional DCs (cDCs) to achieve cross-priming in vivo by transferring antigens to cDCs. Taking advantage of an in vitro system where only pDCs had access to antigens, we further demonstrated that cross-presenting pDCs were unable to efficiently prime CD8 T cells by themselves, but conferred antigen-naive cDCs the capability of cross-priming CD8 T cells by transferring antigens to cDCs. Although both cDC1s and cDC2s exhibited similar efficiency in acquiring antigens from pDCs, cDC1s but not cDC2s were required for cross-priming upon pDC-targeted vaccination, suggesting that cDC1s played a critical role in pDC-mediated cross-priming independent of their function in antigen presentation. Antigen transfer from pDCs to cDCs was mediated by previously unreported pDC-derived exosomes (pDCexos), that were also produced by pDCs under various conditions. Importantly, all these pDCexos primed naive antigen-specific CD8 T cells only in the presence of bystander cDCs, similarly to cross-presenting pDCs, thus identifying pDCexo-mediated antigen transfer to cDCs as a mechanism for pDCs to achieve cross-priming. In summary, our data suggest that pDCs employ a unique mechanism of pDCexo-mediated antigen transfer to cDCs for cross-priming.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Apresentação Cruzada/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Exossomos/metabolismo , Animais , Apresentação do Antígeno/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Células Cultivadas , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Exossomos/imunologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(36): e21803, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899009

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Complex immune dysregulation in interferon (IFN) and T cell response has been observed in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1)-infected patients as well as in coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) patients. However, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)/HIV-1 coinfection has been described in only few cases worldwide and no data are available on immunological outcomes in HIV-1-patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. Hence, this study aims to compare type I IFN response and T cell activation levels between a SARS-CoV-2/HIV-1-coinfected female patient and age-matched HIV-1-positive or uninfected women. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 52-year-old woman diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2/HIV-1 coinfection, ten HIV-1-positive women and five age-matched-healthy individuals were enrolled in this study. DIAGNOSES: SARS-CoV-2 infection caused severe pneumonia in the second week of illness in HIV-1-positive patient under protease inhibitors. Chest high-resolution computed tomography images of the SARS-CoV-2/HIV-1-coinfected patient showed bilateral ground-glass opacities. INTERVENTIONS: SARS-CoV-2/HIV-1-coinfected female patient under darunavir/cobicistat regimen received a 7-days hydroxychloroquine therapy. Analysis of IFNα/ß mRNA levels and CD4 and CD8 T cell (CD38, human leukocyte antigen-DR [HLA-DR], CD38 HLA-DR) frequencies were performed by RT/real-time PCR assays and flow cytometry, respectively. Median relative difference (MRD) was calculated for each immunological variable. For values greater than reference, MRD should be a positive number and for values that are smaller, MRD should be negative. OUTCOMES: The severe pneumonia observed in SARS-CoV-2/HIV-1-positive patient under protease inhibitors was reversed by a 7-days hydroxychloroquine therapy. At the end of treatment, on day 7, patient reported resolution of fever, normalization of respiratory rate (14 breaths/min), and improved oxygen arterial pressure with a FiO2 of 30%. MRD values for IFNα/ß and CD4 and CD8 T cells expressing CD38 and/or HLA-DR found in SARS-CoV-2-/HIV-1-coinfected woman were approximatively equal to 0 when refereed respectively to HIV-1-positive female patients [MRDs IFNα/ß: median -0.2545 (range: -0.5/0.1); T cells: median -0.11 (range: -0.8/1.3)] and ≥ 6 when referred to healthy individuals [MRDs IFNα/ß: median 28.45 (range: 15/41.9); T cells: median 10 (range 6/22)]. LESSONS: These results indicate that SARS-CoV-2 infection in HIV-1-positive female patient was associated with increased levels of IFNα/ß-mRNAs and T cell activation compared to healthy individuals.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/complicações , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Interferons/sangue , Ativação Linfocitária , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , RNA Mensageiro , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia
10.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(9): e1008885, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32976527

RESUMO

Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) remains an important cause of morbidity in the general population and risk for ASCVD is increased approximately 2-fold in persons living with HIV infection (PLWH). This risk is linked to elevated CD8 T cell counts that are abundant in atherosclerotic plaques and have been implicated in disease pathogenesis yet the mechanisms driving T cell recruitment to and activation within plaques are poorly defined. Here we investigated the role of CD8 T cells in atherosclerosis in a non-human primate model of HIV infection and in the HIV-uninfected elderly; we sought to identify factors that promote the activation, function, and recruitment to endothelium of CX3CR1+ CD8 T cells. We measured elevated expression of CX3CL1 and IL-15, and increased CD8 T cell numbers in the aortas of rhesus macaques infected with SIV or SHIV, and demonstrated similar findings in atherosclerotic vessels of HIV-uninfected humans. We found that recombinant TNF enhanced the production and release of CX3CL1 and bioactive IL-15 from aortic endothelial cells, but not from aortic smooth muscle cells. IL-15 in turn promoted CX3CR1 surface expression on and TNF synthesis by CD8 T cells, and IL-15-treated CD8 T cells exhibited enhanced CX3CL1-dependent chemoattraction toward endothelial cells in vitro. Finally, we show that CD8 T cells in human atherosclerotic plaques have an activated, resident phenotype consistent with in vivo IL-15 and CX3CL1 exposure. In this report, we define a novel model of CD8 T cell involvement in atherosclerosis whereby CX3CL1 and IL-15 operate in tandem within the vascular endothelium to promote infiltration by activated CX3CR1+ memory CD8 T cells that drive further endothelial activation via TNF. We propose that these interactions are prevalent in aging and in PLWH, populations where circulating activated CX3CR1+ CD8 T cell numbers are often expanded.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Quimiocina CX3CL1/metabolismo , Infecções por HIV/metabolismo , Interleucina-15/metabolismo , Idoso , Animais , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Humanos , Macaca mulatta/metabolismo , Receptores de Quimiocinas/metabolismo
11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4545, 2020 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917858

RESUMO

TGF-ß1, ß2 and ß3 bind a common receptor to exert vastly diverse effects in cancer, supporting either tumor progression by favoring metastases and inhibiting anti-tumor immunity, or tumor suppression by inhibiting malignant cell proliferation. Global TGF-ß inhibition thus bears the risk of undesired tumor-promoting effects. We show that selective blockade of TGF-ß1 production by Tregs with antibodies against GARP:TGF-ß1 complexes induces regressions of mouse tumors otherwise resistant to anti-PD-1 immunotherapy. Effects of combined GARP:TGF-ß1/PD-1 blockade are immune-mediated, do not require FcγR-dependent functions and increase effector functions of anti-tumor CD8+ T cells without augmenting immune cell infiltration or depleting Tregs within tumors. We find GARP-expressing Tregs and evidence that they produce TGF-ß1 in one third of human melanoma metastases. Our results suggest that anti-GARP:TGF-ß1 mAbs, by selectively blocking a single TGF-ß isoform emanating from a restricted cellular source exerting tumor-promoting activity, may overcome resistance to PD-1/PD-L1 blockade in patients with cancer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Membrana/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/transplante , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/imunologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(37): e22170, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925784

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that metastasis is chiefly responsible for the poor prognosis of colon adenocarcinoma (COAD). The tumor microenvironment plays a vital role in regulating this biological process. However, the mechanisms involved remain unclear. The aim of this study was to identify crucial metastasis-related biomarkers in the tumor microenvironment and investigate its association with tumor-infiltrating immune cells. METHODS: We obtained gene expression profiles and clinical information from The Cancer Genome Atlas database. According to the "Estimation of STromal and Immune cells in MAlignant Tumor tissue using Expression data" algorithm, each sample generated the immune and stromal scores. Following correlation analysis, the metastasis-related gene was identified in The Cancer Genome Atlas database and validated in the GSE40967 dataset from Gene Expression Omnibus. The correlation between metastasis-related gene and infiltrating immune cells was assessed using the Tumor IMmune Estimation Resource database. RESULTS: The analysis included 332 patients; the metastatic COAD samples showed a low immune score. Correlation analysis results showed that interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1) was associated with tumor stage, lymph node metastasis, and distant metastasis. Furthermore, significant associations between IRF1 and CD8+ T cells, T cell (general), dendritic cells, T-helper 1 cells, and T cell exhaustion were demonstrated by Spearmans correlation coefficients and P values. CONCLUSIONS: The present findings suggest that IRF1 is associated with metastasis and the degree of immune infiltration of CD8+ T cells (general), dendritic cells, T-helper 1 cells, and T cell exhaustion in COAD. These results may provide information for immunotherapy in colon cancer.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/imunologia , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo/imunologia , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Fator Regulador 1 de Interferon/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Metástase Linfática/imunologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Microambiente Tumoral
13.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239157, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960910

RESUMO

CD4dimCD8bright T cells, a genuine population of CD8+ T cells, are highly activated and cytolytic. Recently, the low affinity IgG Fc fragment receptor CD32a was described as marker of HIV latency while others reported that CD32a is associated with T cell activation. Given that we have previously established that CD4dimCD8bright T cells are highly activated, mediate anti-HIV responses, and are infected by HIV, we assessed here CD32 expression on CD4dimCD8bright T cells in context of HIV. CD32 frequency on peripheral CD4dimCD8bright and CD4+ T cells was determined by flow cytometry among HIV negative and HIV positive patients. We report that among HIV- individuals, mean CD32 percent expression was 60% on CD4dimCD8bright T cells and 17% on CD4+ T cells (p<0.01). Among HIV+ patients, mean CD32 percent expression was 54% on CD4dimCD8bright T cells and 12% on CD4+ T cells (p<0.001). CD32 expression on CD4dimCD8bright T cells did not correlate with CD4 count and viral load and was not different by HIV serostatus. CD32 was also higher on other double positive T cell populations in both HIV negative and HIV positive donors in comparison to their single positive T cell counterpart. Together, these studies indicate that CD32 is enriched on double positive T cells regardless of HIV serostatus. The functional role of CD32 on these double positive T cells remains to be elucidated.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Receptores de IgG/metabolismo , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Separação Celular , Citometria de Fluxo , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Receptores de IgG/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Carga Viral
14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4611, 2020 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32929072

RESUMO

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and cancer-associated cachexia (CAC) are multifactorial and characterized by dysregulated inflammatory networks. Whether the proinflammatory cytokine IL-20 is involved in the complex networks of PDAC and CAC remains unclear. Here, we report that elevated IL-20 levels in tumor tissue correlate with poor overall survival in 72 patients with PDAC. In vivo, we establish a transgenic mouse model (KPC) and an orthotopic PDAC model and examine the therapeutic efficacy of an anti-IL-20 monoclonal antibody (7E). Targeting IL-20 not only prolongs survival and attenuates PD-L1 expression in both murine models but also inhibits tumor growth and mitigates M2-like polarization in the orthotopic PDAC model. Combination treatment with 7E and an anti-PD-1 antibody shows better efficacy in inhibiting tumor growth than either treatment alone in the orthotopic PDAC model. Finally, 7E mitigates cachexic symptoms in CAC models. Together, we conclude IL-20 is a critical mediator in PDAC progression.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Interleucinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Modelos Biológicos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Caquexia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Lewis/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/imunologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
15.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4767, 2020 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32958743

RESUMO

Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a debilitating immune-mediated inflammatory arthritis of unknown pathogenesis commonly affecting patients with skin psoriasis. Here we use complementary single-cell approaches to study leukocytes from PsA joints. Mass cytometry demonstrates a 3-fold expansion of memory CD8 T cells in the joints of PsA patients compared to peripheral blood. Meanwhile, droplet-based and plate-based single-cell RNA sequencing of paired T cell receptor alpha and beta chain sequences show pronounced CD8 T cell clonal expansions within the joints. Transcriptome analyses find these expanded synovial CD8 T cells to express cycling, activation, tissue-homing and tissue residency markers. T cell receptor sequence comparison between patients identifies clonal convergence. Finally, chemokine receptor CXCR3 is upregulated in the expanded synovial CD8 T cells, while two CXCR3 ligands, CXCL9 and CXCL10, are elevated in PsA synovial fluid. Our data thus provide a quantitative molecular insight into the cellular immune landscape of psoriatic arthritis.


Assuntos
Artrite Psoriásica/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Seleção Clonal Mediada por Antígeno , Receptores de Retorno de Linfócitos/metabolismo , Líquido Sinovial/imunologia , Artrite Psoriásica/sangue , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Memória Imunológica , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T alfa-beta/genética , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T alfa-beta/metabolismo , Receptores de Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Receptores de Retorno de Linfócitos/genética , Análise de Célula Única , Membrana Sinovial/imunologia
16.
Nat Immunol ; 21(9): 1107-1118, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788748

RESUMO

In coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, the relationship between disease severity and the host immune response is not fully understood. Here we performed single-cell RNA sequencing in peripheral blood samples of 5 healthy donors and 13 patients with COVID-19, including moderate, severe and convalescent cases. Through determining the transcriptional profiles of immune cells, coupled with assembled T cell receptor and B cell receptor sequences, we analyzed the functional properties of immune cells. Most cell types in patients with COVID-19 showed a strong interferon-α response and an overall acute inflammatory response. Moreover, intensive expansion of highly cytotoxic effector T cell subsets, such as CD4+ effector-GNLY (granulysin), CD8+ effector-GNLY and NKT CD160, was associated with convalescence in moderate patients. In severe patients, the immune landscape featured a deranged interferon response, profound immune exhaustion with skewed T cell receptor repertoire and broad T cell expansion. These findings illustrate the dynamic nature of immune responses during disease progression.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Antígenos de Diferenciação de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Interferon Tipo I/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Receptores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antígenos CD/genética , Antígenos CD/imunologia , Antígenos de Diferenciação de Linfócitos T/genética , Antígenos de Diferenciação de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/genética , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/imunologia , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/metabolismo , Humanos , Interferon Tipo I/genética , Interferon Tipo I/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , RNA-Seq , Receptores Imunológicos/genética , Receptores Imunológicos/imunologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Análise de Célula Única
17.
J Exp Med ; 217(12)2020 12 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32820330

RESUMO

Type I interferons (IFN-I) are a major antiviral defense and are critical for the activation of the adaptive immune system. However, early viral clearance by IFN-I could limit antigen availability, which could in turn impinge upon the priming of the adaptive immune system. In this study, we hypothesized that transient IFN-I blockade could increase antigen presentation after acute viral infection. To test this hypothesis, we infected mice with viruses coadministered with a single dose of IFN-I receptor-blocking antibody to induce a short-term blockade of the IFN-I pathway. This resulted in a transient "spike" in antigen levels, followed by rapid antigen clearance. Interestingly, short-term IFN-I blockade after coronavirus, flavivirus, rhabdovirus, or arenavirus infection induced a long-lasting enhancement of immunological memory that conferred improved protection upon subsequent reinfections. Short-term IFN-I blockade also improved the efficacy of viral vaccines. These findings demonstrate a novel mechanism by which IFN-I regulate immunological memory and provide insights for rational vaccine design.


Assuntos
Imunogenicidade da Vacina/imunologia , Interferon Tipo I/antagonistas & inibidores , Interferon-alfa/imunologia , Receptor de Interferon alfa e beta/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Infecção por Zika virus/imunologia , Zika virus/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Bloqueadores/imunologia , Anticorpos Bloqueadores/farmacologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Apresentação do Antígeno/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Memória Imunológica , Interferon-alfa/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Receptor de Interferon alfa e beta/genética , Transfecção , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 590, 2020 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778058

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antiviral therapy is recommended for patients with immune-active chronic hepatitis B (CHB) to decrease the risk of liver-related complications. However, the outcomes of the pegylated IFN-α (PEG-IFN-α) therapy vary among CHB patients. We aimed to identify factors that can influence the outcomes in CHB patients who received antiviral PEG-IFN-α monotherapy. METHODS: Thirty-two CHB patients who received PEG-IFN-α monotherapy were enrolled in this study. All of the patients underwent two liver biopsies at baseline and 6 months after the initiation of the therapy. CD8+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, CD68+ mononuclear cells, and PD-1 levels in the 64 liver biopsy specimens were examined via immunofluorescence. RESULTS: The overall median frequency of CD8+ T cells in the liver tissues of 32 CHB patients significantly decreased at 6 months after the therapy initiation (p < 0.01). In the FIER (fibrosis and inflammation response with HBeAg seroconversion) group, CD8+PD-1+ T cells significantly decreased at 6 months (p < 0.05), while CD8+PD-1- T cells had no significant difference. On the contrary, in the FIENR (no fibrosis and inflammation response and HBeAg seroconversion) group, CD8+PD-1- T cells significantly decreased after 6 months of PEG-IFN-α treatment (p < 0.05), while CD8+PD-1+ T cells had no significant difference. In addition, the levels of CD68+ mononuclear cells in the FIER group showed an overall increasing trend after treatment (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The changes in the levels of CD8+PD-1+ T cells and CD68+ mononuclear cells may be related to the response to PEG-IFN-α therapy.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Interferon-alfa/uso terapêutico , Fígado/patologia , Polietilenoglicóis/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/citologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Feminino , Antígenos E da Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos E da Hepatite B/imunologia , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/citologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
19.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4111, 2020 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807776

RESUMO

Mutational inactivation of VHL is the earliest genetic event in the majority of clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCC), leading to accumulation of the HIF-1α and HIF-2α transcription factors. While correlative studies of human ccRCC and functional studies using human ccRCC cell lines have implicated HIF-1α as an inhibitor and HIF-2α as a promoter of aggressive tumour behaviours, their roles in tumour onset have not been functionally addressed. Herein we show using an autochthonous ccRCC model that Hif1a is essential for tumour formation whereas Hif2a deletion has only minor effects on tumour initiation and growth. Both HIF-1α and HIF-2α are required for the clear cell phenotype. Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses reveal that HIF-1α regulates glycolysis while HIF-2α regulates genes associated with lipoprotein metabolism, ribosome biogenesis and E2F and MYC transcriptional activities. HIF-2α-deficient tumours are characterised by increased antigen presentation, interferon signalling and CD8+ T cell infiltration and activation. Single copy loss of HIF1A or high levels of HIF2A mRNA expression correlate with altered immune microenvironments in human ccRCC. These studies reveal an oncogenic role of HIF-1α in ccRCC initiation and suggest that alterations in the balance of HIF-1α and HIF-2α activities can affect different aspects of ccRCC biology and disease aggressiveness.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Renais/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Neoplasias Renais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Células 3T3 , Animais , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Western Blotting , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/genética , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Humanos , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Imuno-Histoquímica , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/metabolismo , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Espectrometria de Massas , Camundongos , Proteômica/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Microambiente Tumoral/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/fisiologia
20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4113, 2020 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807791

RESUMO

The acidic pH of tumors profoundly inhibits effector functions of activated CD8 + T-cells. We hypothesize that this is a physiological process in immune regulation, and that it occurs within lymph nodes (LNs), which are likely acidic because of low convective flow and high glucose metabolism. Here we show by in vivo fluorescence and MR imaging, that LN paracortical zones are profoundly acidic. These acidic niches are absent in athymic Nu/Nu and lymphodepleted mice, implicating T-cells in the acidifying process. T-cell glycolysis is inhibited at the low pH observed in LNs. We show that this is due to acid inhibition of monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs), resulting in a negative feedback on glycolytic rate. Importantly, we demonstrate that this acid pH does not hinder initial activation of naïve T-cells by dendritic cells. Thus, we describe an acidic niche within the immune system, and demonstrate its physiological role in regulating T-cell activation.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfonodos/metabolismo , Animais , Proliferação de Células/genética , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Citometria de Fluxo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Imunoquímica , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Transportadores de Ácidos Monocarboxílicos/genética , Transportadores de Ácidos Monocarboxílicos/metabolismo , Fosfofrutoquinase-1/genética , Fosfofrutoquinase-1/metabolismo
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