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1.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 26(1): 50, 2021 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33874885

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asbestos fibers possess tumorigenicity and are thought to cause mesothelioma. We have previously reported that exposure to asbestos fibers causes a reduction in antitumor immunity. Asbestos exposure in the mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) showed suppressed induction of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), accompanied by a decrease in proliferation of CD8+ T cells. Recently, we reported that asbestos-induced suppression of CTL induction is not due to insufficient levels of interleukin-2 (IL-2). In this study, we continue to investigate the mechanism responsible for the effect of asbestos fibers on the differentiation of CTLs and focus on interleukin-15 (IL-15) which is known to be a regulator of T lymphocyte proliferation. METHODS: For MLR, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were cultured with irradiated allogenic PBMCs upon exposure to chrysotile B asbestos at 5 µg/ml for 7 days. After 2 days of culture, IL-15 was added at 1 ng/ml. After 7 days of MLR, PBMCs were collected and analyzed for phenotypic and functional markers of CD8+ T cells with fluorescence-labeled anti-CD3, anti-CD8, anti-CD45RA, anti-CD45RO, anti-CD25, and anti-granzyme B antibodies using flow cytometry. To examine the effect of IL-15 on the expression level of intracellular granzyme B in proliferating and non-proliferating CD8+ lymphocytes, PBMCs were stained using carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) and then washed and used for the MLR. RESULTS: IL-15 addition partially reversed the decrease in CD3+CD8+ cell numbers and facilitated complete recovery of granzyme B+ cell percentages. IL-15 completely reversed the asbestos-induced decrease in percentage of granzyme B+ cells in both non-proliferating CFSE-positive and proliferating CFSE-negative CD8+ cells. The asbestos-induced decrease in the percentage of CD25+ and CD45RO+ cells in CD8+ lymphocytes was not reversed by IL-15. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that CTLs induced upon exposure to asbestos possess dysfunctional machinery that can be partly compensated by IL-15 supplementation, and that IL-15 is more effective in the recovery of proliferation and granzyme B levels from asbestos-induced suppression of CTL induction compared with IL-2.


Assuntos
Asbestos/efeitos adversos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Interleucina-15/farmacologia , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/citologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Humanos , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/citologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/metabolismo
2.
Anticancer Res ; 41(3): 1485-1496, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33788741

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As the prognosis of biliary tract cancer (BTC) is extremely poor and treatment options are limited, new treatment modalities are urgently needed. We designed a phase II clinical trial to investigate the immune responses and clinical benefits of OCV-C01, an HLA-A*24:02-restricted three-peptide cancer vaccine targeting VEGFR1, VEGFR2, and KIF20A. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Participants were patients with advanced BTC who had unresectable tumours and were refractory to standard chemotherapy. OCV-C01 was injected weekly until the discontinuance criteria were met. RESULTS: Six participants, including four patients positive for HLA-A*24:02, were enrolled in this study for assessment of efficacy. Four out of six patients exhibited vaccine-specific T-cell responses to one or more of three antigens. Log-rank tests revealed that vaccine-specific T cell responses contributed significantly to overall survival. CONCLUSION: The cancer vaccine had positive effects on survival, indicating that this approach warrants further clinical studies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Sistema Biliar/tratamento farmacológico , Vacinas Anticâncer/administração & dosagem , Cinesina/antagonistas & inibidores , Vacinas de Subunidades/administração & dosagem , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/antagonistas & inibidores , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias do Sistema Biliar/imunologia , Neoplasias do Sistema Biliar/metabolismo , Vacinas Anticâncer/efeitos adversos , Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Febre/induzido quimicamente , Cefaleia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Cinesina/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Prognóstico , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/metabolismo , Vacinas de Subunidades/efeitos adversos , Vacinas de Subunidades/imunologia , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/imunologia , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/imunologia
3.
Science ; 371(6534): 1166-1171, 2021 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33632893

RESUMO

Overexpressed tumor-associated antigens [for example, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)] are attractive targets for therapeutic T cells, but toxic "off-tumor" cross-reaction with normal tissues that express low levels of target antigen can occur with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cells. Inspired by natural ultrasensitive response circuits, we engineered a two-step positive-feedback circuit that allows human cytotoxic T cells to discriminate targets on the basis of a sigmoidal antigen-density threshold. In this circuit, a low-affinity synthetic Notch receptor for HER2 controls the expression of a high-affinity CAR for HER2. Increasing HER2 density thus has cooperative effects on T cells-it increases both CAR expression and activation-leading to a sigmoidal response. T cells with this circuit show sharp discrimination between target cells expressing normal amounts of HER2 and cancer cells expressing 100 times as much HER2, both in vitro and in vivo.


Assuntos
Engenharia Celular , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/imunologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/metabolismo , Animais , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Imunoterapia Adotiva , Células K562 , Camundongos , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Receptor ErbB-2/imunologia , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Receptores Artificiais/metabolismo , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/genética , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/metabolismo , Receptores Notch/genética , Receptores Notch/metabolismo , Esferoides Celulares , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
4.
Mol Immunol ; 132: 165-171, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33592572

RESUMO

The therapeutic options of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are limited, although a combination of targeted therapy and immunotherapy is promising. To explore novel targets for immunotherapy, we explored the role of Ccr4-Not transcription complex subunit 4 (CNOT4) in NSCLC. The expression of CNOT4 in tumor tissues was determined by immunohistochemistry staining and western blotting. The cell lines that stably express CNOT4 were established in H1299 and A549 cells. Direct cell counting, MTT assay, and colony formation were used to determine the ability of cell proliferation. Cell apoptosis and cell cycle were next analyzed by PI/Annexin V staining. Cell invasion and migration were examined by transwell assays. To further explore the function of CNOT4 in cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) mediated cytotoxicity, an in vitro co-culture system of CNOT4 overexpressing and control H1299 cells with CTLs was developed. CNOT4 was down-regulated in tumor tissues compared with paired normal tissues from patients with lung cancers. CNOT4 overexpression significantly inhibited tumor cell proliferation, colony formation, cell migration, and invasion, but promoted cell apoptosis. Furthermore, overexpression of CNOT4 enhanced cytotoxicity of CTLs to H1299. CNOT4 functions as a potential tumor suppressor of NSCLC via inhibiting tumor cell function and increasing the sensitivity to CTLs.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Células A549 , Apoptose/fisiologia , Ciclo Celular/fisiologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Regulação para Baixo/fisiologia , Humanos , MicroRNAs/metabolismo
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 569, 2021 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33495472

RESUMO

Single-cell RNA sequencing in principle offers unique opportunities to improve the efficacy of contemporary T-cell based immunotherapy against cancer. The use of high-quality single-cell data will aid our incomplete understanding of molecular programs determining the differentiation and functional heterogeneity of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), allowing for optimal therapeutic design. So far, a major obstacle to high depth single-cell analysis of CTLs is the minute amount of RNA available, leading to low capturing efficacy. Here, to overcome this, we tailor a droplet-based approach for high-throughput analysis (tDrop-seq) and a plate-based method for high-performance in-depth CTL analysis (tSCRB-seq). The latter gives, on average, a 15-fold higher number of captured transcripts per gene compared to droplet-based technologies. The improved dynamic range of gene detection gives tSCRB-seq an edge in resolution sensitive downstream applications such as graded high confidence gene expression measurements and cluster characterization. We demonstrate the power of tSCRB-seq by revealing the subpopulation-specific expression of co-inhibitory and co-stimulatory receptor targets of key importance for immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/metabolismo , Animais , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Humanos , Camundongos , RNA/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/citologia
6.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2183: 549-558, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32959267

RESUMO

Herein, a method to measure in vivo CD8+ T cell cytotoxicity in a murine model is presented. The activation of a strong CD8+ T cell response is paramount when designing vaccines to tackle intracellular infections and for cancer therapy. CD8+ T cells can directly kill infected and transformed cells and are directly associated with beneficial protection in many disease models. CD8+ T cell cytotoxicity can be measured using multiple methods including measuring IFNγ production by ELISPOT or measuring intracellular cytokines or cytotoxic granules by flow cytometry. However, to determine the ability of CD8+ T cells to kill their target in the context of its cognate receptor and in their native environment, the in vivo cytotoxic T cell assay (in vivo CTL) is ideal. The in vivo CTL assay provides a snapshot of the whole ability of the host to kill "Target" cells by measuring the loss of injected target cells relative to "Non-target" cells. The assay involves isolating splenocytes from donor mice, forming "Target" and "Non-target" cellular samples and injecting them intravenously into naïve and experimental mice at a chosen time-point in the experiment. Mice are humanely sacrificed 20 h later, and their spleens are excised and processed for flow cytometric analysis. The extent of "Target" cell killing relative to "Non-target" cells is determined by comparing the surviving proportions of these cells among experimental mice relative to naïve mice. The in vivo CTL assay is a rapid, sensitive, and reliable method to measure the potency of CD8+ T cells in their host to kill their target.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Animais , Biomarcadores , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Imunidade Celular , Imunização , Imunofenotipagem , Camundongos , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/metabolismo , Vacinas/imunologia
7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 22218, 2020 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33335252

RESUMO

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a major complication during allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). However, mechanisms of adaptive immunity that drive this remain unclear. To define early immunological responses to CMV after transplantation, we using next-generation sequencing to examine the repertoire of T-cell receptors in CD8+/CMV pp65 tetramer+ cells (CMV-CTLs) in peripheral blood samples obtained from 16 allo-SCT recipients with HLA-A*24:02 at the time of CMV reactivation. In most patients, TCR beta repertoire of CMV-CTLs was highly skewed (median Inverse Simpson's index: 1.595) and, 15 of 16 patients shared at least one TCR-beta clonotype with ≥ 2 patients. The shared TCRs were dominant in 12 patients and, two clonotypes were shared by about half of the patients. Similarity analysis showed that CDR3 sequences of shared TCRs were more similar than unshared TCRs. TCR beta repertoires of CMV-CTLs in 12 patients were also analyzed after 2-4 weeks to characterize the short-term dynamics of TCR repertoires. In ten patients, we observed persistence of prevailing clones. In the other two patients, TCR repertoires became more diverse, major clones declined, and new private clones subsequently emerged. These results provided the substantive clue to understand the immunological behavior against CMV reactivation after allo-SCT.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus/etiologia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/metabolismo , Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Especificidade do Receptor de Antígeno de Linfócitos T , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores , Evolução Clonal , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/genética , Imunologia de Transplantes , Transplante Homólogo , Adulto Jovem
8.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(12): e1009177, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370400

RESUMO

HIV-1 strains harboring immune escape mutations can persist in circulation, but the impact of selection by multiple HLA alleles on population HIV-1 dynamics remains unclear. In Japan, HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase codon 135 (RT135) is under strong immune pressure by HLA-B*51:01-restricted and HLA-B*52:01-restricted T cells that target a key epitope in this region (TI8; spanning RT codons 128-135). Major population-level shifts have occurred at HIV-1 RT135 during the Japanese epidemic, which first affected hemophiliacs (via imported contaminated blood products) and subsequently non-hemophiliacs (via domestic transmission). Specifically, threonine accumulated at RT135 (RT135T) in hemophiliac and non-hemophiliac HLA-B*51:01+ individuals diagnosed before 1997, but since then RT135T has markedly declined while RT135L has increased among non-hemophiliac individuals. We demonstrated that RT135V selection by HLA-B*52:01-restricted TI8-specific T-cells led to the creation of a new HLA-C*12:02-restricted epitope TN9-8V. We further showed that TN9-8V-specific HLA-C*12:02-restricted T cells selected RT135L while TN9-8T-specific HLA-C*12:02-restricted T cells suppressed replication of the RT135T variant. Thus, population-level accumulation of the RT135L mutation over time in Japan can be explained by initial targeting of the TI8 epitope by HLA-B*52:01-restricted T-cells, followed by targeting of the resulting escape mutant by HLA-C*12:02-restricted T-cells. We further demonstrate that this phenomenon is particular to Japan, where the HLA-B*52:01-C*12:02 haplotype is common: RT135L did not accumulate over a 15-year longitudinal analysis of HIV sequences in British Columbia, Canada, where this haplotype is rare. Together, our observations reveal that T-cell responses to sequentially emerging viral escape mutants can shape long-term HIV-1 population dynamics in a host population-specific manner.


Assuntos
Variação Antigênica/imunologia , Infecções por HIV , HIV-1 , Evasão da Resposta Imune/genética , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Células Cultivadas , Evolução Clonal/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito T/genética , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Soropositividade para HIV , HIV-1/classificação , HIV-1/genética , HIV-1/imunologia , Células HeLa , Adaptação ao Hospedeiro/imunologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Tipagem Molecular , Mutação , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/metabolismo , Carga Viral/imunologia , Replicação Viral/genética , Replicação Viral/imunologia
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(24)2020 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33322156

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate skeletal pain associated with osteoporosis and to examine the inhibitory effects of cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4Ig (CTLA-4Ig) administration in ovariectomized (OVX) mice. Eight-week-old female ddY mice were assigned to three groups: sham-operated mice (SHAM) treated with vehicle, OVX mice treated with vehicle (OVX), and OVX mice treated with CTLA-4Ig (CTLA-4Ig). Vehicle or CTLA-4Ig was injected intraperitoneally, starting immediately after surgery. After 4 weeks of treatment, mechanical sensitivity was examined, and the bilateral hind limbs were removed and evaluated by micro-computed tomography, immunohistochemical analyses, and messenger RNA expression analysis. Ovariectomy induced bone loss and mechanical hyperalgesia in the hindlimbs. CTLA-4Ig treatment prevented bone loss in the hindlimbs compared to vehicle administration in the OVX group. Moreover, mechanical hyperalgesia was significantly decreased in the CTLA-4Ig treatment group in comparison to the OVX group. The expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and sclerostin (SOST), as well as the number of osteoclasts, were increased, and the expression level of Wnt-10b was decreased in the OVX group compared with the SHAM group, whereas these parameters were improved in the CTLA-4Ig group compared with the OVX group. The novelty of this research is that CTLA-4Ig administration prevented bone loss and mechanical hyperalgesia induced by ovariectomy in the hindlimbs.


Assuntos
Abatacepte/administração & dosagem , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Membro Posterior/efeitos dos fármacos , Hiperalgesia/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperalgesia/metabolismo , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Osteoporose/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/metabolismo , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Membro Posterior/citologia , Membro Posterior/diagnóstico por imagem , Membro Posterior/patologia , Hiperalgesia/genética , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Camundongos , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Osteoporose/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteoporose/genética , Ovariectomia , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Dor/patologia , Medição da Dor , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Proteínas Wnt/genética , Proteínas Wnt/metabolismo , Microtomografia por Raio-X
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(52): e23714, 2020 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33350751

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Kawasaki disease (KD) is the leading cause of acquired heart abnormalities during childhood. The infiltration of CD8+ T cells plays an essential role in the formation of coronary aneurysms. Follicular cytotoxic T (Tfc) cells are a newly defined subset of CD8+ T cells that express CXC-chemokine receptor 5. The role of Tfc cells in KD is unclear. However, in this report, we present 2 KD children with sustained coronary artery aneurysms (CAA), and we found that their peripheral C-X-C Chemokine Receptor 5+ T cells contained quite amounts of CD4 negative cells. Importantly, these cells have never been reported in KD. PATIENTS CONCERNS: Case 1 was a 3-year-old boy with a complaint of continuous fever for 6 days and conjunctival injection for 3 days. Case 2 was a 6-month-old boy who was hospitalized because of persistent fever for 5 days, rashes and conjunctival injection for 1 day. DIAGNOSIS: Case 1 was diagnosed with KD according to typical symptoms and signs including fever over 5 days, conjunctival injection, rashes, swelling cervical lymph nodes and a strawberry tongue. Case 2 had atypical symptoms including persistent fever for 5 days, rashes and conjunctival injection, and he was diagnosed with KD based on the echocardiographic findings. INTERVENTION: Both the 2 patients received intravenous immunoglobulin and oral aspirin. Besides, case 1 was given the second infusion of intravenous immunoglobulin, intravenous prednisolone and low-molecular-weight heparin. OUTCOMES: The CAA of case 1 did not regress until the 12th month after disease onset. The CAA of patient 2 began to regress at the third month after disease onset. During the months from disease onset to the recent follow-up, no cardiovascular events had occurred. CONCLUSIONS: We speculate that Tfc cells may be associated with the formation of CAA. Further studies with larger sample size and functional analysis of these cells are needed.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Coronário/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/diagnóstico , Administração Oral , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Pré-Escolar , Aneurisma Coronário/complicações , Aneurisma Coronário/tratamento farmacológico , Aneurisma Coronário/metabolismo , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Febre/etiologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Lactente , Masculino , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/complicações , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/metabolismo , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/metabolismo
11.
Front Immunol ; 11: 578848, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33329548

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a complex autoimmune disease targeting synovial joints. Traditionally, RA is divided into seropositive (SP) and seronegative (SN) disease forms, the latter consisting of an array of unrelated diseases with joint involvement. Recently, we described a severe form of SN-RA that associates with characteristic joint destruction. Here, we sought biological characteristics to differentiate this rare but aggressive anti-citrullinated peptide antibody-negative destructive RA (CND-RA) from early seropositive (SP-RA) and seronegative rheumatoid arthritis (SN-RA). We also aimed to study cytotoxic CD8+ lymphocytes in autoimmune arthritis. CND-RA, SP-RA and SN-RA were compared to healthy controls to reveal differences in T-cell receptor beta (TCRß) repertoire, cytokine levels and autoantibody repertoires. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) followed by single-cell RNA-sequencing (sc-RNA-seq) was performed to study somatic mutations in a clonally expanded CD8+ lymphocyte population in an index patient. A unique TCRß signature was detected in CND-RA patients. In addition, CND-RA patients expressed higher levels of the bone destruction-associated TNFSF14 cytokine. Blood IgG repertoire from CND-RA patients recognized fewer endogenous proteins than SP-RA patients' repertoires. Using WES, we detected a stable mutation profile in the clonally expanded CD8+ T-cell population characterized by cytotoxic gene expression signature discovered by sc-RNA-sequencing. Our results identify CND-RA as an independent RA subset and reveal a CND-RA specific TCR signature in the CD8+ lymphocytes. Improved classification of seronegative RA patients underlines the heterogeneity of RA and also, facilitates development of improved therapeutic options for the treatment resistant patients.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-Proteína Citrulinada/sangue , Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Citocinas/genética , Genes Codificadores dos Receptores de Linfócitos T , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Artrite Reumatoide/sangue , Artrite Reumatoide/diagnóstico , Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Fenótipo , RNA-Seq , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Análise de Célula Única , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Adulto Jovem
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(38): 23717-23720, 2020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900953

RESUMO

Natural killer (NK) cells form immune synapses to ascertain the state of health of cells they encounter. If a target cell triggers NK cell cytotoxicity, lytic granules containing proteins including perforin and granzyme B, are secreted into the synaptic cleft inducing target cell death. Secretion of these proteins also occurs from activated cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) where they have recently been reported to complex with thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) in specialized structures termed supramolecular attack particles (SMAPs). Here, using an imaging method to define the position of each NK cell after removal, secretions from individual cells were assessed. NK cell synaptic secretion, triggered by ligation of NKp30 or NKG2D, included vesicles and SMAPs which contained TSP-1, perforin, and granzyme B. Individual NK cells secreted SMAPs, CD63+ vesicles, or both. A similar number of SMAPs were secreted per cell for both NK cells and CTLs, but NK cell SMAPs were larger. These data establish an unexpected diversity in NK cell synaptic secretions.


Assuntos
Células Matadoras Naturais , Sinapses , Granzimas/metabolismo , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/química , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Perforina/metabolismo , Sinapses/química , Sinapses/imunologia , Sinapses/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/química , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/metabolismo , Trombospondina 1/metabolismo
13.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0222548, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870913

RESUMO

The paracaspase mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation protein-1 (MALT1) regulates nuclear-factor-kappa-B (NF-κB) activation downstream of surface receptors with immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs), such as the B-cell or T-cell receptor and has thus emerged as a therapeutic target for autoimmune diseases. However, recent reports demonstrate the development of lethal autoimmune inflammation due to the excessive production of interferon gamma (IFN-É£) and defective differentiation of regulatory T-cells in genetically modified mice deficient in MALT1 paracaspase activity. To address this issue, we explored the effects of pharmacological MALT1 inhibition on the balance between T-effector and regulatory T-cells. Here we demonstrate that allosteric inhibition of MALT1 suppressed Th1, Th17 and Th1/Th17 effector responses, and inhibited T-cell dependent B-cell proliferation and antibody production. Allosteric MALT1 inhibition did not interfere with the suppressive function of human T-regulatory cells, although it impaired de novo differentiation of regulatory T-cells from naïve T-cells. Treatment with an allosteric MALT1 inhibitor alleviated the cytokine storm, including IFN-É£, in a mouse model of acute T-cell activation, and long-term treatment did not lead to an increase in IFN-É£ producing CD4 cells or tissue inflammation. Together, our data demonstrate that the effects of allosteric inhibition of MALT1 differ from those seen in mice with proteolytically inactive MALT1, and thus we believe that MALT1 is a viable target for B and T-cell driven autoimmune diseases.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína de Translocação 1 do Linfoma de Tecido Linfoide Associado à Mucosa/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Alostérica/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Feminino , Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Interferon gama/imunologia , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Proteína de Translocação 1 do Linfoma de Tecido Linfoide Associado à Mucosa/genética , Proteína de Translocação 1 do Linfoma de Tecido Linfoide Associado à Mucosa/imunologia , Proteína de Translocação 1 do Linfoma de Tecido Linfoide Associado à Mucosa/metabolismo , Fenotiazinas/farmacologia , Cultura Primária de Células , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Células Th1/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th1/metabolismo
14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3946, 2020 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32770055

RESUMO

Melanomas can switch to a dedifferentiated cell state upon exposure to cytotoxic T cells. However, it is unclear whether such tumor cells pre-exist in patients and whether they can be resensitized to immunotherapy. Here, we chronically expose (patient-derived) melanoma cell lines to differentiation antigen-specific cytotoxic T cells and observe strong enrichment of a pre-existing NGFRhi population. These fractions are refractory also to T cells recognizing non-differentiation antigens, as well as to BRAF + MEK inhibitors. NGFRhi cells induce the neurotrophic factor BDNF, which contributes to T cell resistance, as does NGFR. In melanoma patients, a tumor-intrinsic NGFR signature predicts anti-PD-1 therapy resistance, and NGFRhi tumor fractions are associated with immune exclusion. Lastly, pharmacologic NGFR inhibition restores tumor sensitivity to T cell attack in vitro and in melanoma xenografts. These findings demonstrate the existence of a stable and pre-existing NGFRhi multitherapy-refractory melanoma subpopulation, which ought to be eliminated to revert intrinsic resistance to immunotherapeutic intervention.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Receptores de Fator de Crescimento Neural/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/imunologia , Melanoma/patologia , Camundongos , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/antagonistas & inibidores , RNA-Seq , Receptores de Fator de Crescimento Neural/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/imunologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/metabolismo , Evasão Tumoral/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
15.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3637, 2020 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32686685

RESUMO

We report a strategy to boost Fenton reaction triggered by an exogenous circularly polarized magnetic field (MF) to enhance ferroptosis-like cell-death mediated immune response, as well as endow a responsive MRI capability by using a hybrid core-shell vesicles (HCSVs). HCSVs are prepared by loading ascorbic acid (AA) in the core and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) shell incorporating iron oxide nanocubes (IONCs). MF triggers the release of AA, resulting in the increase of ferrous ions through the redox reaction between AA and IONCs. A significant tumor suppression is achieved by Fenton reaction-mediated ferroptosis-like cell-death. The oxidative stress induced by the Fenton reaction leads to the exposure of calreticulin on tumor cells, which leads to dendritic cells maturation and the infiltration of cytotoxic T lymphocytes in tumor. Furthermore, the depletion of ferric ions during treatment enables monitoring of the Fe reaction in MRI-R2* signal change. This strategy provides a perspective on ferroptosis-based immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Ferroptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Campos Magnéticos , Nanopartículas de Magnetita , Neoplasias/terapia , Animais , Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Calreticulina/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Compostos Férricos/química , Imunoterapia/métodos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/química , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/uso terapêutico , Camundongos , Nanomedicina/métodos , Nanopartículas/química , Nanopartículas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias/imunologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/metabolismo
16.
Cells ; 9(8)2020 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707842

RESUMO

The ectonucleotidases CD39 and CD73 regulate immune responses by balancing extracellular ATP and adenosine in inflammation and are likely to be involved in the pathophysiology of COVID-19. Here, we analyzed CD39 and CD73 on different lymphocyte populations in a small cohort of COVID-19 patients and in healthy individuals. We describe a significantly lower level of expression of CD73 on cytotoxic lymphocyte populations, including CD8+ T, natural killer T (NKT), and natural killer (NK) cells, during COVID-19. Interestingly, the decrease of CD73 on CD8+ T cells and NKT cells correlated with serum ferritin levels. Furthermore, we observed distinct functional differences between the CD73+ and CD73- subsets of CD8+ T cells and NKT cells with regard to cytokine/toxin secretion. In COVID-19 patients, the majority of the CD73-CD8+ T cells were capable of secreting granzyme B, perforin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) or interferon-gamma (IFN-γ). To conclude, in this first study of CD39 and CD73 expression of lymphocytes in COVID-19, we show that CD8+ T cells and NKT cells lacking CD73 possess a significantly higher cytotoxic effector functionality compared to their CD73+ counterparts. Future studies should investigate differences of cellular CD39 and CD73 expression in patients at different disease stages and their potential as prognostic markers or targets for immunomodulatory therapies.


Assuntos
5'-Nucleotidase/metabolismo , Apirase/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Células T Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Adenosina/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/enzimologia , Feminino , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/metabolismo , Granzimas/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/enzimologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Perforina/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/enzimologia , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
17.
Nature ; 583(7814): 127-132, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555459

RESUMO

Cellular senescence is characterized by stable cell-cycle arrest and a secretory program that modulates the tissue microenvironment1,2. Physiologically, senescence serves as a tumour-suppressive mechanism that prevents the expansion of premalignant cells3,4 and has a beneficial role in wound-healing responses5,6. Pathologically, the aberrant accumulation of senescent cells generates an inflammatory milieu that leads to chronic tissue damage and contributes to diseases such as liver and lung fibrosis, atherosclerosis, diabetes and osteoarthritis1,7. Accordingly, eliminating senescent cells from damaged tissues in mice ameliorates the symptoms of these pathologies and even promotes longevity1,2,8-10. Here we test the therapeutic concept that chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells that target senescent cells can be effective senolytic agents. We identify the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR)11 as a cell-surface protein that is broadly induced during senescence and show that uPAR-specific CAR T cells efficiently ablate senescent cells in vitro and in vivo. CAR T cells that target uPAR extend the survival of mice with lung adenocarcinoma that are treated with a senescence-inducing combination of drugs, and restore tissue homeostasis in mice in which liver fibrosis is induced chemically or by diet. These results establish the therapeutic potential of senolytic CAR T cells for senescence-associated diseases.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/patologia , Senescência Celular/imunologia , Cirrose Hepática/terapia , Longevidade/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/imunologia , Rejuvenescimento , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Adenocarcinoma/imunologia , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/terapia , Animais , Tetracloreto de Carbono , Feminino , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/induzido quimicamente , Cirrose Hepática/imunologia , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/metabolismo , Receptores de Ativador de Plasminogênio Tipo Uroquinase/genética , Receptores de Ativador de Plasminogênio Tipo Uroquinase/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/metabolismo
18.
Science ; 368(6493): 897-901, 2020 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32381591

RESUMO

Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) kill infected and cancerous cells. We detected transfer of cytotoxic multiprotein complexes, called supramolecular attack particles (SMAPs), from CTLs to target cells. SMAPs were rapidly released from CTLs and were autonomously cytotoxic. Mass spectrometry, immunochemical analysis, and CRISPR editing identified a carboxyl-terminal fragment of thrombospondin-1 as an unexpected SMAP component that contributed to target killing. Direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy resolved a cytotoxic core surrounded by a thrombospondin-1 shell of ~120 nanometer diameter. Cryo-soft x-ray tomography analysis revealed that SMAPs had a carbon-dense shell and were stored in multicore granules. We propose that SMAPs are autonomous extracellular killing entities that deliver cytotoxic cargo targeted by the specificity of shell components.


Assuntos
Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Granzimas/metabolismo , Complexos Multiproteicos/metabolismo , Perforina/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/metabolismo , Trombospondina 1/metabolismo , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Exocitose , Edição de Genes , Humanos , Células K562 , Trombospondina 1/genética , Tomografia por Raios X
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(23): 12961-12968, 2020 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32444487

RESUMO

Viral immune evasion is currently understood to focus on deflecting CD8 T cell recognition of infected cells by disrupting antigen presentation pathways. We evaluated viral interference with the ultimate step in cytotoxic T cell function, the death of infected cells. The viral inhibitor of caspase-8 activation (vICA) conserved in human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and murine CMV (MCMV) prevents the activation of caspase-8 and proapoptotic signaling. We demonstrate the key role of vICA from either virus, in deflecting antigen-specific CD8 T cell-killing of infected cells. vICA-deficient mutants, lacking either UL36 or M36, exhibit greater susceptibility to CD8 T cell control than mutants lacking the set of immunoevasins known to disrupt antigen presentation via MHC class I. This difference is evident during infection in the natural mouse host infected with MCMV, in settings where virus-specific CD8 T cells are adoptively transferred. Finally, we identify the molecular mechanism through which vICA acts, demonstrating the central contribution of caspase-8 signaling at a point of convergence of death receptor-induced apoptosis and perforin/granzyme-dependent cytotoxicity.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/imunologia , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Animais , Apoptose/imunologia , Caspase 8/genética , Caspase 8/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Técnicas de Cocultura , Citomegalovirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/virologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fibroblastos , Granzimas/metabolismo , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/imunologia , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Muromegalovirus/genética , Muromegalovirus/imunologia , Muromegalovirus/metabolismo , Mutagênese , Perforina/genética , Perforina/metabolismo , Receptores de Morte Celular/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/metabolismo , Imagem com Lapso de Tempo , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/imunologia , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo
20.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231430, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32275689

RESUMO

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) in the tumor microenvironment facilitate intercellular communication. Cancer cell-derived EVs act as an immunosuppressor by transporting cargos and presenting transmembrane proteins. By contrast, CD8+ cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) exert anti-cancer cytotoxicity via the pore-forming protein perforin. Here, we hypothesize that although EVs are destroyed by perforin, cancer cell-derived EVs might possess mechanisms that enable them to avoid this destruction. We used a breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231-luc-D3H2LN (D3H2LN), to generate EVs. Destruction of the EVs by perforin was demonstrated visually using atomic force microscopy. To investigate immunosuppressive metabolites within cancer cell-derived EVs, we performed metabolomic profiling of EVs from D3H2LN cells cultured for 48 h with or without IFN-γ, which induces metabolic changes in the cells. We found that both types of EV from IFN-γ treated D3H2LN cells and non-treated D3H2LN cells contained adenosine, which has immunosuppressive effects. When we exposed cancer cell-derived EVs to CTLs, perforin secretion by CTLs fell significantly. In addition, the decreases in perforin secretion were ameliorated by treatment with adenosine deaminase, which degrades extracellular adenosine. Taken together, these results suggest that after perforin secreted by CTLs disrupts the membrane of EVs, adenosine released from the EVs acts as an immunosuppressive metabolite by binding to the adenosine receptor on the CTL membrane. This mechanism provides a novel survival strategy using cancer cell-derived EVs.


Assuntos
Adenosina/metabolismo , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Perforina/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células Cultivadas , Vesículas Extracelulares/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Interferon gama/farmacologia , Perforina/farmacologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/efeitos dos fármacos
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