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1.
Life Sci ; 259: 118218, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32784057

RESUMO

AIMS: The balance between various CD4+ T cell subsets through highly regulated differentiation of naïve T cells is critical to ensure proper immune response, disruption of which may cause autoimmunity and cancers. miR-10a has been reported to regulate the fate of naïve T cells. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) derived exosomes are known effective immunomodulators and ideal vehicles for delivery of microRNAs. This study was aimed to examine the impacts of miR-10a on CD4+ cell fate upon exosomal delivery in combination with immunomodulatory effects of MSCs. MAIN METHODS: Exosomes isolated form adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSC-Exo) were transfected with miR-10a and added to naïve T cells purified from mouse spleen. AD-MSC-Exos were characterized and the efficacy of miR-10a delivery was evaluated. The expression levels of T-bet, GATA3, RORγt, and Foxp3 and the secreted levels of IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-17, and TGF-ß respectively specific to Th1, Th2, Th17 and Treg, were assessed by qPCR and ELISA. KEY FINDINGS: Being transferred by AD-MSC-Exo, miR-10a was effectively induced in CD4+ T cells. Upon treatment with miR-10a loaded exosomes, the expression levels of RORγt and Foxp3 were enhanced and that of T-bet was reduced. Similarly, the secreted levels of IL-17, and TGF-ß were increased and that of IFN-γ was decreased. SIGNIFICANCE: Our data indicate that miR-10a loaded exosomes, promote Th17 and Tregs response while reduce that of Th1. Promotion of both Th17 and Tregs in concert, mediated by the combined effect of miR-10a and MSC-Exo, indicate new therapeutic potentials, particularly in line with novel anti-tumor immunotherapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Exossomos/imunologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/imunologia , MicroRNAs/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Células Th17/imunologia , Adiposidade/fisiologia , Adulto , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Técnicas de Cocultura , Exossomos/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , MicroRNAs/genética , Baço/citologia , Baço/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/citologia , Células Th17/classificação
2.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237465, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785290

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes include tumor-reactive lymphocytes and regulatory T-cells. However, the prognostic value of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remains unclear. METHODS: We used immunohistochemistry to evaluate the presence of tumor-infiltrating FoxP3⁺ T-cells and CTLA-4⁺ cells in four distinct histological compartments (tumor parenchyma and stroma at the tumor center, and parenchyma and stroma at the invasive front) and assessed the association between the prevalence of these cells and the histopathological status of 137 patients with OSCC. RESULTS: Five-year overall survival, disease-specific survival, and recurrence-free survival were favorable in patients with high numbers of FoxP3⁺ T-cells in the parenchyma of the invasive front. Recurrence-free survival and metastasis-free survival were decreased in patients with high numbers of CTLA-4⁺ cells in the parenchyma of the invasive front. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of FoxP3⁺ T-cells in the parenchyma of the invasive front may be a useful prognostic factor. Our results indicate that FoxP3⁺ T-cells may exert site-specific anti-tumor effects but may not play an immunosuppressive role in OSCC. In addition, our results suggest that CTLA-4+ cells suppress the function of FoxP3+ T-cells and promote anti-tumor immunity in OSCC.


Assuntos
Antígeno CTLA-4/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/citologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Bucais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Bucais/mortalidade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Taxa de Sobrevida , Linfócitos T Reguladores/citologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo
3.
Gene ; 757: 144931, 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640308

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to investigate the role of close homolog of L1 (CHL1) on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and the correlation with the balance of Th17/Treg. METHODS: Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced IBD mice model was established. CHL1 knockout (KO) mice and CHL1 wild-type (WT) mice were subjected to DSS. CHL1 expression was detected using qRT-PCR. Weight was recorded daily, and disease activity index (DAI) score was assessed. The colon length and histological changes were measured. The number of neutrophils, macrophages and T cells was observed by immunohistochemistry. The expression of inflammatory cytokines and the proportion of Th17/Treg cells were detected by qRT-PCR and flow cytometry. The expression of RORγt, STAT3 and Foxp3 was detected by using immunohistochemistry and Western blot. RESULTS: CHL1 expression was upregulated in DSS-induced IBD mice. DSS-CHLl-KO mice exhibited less weight loss than the DSS-CHLl-WT mice. The DAI score and histological score were decreased in DSS-CHLl-KO mice compared with DSS-CHLl-WT mice, while colon length was increased. Number of neutrophils, macrophages and T cells, and expression of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-17A, IL-21 and IL-23 were decreased in DSS-CHLl-KO mice, while IL-10 expression was increased. Moreover, CHL1-deficient inhibited Th17 cells differentiation and promoted Treg cells differentiation in IBD mice. CHL1-deficient also inhibited the expression of RORγt and STAT3, and promoted the expression of Foxp3 in IBD mice. CONCLUSION: CHL1-deficient reduces the inflammatory response by regulating the balance of Th17/Treg in mice with IBD. CHL1 is expected to be a new target for the treatment of IBD.


Assuntos
Moléculas de Adesão Celular/genética , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/genética , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Células Th17/imunologia , Animais , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/deficiência , Diferenciação Celular , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/sangue , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/imunologia , Interleucinas/genética , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Membro 3 do Grupo F da Subfamília 1 de Receptores Nucleares/genética , Membro 3 do Grupo F da Subfamília 1 de Receptores Nucleares/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores/citologia , Células Th17/citologia
4.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234479, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32542025

RESUMO

There are differences in disease susceptibility to whirling disease (WD) among strains of rainbow trout. The North American strain Trout Lodge (TL) is highly susceptible, whereas the German Hofer (HO) strain is more resistant. The suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins are key in inhibiting cytokine signaling. Their role in modulating the immune response against whirling disease is not completely clear. This study aimed at investigating the transcriptional response of SOCS1 and SOCS3 genes to Myxobolus cerebralis along with that of several upstream regulators and immune response genes. M. cerebralis induced the expression of SOCS1, the IL-6-dependent SOCS3, the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and the Treg associated transcription factor FOXP3 in TL fish at multiple time points, which likely caused a restricted STAT1 and STAT3 activity affecting the Th17/Treg17 balance. The expression of SOCS1 and the IL-6-dependent SOCS3 was induced constraining the activation of STAT1 and STAT3 in TL fish, thereby causing Th17/Treg17 imbalance and leaving the fish unable to establish a protective immune response against M. cerebralis or control inflammatory reactions increasing susceptibility to WD. Conversely, in HO fish, the expression of SOCS1 and SOCS3 was restrained, whereas the expression of STAT1 and IL-23-mediated STAT3 was induced potentially enabling more controlled immune responses, accelerating parasite clearance and elevating resistance. The induced expression of STAT1 and IL-23-mediated STAT3 likely maintained a successful Th17/Treg17 balance and enabled fish to promote effective immune responses favouring resistance against WD. The results provide insights into the role of SOCS1 and SOCS3 in regulating the activation and magnitude of host immunity in rainbow trout, which may help us understand the mechanisms that underlie the variation in resistance to WD.


Assuntos
Suscetibilidade a Doenças/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Myxobolus/imunologia , Oncorhynchus mykiss/imunologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/imunologia , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/imunologia , Proteína 3 Supressora da Sinalização de Citocinas/imunologia , Animais , Oncorhynchus mykiss/parasitologia , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/imunologia , Proteína 1 Supressora da Sinalização de Citocina/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/citologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Células Th17/citologia , Células Th17/imunologia
5.
Nature ; 585(7826): 591-596, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32526765

RESUMO

Recent clinical and experimental evidence has evoked the concept of the gut-brain axis to explain mutual interactions between the central nervous system and gut microbiota that are closely associated with the bidirectional effects of inflammatory bowel disease and central nervous system disorders1-4. Despite recent advances in our understanding of neuroimmune interactions, it remains unclear how the gut and brain communicate to maintain gut immune homeostasis, including in the induction and maintenance of peripheral regulatory T cells (pTreg cells), and what environmental cues prompt the host to protect itself from development of inflammatory bowel diseases. Here we report a liver-brain-gut neural arc that ensures the proper differentiation and maintenance of pTreg cells in the gut. The hepatic vagal sensory afferent nerves are responsible for indirectly sensing the gut microenvironment and relaying the sensory inputs to the nucleus tractus solitarius of the brainstem, and ultimately to the vagal parasympathetic nerves and enteric neurons. Surgical and chemical perturbation of the vagal sensory afferents at the hepatic afferent level reduced the abundance of colonic pTreg cells; this was attributed to decreased aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) expression and retinoic acid synthesis by intestinal antigen-presenting cells. Activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors directly induced ALDH gene expression in both human and mouse colonic antigen-presenting cells, whereas genetic ablation of these receptors abolished the stimulation of antigen-presenting cells in vitro. Disruption of left vagal sensory afferents from the liver to the brainstem in mouse models of colitis reduced the colonic pTreg cell pool, resulting in increased susceptibility to colitis. These results demonstrate that the novel vago-vagal liver-brain-gut reflex arc controls the number of pTreg cells and maintains gut homeostasis. Intervention in this autonomic feedback feedforward system could help in the development of therapeutic strategies to treat or prevent immunological disorders of the gut.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/citologia , Intestinos/citologia , Intestinos/inervação , Fígado/citologia , Fígado/inervação , Neurônios/fisiologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/citologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Vias Aferentes , Animais , Células Apresentadoras de Antígenos/imunologia , Colite/imunologia , Colite/metabolismo , Colite/patologia , Homeostase , Humanos , Intestinos/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Ratos , Receptores Muscarínicos/metabolismo , Baço/citologia , Baço/imunologia , Nervo Vago/fisiologia
6.
Nature ; 582(7812): 416-420, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32499641

RESUMO

Regulatory T (Treg) cells are required to control immune responses and maintain homeostasis, but are a significant barrier to antitumour immunity1. Conversely, Treg instability, characterized by loss of the master transcription factor Foxp3 and acquisition of proinflammatory properties2, can promote autoimmunity and/or facilitate more effective tumour immunity3,4. A comprehensive understanding of the pathways that regulate Foxp3 could lead to more effective Treg therapies for autoimmune disease and cancer. The availability of new functional genetic tools has enabled the possibility of systematic dissection of the gene regulatory programs that modulate Foxp3 expression. Here we developed a CRISPR-based pooled screening platform for phenotypes in primary mouse Treg cells and applied this technology to perform a targeted loss-of-function screen of around 500 nuclear factors to identify gene regulatory programs that promote or disrupt Foxp3 expression. We identified several modulators of Foxp3 expression, including ubiquitin-specific peptidase 22 (Usp22) and ring finger protein 20 (Rnf20). Usp22, a member of the deubiquitination module of the SAGA chromatin-modifying complex, was revealed to be a positive regulator that stabilized Foxp3 expression; whereas the screen suggested that Rnf20, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, can serve as a negative regulator of Foxp3. Treg-specific ablation of Usp22 in mice reduced Foxp3 protein levels and caused defects in their suppressive function that led to spontaneous autoimmunity but protected against tumour growth in multiple cancer models. Foxp3 destabilization in Usp22-deficient Treg cells could be rescued by ablation of Rnf20, revealing a reciprocal ubiquitin switch in Treg cells. These results reveal previously unknown modulators of Foxp3 and demonstrate a screening method that can be broadly applied to discover new targets for Treg immunotherapies for cancer and autoimmune disease.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Animais , Autoimunidade/imunologia , Células Cultivadas , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/biossíntese , Edição de Genes , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Masculino , Camundongos , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Estabilidade Proteica , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Linfócitos T Reguladores/citologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Ubiquitina Tiolesterase/deficiência , Ubiquitina Tiolesterase/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/deficiência , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo
7.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(2): 154-158, 2020 Apr 28.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32458604

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical characteristics and the distribution of peripheral blood T lymphocyte sub-sets in patients with schistosomal hepatic cirrhosis in Suzhou City. METHODS: A total of 32 inpatients with liver diseases due to advanced schistosomiasis at the Department of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University from January 2016 to January 2018 were recruited and assigned into the infection and non-infection groups according to presence of co-infections, and 20 old healthy volunteers served as controls. Venous blood samples were collected on the day of admission, and the proportions of CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, regulatory T (Treg) cells and Th17 cells were detected in peripheral blood using flow cytometry. RESULTS: Most patients with liver disorders due to advanced schistosomiasis were admitted to hospital in Suzhou City because of portal hypertension-associated complications, with a high prevalence of co-infections (59.38%, 19/32). The proportions of peripheral CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and Th17 cells were all significantly lower in patients with liver disorders due to advanced schistosomiasis than in controls (t = -5.111, -4.470 and -2.749, all P < 0.05), and a higher proportion of Treg cells was detected in patients than in controls (t = 5.628, P < 0.05). In addition, there were significant differences among the infection group, non-infection group and controls in terms of the percentage of CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, Th17 cells and Treg cells (F = 15.837, 16.594, 9.290 and 27.866, all P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Portal hypertension-associated complications are predominantly seen in patients with liver diseases due to advanced schistosomiasis at admission in Suzhou City, and co-infections are common. Imbalance of peripheral T cell subsets is detected in patients with liver diseases due to advanced schistosomiasis in Suzhou City.


Assuntos
Hepatopatias Parasitárias , Esquistossomose , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/citologia , China , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Hepatopatias Parasitárias/sangue , Hepatopatias Parasitárias/etiologia , Esquistossomose/sangue , Esquistossomose/complicações , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/citologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/citologia , Células Th17/citologia
8.
Nature ; 581(7809): 475-479, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32461639

RESUMO

Intestinal health relies on the immunosuppressive activity of CD4+ regulatory T (Treg) cells1. Expression of the transcription factor Foxp3 defines this lineage, and can be induced extrathymically by dietary or commensal-derived antigens in a process assisted by a Foxp3 enhancer known as conserved non-coding sequence 1 (CNS1)2-4. Products of microbial fermentation including butyrate facilitate the generation of peripherally induced Treg (pTreg) cells5-7, indicating that metabolites shape the composition of the colonic immune cell population. In addition to dietary components, bacteria modify host-derived molecules, generating a number of biologically active substances. This is epitomized by the bacterial transformation of bile acids, which creates a complex pool of steroids8 with a range of physiological functions9. Here we screened the major species of deconjugated bile acids for their ability to potentiate the differentiation of pTreg cells. We found that the secondary bile acid 3ß-hydroxydeoxycholic acid (isoDCA) increased Foxp3 induction by acting on dendritic cells (DCs) to diminish their immunostimulatory properties. Ablating one receptor, the farnesoid X receptor, in DCs enhanced the generation of Treg cells and imposed a transcriptional profile similar to that induced by isoDCA, suggesting an interaction between this bile acid and nuclear receptor. To investigate isoDCA in vivo, we took a synthetic biology approach and designed minimal microbial consortia containing engineered Bacteroides strains. IsoDCA-producing consortia increased the number of colonic RORγt-expressing Treg cells in a CNS1-dependent manner, suggesting enhanced extrathymic differentiation.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/química , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores/citologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Bacteroides/metabolismo , Colo/microbiologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Feminino , Fermentação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Consórcios Microbianos , Membro 3 do Grupo F da Subfamília 1 de Receptores Nucleares/metabolismo , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/metabolismo
9.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 77(21): 4269-4287, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350553

RESUMO

CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells are key players in keeping excessive inflammation in check. Mounting evidence has shown that Treg cells exert much more diverse functions in both immunological and non-immunological processes. The development, maintenance and functional specification of Treg cells are regulated by multilayered factors, including antigens and TCR signaling, cytokines, epigenetic modifiers and transcription factors (TFs). In the review, we will focus on TFs by summarizing their unique and redundant roles in Treg cells under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. We will also discuss the recent advances of Treg trajectories between lymphoid organs and non-lymphoid tissues. This review will provide an updated view of the newly identified TFs and new functions of known TFs in Treg biology.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Ativação Transcricional , Animais , Epigênese Genética , Humanos , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Transdução de Sinais , Linfócitos T Reguladores/citologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 185, 2020 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111171

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) arthritis is one of the most detrimental joint diseases known and leads to severe joint destruction within days. We hypothesized that the provision of auxiliary immunoregulation via an expanded compartment of T regulatory cells (Tregs) could dampen detrimental aspects of the host immune response whilst preserving its protective nature. Administration of low-dose interleukin 2 (IL2) preferentially expands Tregs, and is being studied as a treatment choice in several autoimmune conditions. We aimed to evaluate the role of IL2 and Tregs in septic arthritis using a well-established mouse model of haematogenously spred S. aureus arthritis. METHODS: C57BL/6 or NMRI mice we intravenously (iv) injected with a defined dose of S. aureus LS-1 or Newman and the role of IL2 and Tregs were assessed by the following approaches: IL2 was endogenously delivered by intraperitoneal injection of a recombinant adeno-associated virus vector (rAAV) before iv S. aureus inoculation; Tregs were depleted before and during S. aureus arthritis using antiCD25 antibodies; Tregs were adoptively transferred before induction of S. aureus arthritis and finally, recombinant IL2 was used as a treatment starting day 3 after S. aureus injection. Studied outcomes included survival, weight change, bacterial clearance, and joint damage. RESULTS: Expansion of Tregs induced by IL2 gene therapy prior to disease onset does not compromise host resistance to S. aureus infection, as the increased proportions of Tregs reduced the arthritis severity as well as the systemic inflammatory response, while simultaneously preserving the host's ability to clear the infection. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-treatment with IL2 gene therapy dampens detrimental immune responses but preserves appropriate host defense, which alleviates S. aureus septic arthritis in a mouse model.


Assuntos
Artrite Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Terapia Genética , Interleucina-2/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/patogenicidade , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Artrite Infecciosa/etiologia , Dependovirus/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Vetores Genéticos/metabolismo , Interleucina-2/metabolismo , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-2/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteínas Recombinantes/biossíntese , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T Reguladores/citologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo
11.
J Vis Exp ; (156)2020 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150154

RESUMO

Immune cell subtype population frequencies can have a large effect on the efficacy of T cell therapies. Current methods, like flow cytometry, have specific sample requirements, high sample input, are low throughput, and are difficult to standardize, all of which are detrimental to characterization of cell therapy products during their development and manufacturing. The assays described herein accurately identify and quantify immune cell types in a heterogeneous mixture of cells using isolated genomic DNA (gDNA). DNA methylation patterns are revealed through bisulfite conversion, a process in which unmethylated cytosines are converted to uracils. Unmethylated DNA regions are detected through qPCR amplification using primers targeting converted areas. One unique locus per assay is measured and serves as an accurate identifier for a specific cell type. The assays are robust and identify CD8+, regulatory, and Th17 T cells in a high throughput manner. These optimized assays can potentially be used for in-process and product release testing for cell therapy process.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/citologia , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/citologia , Células Th17/citologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Sulfitos/química , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Células Th17/metabolismo
12.
Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 55(2): 80-85, 2020 Feb 09.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32074667

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the effects of exogenous interleukin (IL)-35 on the balance of helper T cell 17 (Th17) and regulatory T cell (Treg) in peripheral blood of patients with oral lichen planus (OLP). Methods: Totally 12 peripheral blood samples of OLP patients (OLP group, one male and 11 female, 26-68 years old; four cases of reticular OLP and eight cases of erosive OLP) were collected from patients of Department of Oral Mucosal Specialist of the Affiliated Hospital of Guizhou Medical University from October to December 2016. During the same period, thirteen normal peripheral blood samples were collected from the Physical Examination Center of the Affiliated Hospital of Guizhou Medical University (normal control group, one male and 12 female, 20-68 years old). The peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were extracted in sterile condition and CD4+ T cells were sorted by flow cytometry (FCM). Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) technique was used to detect the mRNA expression levels of retinoid-related orphan nuclear γt (RORγt) and forkhead box3 (Foxp3). The CD4+ T cells were divided into experimental group and control group. The CD4+ T cells of experimental group were cultured in vitro by adding rhIL-35, and the CD4+ T cells of control group were cultured with the same volume of phosphate buffered saline (PBS). After the completion of the culture, the cells were collected. The expression levels of the same factors were detected by qPCR. Results: The expression [M(Q(25), Q(75))] of Foxp3 [0.15 (0.09, 0.30)] and RORγt mRNA [1.04 (0.45, 2.15)] in the CD4+ T cells of OLP were significantly higher than those in normal control group [0.04 (0.02, 0.06), 0.10 (0.05, 0.11)] (Z=-4.134, P<0.01; Z=-3.699, P<0.01). The ratio of ROR γt/Foxp3 mRNA in OLP group [6.22(3.67, 15.34)] was higher than that in normal control group [2.50 (1.24, 5.23)] (Z=-2.665, P=0.007). In the CD4+ T cells of OLP patients, the expression of Foxp3 mRNA in the experiment group [0.40 (0.21, 1.22)] was higher than that in the control group [0.15 (0.11, 0.26)](Z=-2.510, P=0.012), and the expression of ROR γt mRNA between two groups showed no significant difference (P>0.05). The ROR γt/Foxp3 mRNA ratio [3.44 (1.55, 8.16)] of the experiment group was lower than that in the control group [6.22 (4.43, 12.21)] (Z=-2.746, P=0.006). Conclusions: There was a Th17/Treg imbalance with predominated by Th17 cells in the peripheral blood of patients with OLP. Exogenous rhIL-35 had an immunomodulatory effect on the balance of Th17/Treg.


Assuntos
Interleucinas/farmacologia , Líquen Plano Bucal/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/citologia , Células Th17/citologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Líquen Plano Bucal/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Membro 3 do Grupo F da Subfamília 1 de Receptores Nucleares/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0220756, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040478

RESUMO

Adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cell (ASC)-derived extracellular vesicles (EV) have been reported to be beneficial against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. We hypothesize that the tumor necrosis factor-α-stimulated gene/protein 6 (TSG-6) in EVs is a key factor influencing the alleviation of colitis symptoms. DSS-induced colitis mice (C57BL/6, male, Naïve = 6, Sham = 8, PBS = 8 EV = 8, CTL-EV = 8, TSG-6 depleted EV = 8) were intraperitoneally administered EVs (100 ug/mice) on day 1, 3, and 5; colon tissues were collected on day 10 for histopathological, RT-qPCR, western blot and immunofluorescence analyses. In mice injected with EV, inflammation was alleviated. Indeed, EVs regulated the levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-1ß, IFN-γ, IL-6, and IL-10 in inflamed colons. However, when injected with TSG-6 depleted EV, the degree of inflammatory relief was reduced. Furthermore, TSG-6 in EVs plays a key role in increasing regulatory T cells (Tregs) and polarizing macrophage from M1 to M2 in the colon. In conclusion, this study shows that TSG-6 in EVs is a major factor in the relief of DSS-induced colitis, by increasing the number of Tregs and macrophage polarization from M1 to M2 in the colon.


Assuntos
Moléculas de Adesão Celular/farmacologia , Colite/prevenção & controle , Vesículas Extracelulares/química , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/química , Animais , Contagem de Células , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/terapia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Sulfato de Dextrana/efeitos adversos , Cães , Vesículas Extracelulares/transplante , Inflamação/terapia , Macrófagos/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/ultraestrutura , Camundongos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/citologia
14.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228745, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023301

RESUMO

HIV-1 infection is characterized by generalized deregulation of the immune system, resulting in increased chronic immune activation. However, some individuals called HIV controllers (HICs) present spontaneous control of viral replication and have a more preserved immune system. Among HICs, discordant results have been observed regarding immune activation and the frequency of different T cell subsets, including Treg and Th17 cells. We evaluated T cell immune activation, differentiation and regulatory profiles in two groups of HICs-elite controllers (ECs) and viremic controllers (VCs)-and compared them to those of cART-treated individuals (cART) and HIV-1-negative (HIV-neg) individuals. ECs demonstrated similar levels of activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in comparison to HIV-neg, while cART and VCs showed elevated T cell activation. CD4+ T cell subset analyses showed differences only for transitional memory T cell frequency between the EC and HIV-neg groups. However, VC individuals showed higher frequencies of terminally differentiated, naïve, and stem cell memory T cells and lower frequencies of transitional memory and central memory T cells compared to the HIV-neg group. Among CD8+ T cell subsets, ECs presented higher frequencies of stem cell memory T cells, while VCs presented higher frequencies of terminally differentiated T cells compared to the HIV-neg group. HICs showed lower frequencies of total Treg cells compared to the HIV-neg and cART groups. ECs also presented higher frequencies of activated and a lower frequency of resting Treg cells than the HIV-neg and cART groups. Furthermore, we observed a high frequency of Th17 cells in ECs and high Th17/Treg ratios in both HIC groups. Our data showed that ECs had low levels of activated T cells and a high frequency of activated Treg and Th17 cells, which could restrict chronic immune activation and be indicative of a preserved mucosal response in these individuals.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/imunologia , HIV-1/fisiologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Células Th17/imunologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linfócitos T Reguladores/citologia , Células Th17/citologia
15.
J Med Microbiol ; 69(4): 591-599, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32043953

RESUMO

Introduction. Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) is an extensively studied super-antigen. A previous study by us suggested that SEB exposure during pregnancy could alter the percentage of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the peripheral blood of neonatal offspring rats.Aim. It is unknown whether SEB exposure during pregnancy can influence the development of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the peripheral blood of neonatal offspring rats.Methodology. Pregnant rats at gestational day 16 were intravenously injected with 15 µg SEB. Peripheral blood was acquired from neonatal offspring rats on days 1, 3 and 5 after delivery and from adult offspring rats for determination of Treg number by cytometry, cytokines by ELISA, and FoxP3 expression by real-time PCR and western blot.Results. SEB given to pregnant rats significantly increased the absolute number of Tregs and the expression levels of FoxP3, IL-10 and TGF-ß (P<0.05, P<0.01) in the peripheral blood of not only neonatal but also adult offspring rats. Furthermore, repeated SEB exposure in adult offspring rats significantly decreased the absolute number of Tregs (P<0.01), and the expression levels of FoxP3, IL-10 and TGF-ß (P<0.05, P<0.01) in their peripheral blood.Conclusion. Prenatal SEB exposure attenuates the development and function of Tregs to repeated SEB exposure in the peripheral blood of adult offspring rats.


Assuntos
Enterotoxinas/imunologia , Complicações na Gravidez/imunologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/imunologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Animais , Feminino , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/imunologia , Humanos , Interleucina-10/genética , Interleucina-10/imunologia , Masculino , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/microbiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/microbiologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Infecções Estafilocócicas/genética , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/citologia
16.
Nat Med ; 26(2): 236-243, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959990

RESUMO

Drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome/drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DiHS/DRESS) is a potentially fatal multiorgan inflammatory disease associated with herpesvirus reactivation and subsequent onset of autoimmune diseases1-4. Pathophysiology remains elusive and therapeutic options are limited. Cases refractory to corticosteroid therapy pose a clinical challenge1,5 and approximately 30% of patients with DiHS/DRESS develop complications, including infections and inflammatory and autoimmune diseases1,2,5. Progress in single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) provides an opportunity to dissect human disease pathophysiology at unprecedented resolutions6, particularly in diseases lacking animal models, such as DiHS/DRESS. We performed scRNA-seq on skin and blood from a patient with refractory DiHS/DRESS, identifying the JAK-STAT signaling pathway as a potential target. We further showed that central memory CD4+ T cells were enriched with DNA from human herpesvirus 6b. Intervention via tofacitinib enabled disease control and tapering of other immunosuppressive agents. Tofacitinib, as well as antiviral agents, suppressed culprit-induced T cell proliferation in vitro, further supporting the roles of the JAK-STAT pathway and herpesviruses in mediating the adverse drug reaction. Thus, scRNA-seq analyses guided successful therapeutic intervention in the patient with refractory DiHS/DRESS. scRNA-seq may improve our understanding of complicated human disease pathophysiology and provide an alternative approach in personalized medicine.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Hipersensibilidade a Medicamentos/terapia , Análise de Célula Única , Transcriptoma , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Doenças Autoimunes/complicações , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/citologia , Proliferação de Células , Separação Celular , Citometria de Fluxo , Herpesvirus Humano 6/imunologia , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Leucócitos Mononucleares/citologia , Linfócitos/citologia , Masculino , Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Pirróis/uso terapêutico , RNA-Seq , Transdução de Sinais , Linfócitos T Reguladores/citologia , VDJ Recombinases/metabolismo
17.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227993, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31990927

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The regulatory mechanisms affecting the modulation of the immune system accompanying the progressive effort to exhaustion, particularly associated with T cells, are not fully understood. We analysed the impact of two progressive effort protocols on T helper (Th) cell distribution and selected cytokines. METHODS: Sixty-two male soccer players with a median age of 17 (16-29) years performed different protocols for progressive exercise until exhaustion: YO-YO (YYRL1) and Beep. Blood samples for all analyses were taken three times: at baseline, post-effort, and in recovery. RESULTS: The percentage of Th1 cells increased post-effort and in recovery. The post-effort percentage of Th1 cells was higher in the Beep group compared to the YYRL1 group. Significant post-effort increase in Th17 cells was observed in both groups. The post-effort percentage of regulatory T cells (Treg) increased in the Beep group. An increased post-effort concentration of IL-2, IL-6, IL-8 and IFN-γ in both groups was observed. Post-effort TNF-α and IL-10 levels were higher than baseline in the YYRL1 group, while the post-effort IL-17A concentration was lower than baseline only in the Beep group. The recovery IL-2, IL-4, TNF-α and IFN-γ levels were higher than baseline in the YYRL1 group. The recovery IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and IFN-γ values were higher than baseline in the Beep group. CONCLUSION: The molecular patterns related to cytokine secretion are not the same between different protocols for progressive effort. It seems that Treg cells are probably the key cells responsible for silencing the inflammation and enhancing anti-inflammatory pathways.


Assuntos
Esforço Físico/imunologia , Futebol/fisiologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th17/imunologia , Células Th2/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Atletas , Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Humanos , Interferon gama/genética , Interferon gama/imunologia , Interleucina-10/genética , Interleucina-10/imunologia , Interleucina-17/genética , Interleucina-17/imunologia , Interleucina-2/genética , Interleucina-2/imunologia , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Interleucina-8/genética , Interleucina-8/imunologia , Masculino , Esforço Físico/genética , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/citologia , Células Th1/citologia , Células Th17/citologia , Células Th2/citologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
18.
Immunity ; 52(2): 295-312.e11, 2020 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924477

RESUMO

Specialized regulatory T (Treg) cells accumulate and perform homeostatic and regenerative functions in nonlymphoid tissues. Whether common precursors for nonlymphoid-tissue Treg cells exist and how they differentiate remain elusive. Using transcription factor nuclear factor, interleukin 3 regulated (Nfil3) reporter mice and single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq), we identified two precursor stages of interleukin 33 (IL-33) receptor ST2-expressing nonlymphoid tissue Treg cells, which resided in the spleen and lymph nodes. Global chromatin profiling of nonlymphoid tissue Treg cells and the two precursor stages revealed a stepwise acquisition of chromatin accessibility and reprogramming toward the nonlymphoid-tissue Treg cell phenotype. Mechanistically, we identified and validated the transcription factor Batf as the driver of the molecular tissue program in the precursors. Understanding this tissue development program will help to harness regenerative properties of tissue Treg cells for therapy.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/metabolismo , Linfonodos/imunologia , Baço/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/citologia , Transferência Adotiva , Animais , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/deficiência , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/genética , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Cromatina/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição GATA3/genética , Fator de Transcrição GATA3/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Proteína 1 Semelhante a Receptor de Interleucina-1/metabolismo , Lectinas Tipo C/genética , Lectinas Tipo C/metabolismo , Camundongos , Especificidade de Órgãos/imunologia , Receptores Imunológicos/genética , Receptores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo
19.
J Immunol ; 204(5): 1201-1213, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932499

RESUMO

Vitamin D can modulate the innate and adaptive immune system. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with various autoimmune diseases. Th9 cells are implicated in the pathogenesis of numerous autoimmune diseases. Thus, we investigated the role of calcitriol (active metabolite of vitamin D) in the regulation of Th9 cell differentiation. In this study, we have unraveled the molecular mechanisms of calcitriol-mediated regulation of Th9 cell differentiation. Calcitriol significantly diminished IL-9 secretion from murine Th9 cells associated with downregulated expression of the Th9-associated transcription factor, PU.1. Ectopic expression of VDR in Th9 cells attenuated the percentage of IL-9-secreting cells. VDR associated with PU.1 in Th9 cells. Using a series of mutations, we were able to dissect the VDR domain involved in the regulation of the Il9 gene. The VDR-PU.1 interaction prevented the accessibility of PU.1 to the Il9 gene promoter, thereby restricting its expression. However, the expression of Foxp3, regulatory T cell-specific transcription factor, was enhanced in the presence of calcitriol in Th9 cells. When Th9 cells are treated with both calcitriol and trichostatin A (histone deacetylase inhibitor), the level of IL-9 reached to the level of wild-type untreated Th9 cells. Calcitriol attenuated specific histone acetylation at the Il9 gene. In contrast, calcitriol enhanced the recruitment of the histone modifier HDAC1 at the Il9 gene promoter. In summary, we have identified that calcitriol blocked the access of PU.1 to the Il9 gene by reducing its expression and associating with it as well as regulated the chromatin of the Il9 gene to regulate expression.


Assuntos
Calcitriol/farmacologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Histona Desacetilase 1/imunologia , Interleucina-9/imunologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Transativadores/imunologia , Acetilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Histonas/imunologia , Camundongos , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/imunologia , Receptores de Calcitriol/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/citologia
20.
Immunity ; 52(1): 151-166.e6, 2020 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924474

RESUMO

In addition to helper and regulatory potential, CD4+ T cells also acquire cytotoxic activity marked by granzyme B (GzmB) expression and the ability to promote rejection of established tumors. Here, we examined the molecular and cellular mechanisms underpinning the differentiation of cytotoxic CD4+ T cells following immunotherapy. CD4+ transfer into lymphodepleted animals or regulatory T (Treg) cell depletion promoted GzmB expression by tumor-infiltrating CD4+, and this was prevented by interleukin-2 (IL-2) neutralization. Transcriptional analysis revealed a polyfunctional helper and cytotoxic phenotype characterized by the expression of the transcription factors T-bet and Blimp-1. While T-bet ablation restricted interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production, loss of Blimp-1 prevented GzmB expression in response to IL-2, suggesting two independent programs required for polyfunctionality of tumor-reactive CD4+ T cells. Our findings underscore the role of Treg cells, IL-2, and Blimp-1 in controlling the differentiation of cytotoxic CD4+ T cells and offer a pathway to enhancement of anti-tumor activity through their manipulation.


Assuntos
Granzimas/imunologia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Fator 1 de Ligação ao Domínio I Regulador Positivo/metabolismo , Proteínas com Domínio T/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/transplante , Transferência Adotiva , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Interferon gama/imunologia , Interleucina-2/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Linfócitos T Reguladores/citologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
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