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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4545, 2020 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917858

RESUMO

TGF-ß1, ß2 and ß3 bind a common receptor to exert vastly diverse effects in cancer, supporting either tumor progression by favoring metastases and inhibiting anti-tumor immunity, or tumor suppression by inhibiting malignant cell proliferation. Global TGF-ß inhibition thus bears the risk of undesired tumor-promoting effects. We show that selective blockade of TGF-ß1 production by Tregs with antibodies against GARP:TGF-ß1 complexes induces regressions of mouse tumors otherwise resistant to anti-PD-1 immunotherapy. Effects of combined GARP:TGF-ß1/PD-1 blockade are immune-mediated, do not require FcγR-dependent functions and increase effector functions of anti-tumor CD8+ T cells without augmenting immune cell infiltration or depleting Tregs within tumors. We find GARP-expressing Tregs and evidence that they produce TGF-ß1 in one third of human melanoma metastases. Our results suggest that anti-GARP:TGF-ß1 mAbs, by selectively blocking a single TGF-ß isoform emanating from a restricted cellular source exerting tumor-promoting activity, may overcome resistance to PD-1/PD-L1 blockade in patients with cancer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Membrana/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/transplante , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/imunologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo
2.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 5279-5288, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32801691

RESUMO

Introduction: Today, a new paradigm has emerged for cancer treatment introducing combination therapies. Doxil, a liposomal doxorubicin serving as a chemotherapeutic agent, is an effective immunogenic killer of cancer cells. Anti-CTLA-4 has been approved for the treatment of some cancers, including melanoma, but side effects have limited its therapeutic potential. Methods: In this study, two approaches were utilized to increase treatment efficiency and decrease the side effects of anti-CTLA-4, combining it with chemotherapy and encapsulation in a PEGylated liposome. A different sequence of anti-CTLA-4 and Doxil was assessed in combination therapy using non-liposomal and liposomal anti-CTLA-4. Results: Our results showed that liposomal anti-CTLA-4 reduced the size of established tumors and increased survival in comparison with non-liposomal anti-CTLA-4 in a well-established B16 mouse melanoma model. In combination therapy with Doxil, only the administration of anti-CTLA-4 before Doxil showed synergism in both non-liposomal and liposomal form and increased the CD8+/regulatory T cell ratio. Discussion: In summary, our results demonstrate the potential of utilizing a nanocarrier system for the delivery of checkpoint blockers, such as anti-CTLA-4 which further showed potential in a combination therapy, especially when administered before chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Antígeno CTLA-4/antagonistas & inibidores , Melanoma Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Antígeno CTLA-4/imunologia , Doxorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Doxorrubicina/análogos & derivados , Feminino , Lipossomos/química , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Polietilenoglicóis/administração & dosagem , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236433, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706801

RESUMO

Coptidis alkaloids are the primary active components of Coptis chinensis Franch. Clinical and pharmacodynamic studies have confirmed that Coptidis alkaloids have multiple therapeutic effects including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antitumor effects, and they are usually used to treat various inflammatory disorders and related diseases. Mouse bone marrow cells (BMCs) were isolated from BALB/c mice. Immune-mediated destruction of BMCs was induced by interferon (IFN) -γ. High-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/ mass spectrometry was used to analyze the ingredients of the aqueous extract from Coptis chinensis Franch. The results confirmed that Coptidis alkaloids were the predominant ingredients in the aqueous extract from Coptis chinensis. The functional mechanism of Coptidis alkaloids in inhibiting immune-mediated destruction of BMCs was studied in vitro. After Coptidis alkaloid treatment, the percentages of apoptotic BMCs and the proliferation and differentiation of helper T (Th) cells and regulatory T (Treg) cells were measured by flow cytometry. The expression and distribution of T-bet in BMCs were observed by immunofluorescence. Western blotting analysis was used to assay the expression of key molecules in the Fas apoptosis and Jak/Stats signaling pathways in BMCs. We identified five alkaloids in the aqueous extract of Coptis chinensis. The apoptotic ratios of BMCs induced by IFN-γ were decreased significantly after Coptidis alkaloid treatment. The levels of key molecules (Fas, Caspase-3, cleaved Caspase-3, Caspase-8 and Caspase-8) in Fas apoptosis signaling pathways also decreased significantly after treatment with low concentrations of Coptidis alkaloids. Coptidis alkaloids were also found to inhibit the proliferation of Th1 and Th17 cells and induce the differentiation of Th2 and Treg cells; further, the distribution of T-bet in BMCs was decreased significantly. In addition, the levels of Stat-1, phospho-Stat-1 and phospho-Stat-3 were also reduced after Coptidis alkaloid treatment. These results indicate that Coptidis alkaloids extracted by water decoction from Coptis chinensis Franch could inhibit the proliferation and differentiation of T lymphocytes, attenuate the apoptosis of BMCs, and suppress the immune-mediated destruction of the BMCs induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/farmacologia , Células da Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Coptis/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Células da Medula Óssea/patologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/imunologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/patologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/patologia
4.
Mol Immunol ; 125: 162-171, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32688118

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Baicalin has many biological properties such as anti-oxidation and anti-allergy. The current study aimed to explore the effect of Baicalin on allergic rhinitis (AR) and its potential mechanism of action. METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated by density gradient centrifugation. Expression levels of Th17 and Treg cells-related proteins in nasal mucosa and peripheral blood cells were detected by real-time quantitative PCR, flow cytometry and Western blot. The mice were randomly divided into Control, ovalbumin (OVA), l-Baicalin, H-Baicalin, DSGC, 3-MA, and H-Baicalin + Rapa groups. Changes of allergic rhinitis conditions and eosinophil infiltration of the mice were detected and scored by Diff-Quik staining, and histological changes were observed by Hematoxylin & Eosin (H&E) staining and Periodate Schiff (PAS) staining. Serological changes, expression levels of interleukin-17A (IL-17A), interleukin-10 (IL-10), eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP) and anti-OVA-specific antibodies were detected by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS: Clinical case analysis found that AR patients had a Th17/Treg imbalance and activated autophagy, however, Baicalin restored Th17/Treg cell balance and inhibited autophagy in vitro. in vivo experiments demonstrated that Baicalin inhibited OVA-induced allergic nasal symptoms and the activation of autophagy pathway, which was the same as the regulation of 3-MA, while Rapa could weaken the effects of H-baicalin. Moreover, Baicalin reduced the infiltration of different inflammatory cells of the nasal lavage fluid, prevented the damages to epithelial cells, and improved nasal mucosal thickness and mucus secretion. In addition, Baicalin regulated the balance of mouse anti-OVA-specific antibody levels and expressions of Th17/Treg-associated cytokines. CONCLUSION: Our study revealed that Baicalin can be used to treat AR, and the effect is realized through inhibiting autophagy to regulate Th17/Treg cell differentiation.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Rinite Alérgica/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Th17/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Autofagia/imunologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Células Th17/imunologia
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2781, 2020 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493900

RESUMO

Mutations disrupting regulatory T (Treg) cell function can cause IPEX and IPEX-related disorders, but whether established disease can be reversed by correcting these mutations is unclear. Treg-specific deletion of the chromatin remodeling factor Brg1 impairs Treg cell activation and causes fatal autoimmunity in mice. Here, we show with a reversible knockout model that re-expression of Brg1, in conjunction with the severe endogenous proinflammatory environment, can convert defective Treg cells into powerful, super-activated Treg cells (SuperTreg cells) that can resolve advanced autoimmunity,  with  Brg1 re-expression in a minor fraction of Treg cells sufficient for the resolution in some cases. SuperTreg cells have enhanced trafficking and regulatory capabilities, but become deactivated as the inflammation subsides, thus avoiding excessive immune suppression. We propose a simple, robust yet safe gene-editing-based therapy for IPEX and IPEX-related disorders that exploits the defective Treg cells and the inflammatory environment pre-existing in the patients.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/congênito , Diarreia/imunologia , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/imunologia , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/congênito , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Alelos , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , DNA Helicases/deficiência , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/imunologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Proteínas Nucleares/deficiência , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Receptores CXCR3/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise de Sobrevida , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamoxifeno/farmacologia , Fatores de Transcrição/deficiência
6.
Am J Pathol ; 190(9): 1859-1866, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32473919

RESUMO

Substance P (SP) is a tachykinin neuropeptide, implicated in the pathogenesis of various inflammatory conditions and a critical mediator in pain transmission. Recently, the role of SP was described in the pathogenesis of dry eye disease (DED) through its role in the maturation of antigen-presenting cells at the ocular surface after exposure to desiccating stress. However, the effect of SP on regulatory T cells (Tregs), which are functionally impaired in DED, remains unclear. This study examined the phenotypic and functional changes in Tregs in response to SP in DED. The in vitro cultures of normal Tregs in the presence of SP led to a significant reduction in both Treg frequencies and their suppressive function, which was prevented by the addition of an SP receptor (neurokinin-1 receptor) antagonist. Furthermore, in vivo treatment with the neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist in DED mice effectively restored Treg function, suppressed pathogenic T helper 17 response, and significantly ameliorated the disease. Our results show that a significant increase in SP levels promotes Treg dysfunction in DED, and blockade of SP effectively restores Treg function and suppresses DED severity.


Assuntos
Síndromes do Olho Seco/imunologia , Síndromes do Olho Seco/metabolismo , Receptores da Neurocinina-1/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Animais , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Antagonistas do Receptor de Neuroquinina-1/farmacologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo
7.
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol ; 319(2): F192-F201, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597687

RESUMO

We have previously shown that hypertensive female rats have more regulatory T cells (Tregs), which contribute more to blood pressure (BP) control in female versus male rats. Based on known protective properties of Tregs, the goal of the present study was to investigate the mechanisms by which female rats maintain Tregs. The present study was designed to 1) compare the impact of three hypertension models on the percentage of renal Tregs and 2) test the hypothesis that nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition prevents increases in renal Tregs and exacerbates renal damage in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats (11-14 wk old) were randomized to one of the following four groups: control, norepinephrine (NE) infusion, angiotensin II infusion, or the NOS inhibitor Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) in drinking water. BP was measured via tail cuff. After 2 wk of treatment, kidneys were isolated and processed to measure Tregs via flow cytometric analysis and renal injury via urinary albumin excretion, plasma creatinine, and histological analyses. Hypertensive treatments increased BP in all experimental animals. Increases in BP in norepinephrine-and angiotensin II-treated rats were associated with increases in renal Tregs versus control. In contrast, l-NAME treatment decreased Tregs compared with all groups. l-NAME treatment modestly increased albumin excretion. However, plasma creatinine was comparable among the groups, and there was no histological evidence of glomerular or tubular injury. This study provides insights into the mechanisms regulating renal Tregs and supports that an intact NOS system is crucial for female rats to have BP-related increases in renal Tregs.


Assuntos
Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase/antagonistas & inibidores , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Rim/patologia , Rim/fisiopatologia , Testes de Função Renal , Masculino , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
8.
Life Sci ; 254: 117773, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418896

RESUMO

The disturbance of the immune homeostasis caused by infection is decisive for multiple organ dysfunction caused by sepsis. Both the th17 cell and the regulatory cell(Tregs) are important components of the immune system and play a crucial role in maintaining immune homeostasis. In this study, we explored the effect of Maresin1, an emerging specific pro-inflammatory mediator, on the balance of Th17/Treg in sepsis, and investigated the underlying mechanism. We used the male C57BL/6 mice to establish the model of sepsis-induced lung injury by cecal ligation and puncture to verify the protective effect of Maresin1. Our study showed that Maresin1 could significantly inhibit the excessive inflammatory response and promote the inflammation regression in the process of sepsis-induced acute lung injury, thereby reducing lung damage and improving lung function. These effects were accompanied with the regulation of Maresin1 on the Th17/Treg balance in the early stages of sepsis. We demonstrated that Maresin1 has a certain effect on increasing the number of Treg and decreasing the number of Th17 cells in the early stages of sepsis, which is consistent with its effect on STAT3/RORγt and STAT5/Foxp3 signal pathways. Our study elucidated for the first time the relationship between Maresin1 and Th17/Treg balance in sepsis-induced acute lung injury.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/imunologia , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/farmacologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Th17/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Citocinas/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/imunologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/patologia , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Membro 3 do Grupo F da Subfamília 1 de Receptores Nucleares/imunologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/imunologia , Fator de Transcrição STAT5/imunologia , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Sepse/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Células Th17/imunologia
9.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0226233, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379832

RESUMO

Allergic asthma is the most common phenotype of the pathology, having an early-onset in childhood and producing a Th2-driven airways remodeling process that leads to symptoms and pathophysiological changes. The avoidance of aeroallergen exposure in early life has been shown to prevent asthma, but without repeated success and with the underlying preventive mechanisms at the beginning of asthma far to be fully recognized. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate if neonatal LPS-induced boost in epithelial host defenses contribute to prevent OVA-induced asthma in adult mice. To this, we focused on the response of bronchiolar club cells (CC), which are highly specialized in maintaining the epithelial homeostasis in the lung. In these cells, neonatal LPS administration increased the expression of TLR4 and TNFα, as well as the immunodulatory/antiallergic proteins: club cell secretory protein (CCSP) and surfactant protein D (SP-D). LPS also prevented mucous metaplasia of club cells and reduced the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-dependent mucin overproduction, with mice displaying normal breathing patterns after OVA challenge. Furthermore, the overexpression of the epithelial Th2-related molecule TSLP was blunted, and normal TSLP and IL-4 levels were found in the bronchoalveolar lavage. A lower eosinophilia was detected in LPS-pretreated mice, along with an increase in phagocytes and regulatory cells (CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ and CD4+IL-10+), together with higher levels of IL-12 and TNFα. In conclusion, our study demonstrates stable asthma-preventive epithelial effects promoted by neonatal LPS stimulation, leading to the presence of regulatory cells in the lung. These anti-allergic dynamic mechanisms would be overlaid in the epithelium, favored by an adequate epidemiological environment, during the development of asthma.


Assuntos
Asma/imunologia , Bronquíolos/efeitos dos fármacos , Bronquíolos/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Epitélio/imunologia , Imunidade Inata , Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Alérgenos/imunologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Asma/prevenção & controle , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Epitélio/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Ovalbumina/imunologia , Ovalbumina/farmacologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia
10.
Vascular ; 28(5): 629-642, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366176

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Regulatory T cells (Tregs) mediate immunomodulation and protect against atherosclerosis. It is considered that reducing the amount of pro-inflammatory mediators could be achieved by enhancing the anti-inflammatory response, and this may be considered one of the main targets for therapy development. The inhibitory cytokines secreted by Tregs mainly include interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-ß). Based on its known immunosuppressive involvement with other inflammatory disorders, we hypothesized that the newly characterized cytokine interleukin-37 (IL-37) might be associated with the inhibitory functions of Treg in atherosclerosis. Immune regulatory functions of IL-37 have not been completely clarified. Accordingly, we speculated that IL-37 might play a regulatory role in the immunosuppression of Tregs in atherosclerotic disease. METHODS: Real-time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay were used to test gene expression and protein levels of IL-37 in peripheral blood and localized freshly resected arterial tissues from 84 patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease and 50 non-atherosclerotic subjects. Results were correlated to disease hallmarks. We also evaluated the ability of recombinant IL-37 to modulate Treg cytokine secretion and T cell inhibition in relation to atherosclerotic disorder in vitro.Results: Our results revealed that IL-37 was increased in patients with chronic lower limb atherosclerotic ischemia, compared to non-atherosclerotic controls. In addition, the expression levels of circulating IL-37 correlated with disease severity of chronic lower limb ischemia. Supplementation with rIL-37 augmented levels of released IL-10 and TGF-ß in supernatants of T cells co-cultured with Tregs in the enrolled patients.Conclusions: Results suggest a role for IL-37 in mediating anti-inflammatory functions in the atherosclerotic process, potentially involving enhancement of Treg inhibitory function and anti-inflammatory cytokine secretion with a particularly marked direct response in severe disease.


Assuntos
Interleucina-1/sangue , Isquemia/sangue , Doença Arterial Periférica/sangue , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Células Cultivadas , Técnicas de Cocultura , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-1/genética , Interleucina-1/farmacologia , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Isquemia/diagnóstico , Isquemia/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Doença Arterial Periférica/imunologia , Fenótipo , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo
11.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 69(10): 2063-2073, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32447412

RESUMO

Although metastatic disease is responsible for the majority of cancer deaths, tests of novel immunotherapies in mouse tumour models often focus on primary tumours without determining whether these therapies also target metastatic disease. This study examined the impact of depleting Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg), on lung metastases, using a mouse model of breast cancer. After Treg-depletion, generation of an immune response to the primary tumour was a critical determinant for limiting development of metastasis. Indeed, resection of the primary tumour abrogated any effect of Treg-depletion on metastases. In addition, whilst the immune response, generated by the primary tumour, prevented metastases development, it had little impact on controlling established disease. Collectively, the data indicate that metastatic cells in the lung are not controlled by immune responses induced by the primary tumour. These findings indicate that targeting Tregs alone will not suffice for treating lung metastases.


Assuntos
Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Depleção Linfocítica/métodos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/imunologia , Animais , Feminino , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/terapia
12.
Life Sci ; 254: 117786, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433918

RESUMO

AIMS: Ovarian cancer (OC) is the most lethal gynecological malignancies and many women develop chemoresistance associated with the inflammatory process. We investigated the effects of P-MAPA and IL-12 on the inflammatory and immune responses in a chemically-induced OC model. MAIN METHODS: OCs were induced with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene into the ovarian bursa, and the animals were given P-MAPA (5 mg/kg bw., i.p., twice a week), or IL-12 (300 ng/kg bw., i.p., one a week) for 60 days, or both P-MAPA and IL-12. Immunohistochemistry, western blot, flow cytometry, and multiplex assay were used to examine the effectiveness of immunotherapies in OC. KEY FINDINGS: The combinatory therapy improved the general OC features, reducing inflammatory cells and adipocyte accumulation, in addition to revealing a soft and mobile tissue with no adherences and peritoneal implants. P-MAPA treatment increased the levels of TLR2, TLR4 and TRIF in OCs while decreasing the number of regulatory T (Treg) cells. Additionally, the association of P-MAPA with IL-12 significantly increased the number of CD4+ and CD8+ T effector cells in draining lymph nodes. Regarding the inflammatory mediators, P-MAPA enhanced the levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-17 while P-MAPA+IL-12 increased the levels of IL-1ß. Treatment with IL-12 enhanced the cytokine levels of IL-17, TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-2 in addition to the chemokine MIP-1α. SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that P-MAPA upregulated TLR2 and TLR4 signaling, possibly activating the non-canonical pathway, while attenuating the tumor immunosuppression. Also, the combination of P-MAPA with IL-12 improves the antitumor immunoresponse, opening a new therapeutic approach for fighting OC.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Interleucina-12/farmacologia , Ácidos Linoleicos/farmacologia , Ácidos Oleicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , 9,10-Dimetil-1,2-benzantraceno , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transporte Vesicular/metabolismo , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Quimiocina CCL3/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Feminino , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Interleucina-12/uso terapêutico , Ácidos Linoleicos/uso terapêutico , Ácidos Oleicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Ratos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 69(8): 1461-1475, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32285171

RESUMO

Interleukin-33 (IL-33) regulates innate and acquired immune response to pathogens, self-antigens and tumors. IL-33 effects on tumors depend on the dose and mode of administration along with the type of malignancy. We studied the effects of IL-33 on the development of primary and metastatic melanoma induced by B16-F1 cell line in C57BL/6 mice. Intraperitoneally applied IL-33 restricts primary tumor growth. When administered intranasally 3 days prior to the intravenous injection of the tumor cells, IL-33 promoted growth of B16-F1 melanoma metastases, while B16-F10 gave massive metastases independently of IL-33. To mimic natural dissemination, we next used a limited number (5 × 104) of B16-F1 cells intravenously followed by application of IL-33 intraperitoneally. IL-33 increased the size of metastases (10.96 ± 3.96 mm2) when compared to the control group (0.86 ± 0.39 mm2), without changing incidence and number of metastases. IL-33 increased expression of ST2 on both tumor and immune cells in metastases. Also, IL-33 enhanced eosinophils and anti-tumor NK cells in the lung. The striking finding was reduced cytotoxicity of CD8+ T cells derived from metastatic lung of IL-33 injected mice. IL-33 reduced the percentage of TNF-α+ and IFN-γ+ CD8+ T cells while increasing the frequency of CD8+ T cells that express inhibitory molecules (PD-1, KLRG-1 and CTLA-4). There was a significant accumulation of CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid suppressor cells and FoxP3+, IL-10+ and CTLA-4+ regulatory T cells in the metastatic lung of IL-33 injected mice. The relevance of IL-33 for melanoma metastases was also documented in a significantly increased level of serum IL-33 in stage III melanoma patients.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Interleucina-33/administração & dosagem , Interleucina-33/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Melanoma Experimental/patologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Animais , Apoptose , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Proliferação de Células , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Melanoma Experimental/imunologia , Melanoma Experimental/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Prognóstico , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
14.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1248: 119-141, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32185709

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) therapy has become a promising way of overcoming cancers, whereas the therapy can induce immunopathology due to the disruption of the immune homeostasis. These adverse events caused by ICB are named as immune-related adverse events (irAEs), which can be severe and life-threaten. Understanding the mechanisms and managements of irAEs is critical for improving the efficacy of immune checkpoint therapy. Immune-related adverse events can occur on various organs, and gastrointestinal tract has the highest rate for severe irAEs. Accumulated evidences indicate the ability of the gut microbiota in regulating the response to immune checkpoint therapy, but the function of microbiota in irAEs remains unclear. T cells, including functional subsets: Th17 T cells and regulatory T (Treg) cells, play significant roles in determining the inflammatory microenvironment. The gut immune tolerance toward dietary antigens and commensals, and anti-inflammatory function in intestines are maintained mainly by Treg cells. Furthermore, tissue residency of functional T cells depends on the homing/trafficking to the locations of inflammation. Here, we review the role of microbiota and the interaction between microbiota and intestinal Treg cells in irAEs, and discuss the function of gut-trafficking blockade antibodies in the context of ICB therapy.


Assuntos
Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/imunologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores Imunológicos/antagonistas & inibidores , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/imunologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
15.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228380, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32012202

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment with fingolimod reduces inflammation in multiple sclerosis (MS) by inhibiting lymphocyte egress from lymph nodes. We aimed to map, in detail, the alterations in peripheral blood lymphocyte subpopulations in relation to clinical outcome in MS patients treated with fingolimod. METHODS: Paired blood samples from relapsing-remitting MS patients (n = 19) were collected before and after one year of treatment with fingolimod (0.5 mg/day). Absolute counts and relative proportions of a broad set of T- B- and NK-cell subsets were analyzed by flow cytometry. Blood samples from 18 healthy controls were used for baseline comparisons. RESULTS: Treatment with fingolimod markedly decreased the absolute numbers of all major lymphocyte subsets, except for NK cells. The reduction was most pronounced within the T helper (Th) and B cell populations (p<0.001). By phenotyping differentiation status of T cells, dramatic reductions within the naïve and central memory (CM) cell populations were found (p<0.001), while a less pronounced reduction was observed among effector memory (EM) cells (p<0.001). The numbers of regulatory T cells (Tregs) were also decreased (p<0.001), but to a lesser extent than other T cell populations, resulting in a relative preservation of Tregs with a memory phenotype (p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm that fingolimod therapy markedly reduces lymphocyte counts in peripheral blood of MS patients. Subgroup analysis of T cells showed that naïve and CM Th cells were the most profoundly affected and that memory Tregs were relatively preserved.


Assuntos
Cloridrato de Fingolimode/uso terapêutico , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Subpopulações de Linfócitos/imunologia , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/sangue , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/imunologia , Adulto , Linfócitos B/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/tratamento farmacológico , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(10): 5402-5408, 2020 03 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32102913

RESUMO

A distinct population of Foxp3+CD4+ regulatory T (Treg) cells promotes repair of acutely or chronically injured skeletal muscle. The accumulation of these cells depends critically on interleukin (IL)-33 produced by local mesenchymal stromal cells (mSCs). An intriguing physical association among muscle nerves, IL-33+ mSCs, and Tregs has been reported, and invites a deeper exploration of this cell triumvirate. Here we evidence a striking proximity between IL-33+ muscle mSCs and both large-fiber nerve bundles and small-fiber sensory neurons; report that muscle mSCs transcribe an array of genes encoding neuropeptides, neuropeptide receptors, and other nerve-related proteins; define muscle mSC subtypes that express both IL-33 and the receptor for the calcitonin-gene-related peptide (CGRP); and demonstrate that up- or down-tuning of CGRP signals augments or diminishes, respectively, IL-33 production by muscle mSCs and later accumulation of muscle Tregs. Indeed, a single injection of CGRP induced much of the genetic program elicited in mSCs early after acute skeletal muscle injury. These findings highlight neural/stromal/immune-cell crosstalk in tissue repair, suggesting future therapeutic approaches.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/lesões , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Nociceptores/fisiologia , Regeneração , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Animais , Peptídeo Relacionado com Gene de Calcitonina/farmacologia , Comunicação Celular , Interleucina-33/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Peptídeo Relacionado com o Gene de Calcitonina/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Cell Immunol ; 348: 104044, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005344

RESUMO

We recently reported that Tregs from long-term Belatacept-treated kidney transplant patients displayed an altered phenotype and impaired suppressive function compared to Tregs from healthy controls. However, it remains unknown whether ex vivo expansion of Tregs from patients who underwent long-term immunosuppression may be feasible to be used in their treatment. In this work, Tregs from Belatacept-treated patients were polyclonally expanded in vitro in the presence of rapamycin and IL-2. After four weeks of expansion, Tregs from patients expressed high levels of FOXP3, CD25, CTLA-4, Helios and CCR7, and showed strong suppressive activity, even in the presence of pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, FOXP3 TSDR demethylation remained lower in expanded Tregs from Belatacept-treated patients compared to healthy control Tregs. These data suggest that ex vivo expansion of Tregs from patients undergoing long-term immunosuppression may require the use of epigenetic modifying agents to stabilize FOXP3 expression to be considered as treatment in kidney transplant patients.


Assuntos
Abatacepte/uso terapêutico , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Rim , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Desmetilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Fenótipo , Sirolimo/farmacologia
18.
Transplantation ; 104(6): e151-e163, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32108749

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obliterative bronchiolitis (OB) remains the major complication limiting long-term survival of patients after lung transplantation. We aimed to explore the effects of the selective NACHT, LRR, and PYD domains-containing protein 3 (Nlrp3) inflammasome inhibitor MCC950 on the pathogenesis of OB. METHODS: Mouse orthotopic tracheal transplants were performed to mimic OB. MCC950 (50 mg/kg) or saline was intraperitoneally injected daily. The luminal occlusion rate and collagen deposition were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome staining, respectively. Infiltration of CD4+, CD8+ T cells, and neutrophils was detected with immunohistochemical staining. The frequencies of T helper 1 cell (Th1), T helper 17 cell (Th17), and regulatory T cells (Treg) were measured by flow cytometry. Cytokine levels were measured by ELISA kits. RESULTS: MCC950 treatment significantly inhibited Nlrp3 inflammasome activation after allogeneic tracheal transplant and markedly decreased the luminal occlusion rate and collagen deposition in the allograft. The numbers of infiltrating CD4+, CD8+ T cells, and neutrophils in the allograft were also significantly reduced by MCC950 treatment. MCC950 dramatically decreased the frequencies of Th1/Th17 cells and the levels of interferon gamma/interleukin (IL)-17A and increased the Treg cell frequencies and IL-10 level; however, these effects were abolished by the addition of IL-1ß and IL-18 both in vitro and in vivo. OB was also rescued by the addition of IL-1ß and/or IL-18. CONCLUSIONS: Blocking Nlrp3 inflammasome activation with MCC950 ameliorates OB lesions. The mechanistic analysis showed that MCC950 regulated the balance of Th1/Th17 and Treg cells and that this process is partially mediated by inhibition of IL-1ß and IL-18. Therefore, targeting the Nlrp3 inflammasome is a promising strategy for controlling OB after lung transplantation.


Assuntos
Bronquiolite Obliterante/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis/farmacologia , Inflamassomos/antagonistas & inibidores , Transplante de Pulmão/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/tratamento farmacológico , Sulfonas/farmacologia , Animais , Bronquiolite Obliterante/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Inflamassomos/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/imunologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/imunologia , Sulfonas/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Células Th1/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th17/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Th17/imunologia , Traqueia/transplante
19.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 931, 2020 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32071302

RESUMO

Intrinsic malignant brain tumors, such as glioblastomas are frequently resistant to immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) with few hypermutated glioblastomas showing response. Modeling patient-individual resistance is challenging due to the lack of predictive biomarkers and limited accessibility of tissue for serial biopsies. Here, we investigate resistance mechanisms to anti-PD-1 and anti-CTLA-4 therapy in syngeneic hypermutated experimental gliomas and show a clear dichotomy and acquired immune heterogeneity in ICB-responder and non-responder tumors. We made use of this dichotomy to establish a radiomic signature predicting tumor regression after pseudoprogression induced by ICB therapy based on serial magnetic resonance imaging. We provide evidence that macrophage-driven ICB resistance is established by CD4 T cell suppression and Treg expansion in the tumor microenvironment via the PD-L1/PD-1/CD80 axis. These findings uncover an unexpected heterogeneity of response to ICB in strictly syngeneic tumors and provide a rationale for targeting PD-L1-expressing tumor-associated macrophages to overcome resistance to ICB.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Glioma/tratamento farmacológico , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Antígeno B7-1/imunologia , Antígeno B7-1/metabolismo , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Antígeno CTLA-4/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno CTLA-4/imunologia , Antígeno CTLA-4/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/transplante , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/imunologia , Feminino , Glioma/diagnóstico por imagem , Glioma/genética , Glioma/imunologia , Humanos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32073894

RESUMO

The adaptive immune response could play a major role in the resolution of lung injury. Although regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been implicated in promoting the resolution of lung injury, therapeutic strategies to enhance Treg quantity and activity at the site of injury need further exploration. In the current study, Akt inhibition using triciribine (TCBN), given 48 h after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration, increased Tregs-promoted resolution of acute lung injury (ALI). TCBN treatment enhanced the resolution of LPS-induced ALI on day 7 by reducing pulmonary edema and neutrophil activity associated with an increased number of CD4+/FoxP3+/CD103+ and CTLA4+ effector Tregs, specifically in the injured lungs and not in the spleen. Treatment of EL-4 T-lymphocytes with two Akt inhibitors (TCBN and MK-2206) for 72 h resulted in increased FoxP3 expression in vitro. On the other end, Treg-specific PTEN knockout (PTENTreg KO) mice that have a higher Akt activity in its Tregs exhibited a significant impairment in ALI resolution, increased edema, and neutrophil activity associated with a reduced number of CD4+/FoxP3+/CD103+ and CTLA4+ effector Tregs as compared with the control group. In conclusion, our study identifies a potential target for the treatment of late-stage ALI by promoting resolution through effector Treg-mediated suppression of inflammation.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Transferência Adotiva/métodos , Animais , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Antígenos CD4/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Cadeias alfa de Integrinas/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Edema Pulmonar/induzido quimicamente , Edema Pulmonar/metabolismo , Baço , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos
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