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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1232: 131-143, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893404

RESUMO

Hypoxia, one of the hallmarks of cancer, is caused by an insufficient oxygen supply, mostly due to a chaotic, deficient tumor microcirculation. Apart from a hypoxia-mediated resistance to standard therapies, modulated gene and protein expression, genetic instability and malignant progression, hypoxia also plays a pivotal role in anti-cancer immune responses by (a) reducing survival, cytolytic and migratory activity of effector cells such as CD4+ cells, CD8+ cytotoxic T cells, natural killer-like T cells and natural killer cells, (b) reducing the production and release of effector cytokines, (c) supporting immunosuppressive cells such as regulatory T cells, myeloid-derived suppressor cells and M2 macrophages, (d) increasing the production and release of immunosuppressive cytokines, and (e) inducing the expression of immune checkpoint inhibitors. In this minireview, immunosuppressive effects of hypoxia- and HIF-1a-driven traits in cancers are described.


Assuntos
Hipóxia , Células Supressoras Mieloides , Neoplasias , Humanos , Hipóxia/imunologia , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Neoplasias/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
2.
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 35(11): 961-966, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31878990

RESUMO

Objective To investigate the levels and function status of CD4+CD25-FOXP3+ T cells (CD25- Tregs) in the peripheral blood and synovial fluid from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, and their relationships with disease activity. Methods The study enrolled 60 RA patients and 69 healthy controls (HCs). Flow cytometry was used to analyze the percentage and phenotype of CD25- Tregs, and the results were analyzed by Mann-Whitey U test and Spearman correlation. Results The percentage of circulating CD25- Tregs in CD4+ cells was compared between RA patients and HCs. However, the percentage of CD25- Tregs in RA synovial fluid was significantly higher than that in the peripheral blood of RA patients and HCs. When RA patients were grouped according to their disease activity or clinical indicators, such as rheumatoid factor (RF), anti-cyclic citrullinated peptides (CCP) antibody, anti-mutated citrullinated vimentin (MCV) antibody and anti-keratin antibody (AKA), circulating CD25- Tregs percentage was not significantly different among the groups, and had no correlation with the levels of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C reactive protein (CRP). The expression of CD39 in CD25- Tregs in RA synovial fluid was significantly lower than that in the peripheral blood of HCs. And CD73 and TGF-ß1 expression in CD25- Tregs in RA synovial fluid were significantly lower than those in the peripheral blood of both RA patients and HCs. However, there was no significant difference in the expression of CTLA4 and IL-10 in CD25- Tregs among the groups. Conclusion The percentage of CD25- Tregs increases in RA synovial fluid. And the expression of CD39, CD73 and TGF-ß1 decrease in CD25- Tregs, suggesting that its inhibitory function may be defective, resulting in local inflammation not being effectively controlled.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia , Líquido Sinovial/citologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , 5'-Nucleotidase/metabolismo , Apirase/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/metabolismo , Humanos , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo
3.
Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi ; 35(11): 828-832, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775475

RESUMO

The repair strategy after organs injuries has always been a hot topic in the field of regenerative medicine. Traditional injury repair measures mainly promote tissue repair through mesenchymal stem cells and various growth factors, but these strategies have been constrained in the aspects of security and economy. Hence, there is an urgent need to find new ways to promote tissue repair and regeneration. There have been a lot of evidences showing that the immune system plays an important role in tissue regeneration and repair. In recent years, more and more studies have been done on adaptive immunity in tissue repair, especially the regulatory T cells. Some evidences indicate that regulatory T cells participate in damage tissue repair and regeneration of multiple organs and tissue. This review briefly introduces the new advances in the repair effects and regulatory mechanism of regulatory T cells in different organ injuries, in order to provide new ideas for designing advanced repair materials with good immunoregulatory functions.


Assuntos
Regeneração , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Cicatrização/imunologia , Humanos , Medicina Regenerativa/tendências
4.
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi ; 41(11): 849-853, 2019 Nov 23.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770853

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the changes of perioperative immune index in patients with breast cancer and its clinical significance. Methods: Th1 cells, Th2 cells, Th1/Th2 ratio and regulatory T cells (Treg) were detected in peripheral blood of 103 patients with primary breast cancer and 116 patients with breast fibroma before surgery and on the 1st, 3rd and 5th day following operation. The relationship of changes in T lymphocyte subsets and clinicopathological characteristics, as well as tumor-free survival of breast cancer patients, was analyzed. Results: The levels of Th1 cells in breast cancer group on the 1st, 3rd and 5th day following operation were (12.20±0.45)%, (13.89±0.47)%, (14.04±0.49)%, which were significantly lower than those before operation [(15.82 + 0.51)%, all P<0.05 ]. Treg cells, however, with the number of (3.82±0.13)%, (3.25±0.11)%, (2.95 ±0.11)%, were remarkably higher than those before operation [(2.53 ±0.11)%, all P<0.05]. With respect to breast fibroma patients, there was no significant difference compared with those before operation of Th1 cells, Th2 cells and Treg cells (all P>0.05). The changes of Th1 cells were associated with the degree of differentiation, T stage, N stage, TNM stage, HER-2 status and Ki-67 (all P<0.05). Treg cells were related to T stage, N stage and HER-2 status (all P<0.05). Tumor-free survival in the Th1-cell-increasing group was significantly better than that in the Th1-cell-decreasing group (P=0.045), while cell-decreasing group of Treg showed the improved outcomes (P=0.012). Conclusions: The levels of Th1 cells and Treg cells are important indicators of cellular immune function in patients with breast cancer. Moreover, the perioperative changes of Th1 cells and Treg cells are associated with the size of tumors, pathological parameters, clinical stages and tumor-free survival outcomes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/imunologia , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Equilíbrio Th1-Th2 , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Celular
5.
Exp Parasitol ; 207: 107789, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669169

RESUMO

American visceral leishmaniasis is caused by the protozoan Leishmania infantum. The control of the disease depends on the magnitude of the Th1 cell response and IL-10 producing regulatory T cells. Administration of chemokine, such as CXCL10, has shown promising results in the leishmaniasis treatment. Previous studies from our group have shown that CXCL10 induces a reduction in parasite burden in the spleen and a decrease in IL-10 and TGF-ß production in L. infantum-infected BALB/c mice. This work investigated whether CXCL10-treatment reduces IL-10 + Treg cell populations (CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ and Tr1) and induces morphological changes in the spleen. BALB/c mice were infected and treated or not with CXCL10 on the 1st, 3rd and 7th days of infection. CXCL10-treatment was able to reduce the parasite load in the spleen in L. infantum-infected BALB/c mice and this decrease in the number of parasites correlated with the decrease in size of this organ in treated animals compared to untreated animals. 7, 23, and 45 days post-treatment (p.t.), the phenotype and frequency of IL-10 + Treg cells were evaluated by flow cytometry, and the morphological changes of the spleen were analyzed by optical microscopy. After 7 and 23 days p.t., CXCL10-treated animals showed a significant reduction of CD25-Foxp3-IL-10+ (Tr1) cells in the spleen when compared to untreated animals, whereas CD4+CD25+Foxp3+IL-10+ Treg cells reduced later at 23rd and 45th days p.t. Furthermore, while untreated animals showed a significant positive correlation between IL-10 production and Tr1 cells, in CXCL10-treated group this correlation was negative. Thus, these findings show that treatment with CXCL10 chemokine in L. infantum-infected BALB/c mice results in suppression of IL10+ Treg (Foxp3+ and Tr1) cells in the spleen, associated with a reduction in parasite load and splenomegaly.


Assuntos
Quimiocina CXCL10/uso terapêutico , Leishmaniose Visceral/tratamento farmacológico , Leishmaniose Visceral/imunologia , Baço/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Quimiocina CXCL10/administração & dosagem , Quimiocina CXCL10/farmacologia , Cricetinae , Citometria de Fluxo , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/imunologia , Humanos , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Leishmania infantum/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmania infantum/imunologia , Leishmania infantum/patogenicidade , Masculino , Mesocricetus , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamanho do Órgão/imunologia , Carga Parasitária , Baço/parasitologia , Baço/patologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Virulência
6.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 68(12): 2029-2039, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31709456

RESUMO

Interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) is a 15 kDa protein induced by type I interferons (IFN-α and IFN-ß) and is a member of the ubiquitin-like superfamily of proteins. The ISG15 pathway is highly expressed in various malignancies, including pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), suggesting a potential role of the ISG15 pathway (free ISG15 and ISG15 conjugates) in pancreatic carcinogenesis. However, very little is known about how the ISG15 pathway may contribute to pancreatic tumorigenesis. In the current study, we demonstrate that ISG15 pathway knockdown reverses the KRAS-associated phenotypes of PDAC cells such as increased proliferation and colony formation. Furthermore, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-mediated ISG15 knockdown decreased tumor programmed death ligand-1 (PDL-1) expression leading to increased number of CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and decreased pancreatic tumor growth. In addition, the syngeneic subcutaneous mouse model revealed that knocking down the ISG15 pathway significantly decreased the rate of tumor incidence and increased the survival rate. Interestingly, the ISG15 knockdown-mediated PDL-1 downregulation in pancreatic tumors increased the efficacy of anti-programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) treatment. ISG15 knockdown in combination with anti-PD-1 treatment synergistically increased the number of CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. Additionally, ISG15 knockdown alone significantly decreased the number of tumor-infiltrating regulatory T cells (Tregs) compared to wild type tumors treated with anti-PD-1 antibody. Overall, these findings suggest that strategies to target the ISG15 pathway by itself or in combination with immunotherapy may lead to improved survival for patients diagnosed with PDAC.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Animais , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Transformação Celular Neoplásica , Citocinas/genética , Regulação para Baixo , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neoplasias Experimentais , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Ubiquitinas/genética , Ubiquitinas/metabolismo
7.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 68(12): 2067-2080, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31720813

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) exist as heterogeneous subsets and have dichotomous roles in cancer-immune evasion. This study aims to assess the clinical effects of Galectin-9+ tumor-associated macrophages (Gal-9+TAMs) in muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We identified Gal-9+TAMs by immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis of a tumor microarray (TMA) (n = 141) from the Zhongshan Hospital and by flow cytometric analysis of tumor specimens (n = 20) from the Shanghai Cancer Center. The survival benefit of platinum-based chemotherapy in this subpopulation was evaluated. The effect of the tumor-immune microenvironment with different percentages of Gal-9+TAMs was explored. RESULTS: The frequency of Gal-9+TAMs increased with tumor stage and grade. Gal-9+TAMs predicted poor overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) and were better than Gal-9-TAMs and TAMs to discriminate prognostic groups. In univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses, patients with high percentages of Gal-9+TAMs showed the prominent survival benefit after receiving adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT). High Gal-9+TAM infiltration correlated with increasing numbers of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and mast cells and decreasing numbers of CD8+T and dendritic cells (DCs). Dense infiltration of Gal-9+TAMs was related to reduced cytotoxic molecules, enhanced immune checkpoints or immunosuppressive cytokines expressed by immune cells, as well as active proliferation of tumor cells. Additionally, the subpopulation accumulated was strongly associated with PD-1+TIM-3+CD8+T cells. CONCLUSIONS: Gal-9+TAMs predicted OS and RFS and response to ACT in MIBC patients. High Gal-9+TAMs were associated with a pro-tumor immune contexture concomitant with T cell exhaustion.


Assuntos
Galectinas/metabolismo , Macrófagos/imunologia , Músculos/patologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/terapia , Adulto , Biomarcadores Farmacológicos , Movimento Celular , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise em Microsséries , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Análise de Sobrevida , Evasão Tumoral , Microambiente Tumoral , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/mortalidade
8.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 68(12): 2055-2066, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31724091

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibition suggests promising progress for the treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the underlying cellular mechanisms remain unclear because liver cancer cells apparently do not upregulate inhibitory checkpoint molecules. Here, we analysed whether regulatory T cells (Tregs) can alternatively trigger checkpoint inhibition pathways in HCC. Using flow cytometry we analysed expression of checkpoint molecules (PD-1, PD-L1, CTLA-4, GITR, Tim-3) on peripheral CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs and their secretion of inhibitory mediators (IL-10, IL-35, TGF-beta, galectin-9) in 116 individuals (50 patients with HCC, 41 non-tumour bearing liver disease controls, 25 healthy controls). Functional activity of Tregs on T effector cells (IFN-gamma production, cytotoxicity) was characterized in vitro using a lectin-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (LDCC) assay against checkpoint inhibitor-negative P815 target cells. Unlike liver patients without malignancy and healthy controls, the frequency of checkpoint inhibitor-positive Tregs inversely correlated to age of patients with HCC (PD-L1, p = 0.0080; CTLA-4, p = 0.0029) and corresponded to enhanced numbers of Tregs producing IL-10 and IL-35 (p < 0.05 each). Tregs inhibited IFN-gamma secretion and cytotoxicity of CD8+ T cells when added to LDCC against P815 cells. Treg-induced inhibition of IFN-gamma secretion could be partially blocked by neutralizing PD-1 and PD-L1 antibodies specifically in HCC patients. In HCC peripheral Tregs upregulate checkpoint inhibitors and contribute to systemic immune dysfunction and antitumoural activity by several inhibitory pathways, presumably facilitating tumour development at young age. Blocking PD-L1/PD-1 interactions in vitro selectively interfered with inhibitory Treg -T effector cell interactions in the patients with HCC and resulted in improved antitumoural activity also against checkpoint inhibitor-negative tumour cells.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/imunologia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Feminino , Humanos , Tolerância Imunológica , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Ativação Linfocitária , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
9.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 7053-7064, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564865

RESUMO

Background: Food allergy (FA) is a significant public health problem. The therapeutic efficacy for FA is unsatisfactory currently. The breakdown of intestinal immune tolerance is associated with the pathogenesis of FA. Therefore, it is of great significance to develop novel therapeutic methods to restore immune tolerance in treating FA. Methods: We proposed an oral administration strategy to treat FA by co-delivering food allergen epitope fragment (peptide: IK) and adjuvant R848 (TLR7 ligand) in the mPEG-PDLLA nanoparticles (PPLA-IK/R848 NPs). The generation of tolerogenic dendritic cells (DCs) and regulatory T cells (Tregs) induced by PPLA-IK/R848 NPs were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The therapeutic effects of PPLA-IK/R848 NPs were also assessed in an OVA-induced FA model. Results: PPLA-IK/R848 NPs could efficiently deliver IK to DCs to drive DCs into the tolerogenic phenotypes and promote the differentiation of Tregs in vitro and in vivo, significantly inhibited FA responses through the recovery of intestinal immune tolerance. Conclusion: Oral administration of PPLA-IK/R848 NPs could efficiently deliver IK and R848 to intestinal DCs and stimulate DCs into allergen tolerogenic phenotype. These tolerogenic DCs could promote the differentiation of Tregs, which significantly protected mice from food allergic responses. This study provided an efficient formulation to alleviate FA through the recovery of immune tolerance.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Epitopos/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/tratamento farmacológico , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/imunologia , Imidazóis/administração & dosagem , Imidazóis/uso terapêutico , Tolerância Imunológica , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Células Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Imidazóis/química , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Tolerância Imunológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Peptídeos/química , Poliésteres/química , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 68(11): 1759-1767, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31616965

RESUMO

Resistance to chemotherapy is widely recognized as one of the major factors limiting therapeutic efficacy and influences clinical outcomes in patients with cancer. Many studies on various tumor types have focused on combining standard-of-care chemotherapy with immunotherapy. However, for cervical cancer, the role of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) on the local immune microenvironment is largely unexplored. We performed a pilot study on 13 primary cervical tumor samples, before and after NACT, to phenotype and enumerate tumor-infiltrating T-cell subpopulations using multiplex immunohistochemistry (CD3, CD8, FoxP3, Ki67, and Tbet) and automated co-expression analysis software. A significant decrease in proliferating (Ki67+) CD3+CD8- T cells and FoxP3+(CD3+CD8-) regulatory T cells was observed in the tumor stroma after cisplatin and paclitaxel treatment, with increased rates of cytotoxic CD8+ T cells, including activated and CD8+Tbet+ T cells. No effect was observed on the number of tumor-infiltrating T cells in the cervical tumor microenvironment after treatment with cisplatin only. Therefore, we conclude that patients treated with cisplatin and paclitaxel had more tumor-infiltrating T-cell modulation than patients treated with cisplatin monotherapy. These findings enhance our understanding of the immune-modulating effect of chemotherapy and warrant future combination of the standard-of-care therapy with immunotherapy to improve clinical outcome in patients with cervical cancer.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Terapia Neoadjuvante/métodos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/imunologia , Adulto , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Projetos Piloto , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(43): e17608, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651870

RESUMO

This study aims to investigate the changes of cytokines and the effect of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) signaling pathway on T cell function in patients with immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP).Totally, 40 untreated ITP patients were recruited and 30 healthy people were recruited as the healthy control. Then whole blood of ITP patients and healthy control was collected, respectively. The sPD-L1/anti-PD-1 was used to activate or block the programmed death (PD-1)/PD-L1 signaling pathway. The expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were detected by flow cytometry. PBMCs were treated with cluster of differentiation (CD3), cluster of differentiation 28 (CD28), and phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) for 48 hours. Serum levels of sPD-1, sPD-L1, and cytokines were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Compared with the healthy control group, the percentages of PD-1+CD3+CD4+ T cells and PD-L1+HLA-DR+CD11c+ DC cells were increased in ITP patients. The levels of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin-17 (IL-17), and sPD-1 in the serum of ITP patients were increased, while IL-4 and transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß) were decreased. Additionally, the level of sPD-1 was negatively correlated with the platelet count. Consistently, after treatment with CD3, CD28, and PHA, IFN-γ and IL-17 levels in culture supernatant of PBMCs from ITP patients were significantly higher than those from healthy controls whereas IL-4 and TGF-ß levels were significantly lower. Furthermore, IFN-γ and IL-17 levels secreted by PBMCs from ITP patients decreased after sPD-L1 administration, however, IL-4 and TGF-ß levels were increased. The level of IFN-γ in ITP group remained higher after anti-PD-1 blockage, but the levels of IL-4, TGF-ß, and IL-17 were not significantly influenced.sPD-1 may cause the dysfunction of PD-1/PD-L1 signaling pathway, and its level is related to the severity of ITP patients. Activation of PD-1/PD-L1 with sPD-L1 may restore the imbalance of Th1/Th2 and Treg/Th17 cell subtypes in ITP patients but anti-PD-1 may exacerbate disease by enhancing IFN-γ production.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Equilíbrio Th1-Th2/fisiologia , Células Th17/imunologia , Adulto , Antígenos CD28/imunologia , Complexo CD3/imunologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Citocinas/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fito-Hemaglutininas/imunologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/fisiologia , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/sangue , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Equilíbrio Th1-Th2/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo
12.
Braz Oral Res ; 33: e093, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664358

RESUMO

Cytokines and chemokines have a fundamental role in the maintenance of inflammation and bone response, which culminate in the development of chronic periapical lesions. Regulatory (Treg) and Th17 cytokines play a key role in regulating the immune response involved in this process. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Treg and Th17 cells in chronic inflammatory periapical disease, by comparing the expression of the immunoregulatory mediators TGF-ß, IL-10, CCL4, and the proinflammatory IL-17 and CCL20 in the periapical tissue of teeth with pulp necrosis, with and without associated chronic lesions. Eighty-six periapical tissue samples were obtained from human teeth. The samples were divided into three groups: pulp necrosis with a periapical lesion (n=26); pulp necrosis without a periapical lesion (n=30), and control (n=30). All samples were submitted to histopathological analysis and cytokine and chemokine measurement through ELISA. Statistical analyses were done with Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests and Spearman correlation. The group with pulp necrosis and a periapical lesion showed a higher expression of CCL4 and TGF-ß in comparison with pulp necrosis without a lesion. CCL20 was higher in the group with a periapical lesion when compared to the control. In all groups there was a weak positive correlation between IL-17/CCL20, IL-10/CCL4, and IL-17/TGF-ß. Both types of cytokines, pro-inflammatory and immunoregulatory, occur simultaneously in periapical tissue. However, a rise in immunosuppressive cytokines and chemokines (CCL4 and TGF-ß) in periapical lesions suggests a role of these cytokines in stable periapical disease.


Assuntos
Quimiocinas CC/análise , Interleucinas/análise , Periodontite Periapical/patologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Células Th17/imunologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/análise , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Quimiocinas CC/imunologia , Doença Crônica , Necrose da Polpa Dentária/imunologia , Necrose da Polpa Dentária/patologia , Humanos , Interleucinas/imunologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Periodontite Periapical/imunologia , Valores de Referência , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 22(10): 966-971, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630495

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the clinicopathological features of type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated with colorectal cancer (DCRC). Methods: A case-control study was conducted. Inclusion criteria: (1) hospitalized patients receiving fibrocolonoscopy; (2) adenocarcinoma and mucinous adenocarcinoma diagnosed by pathology; (3) with preoperative cTNM clinical staging; (4) colorectal cancer patients undergoing surgical treatment; (5) with postoperative pTNM staging; (6) no smoking or drinking habits. Exclusion criteria: (1) familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP); (2) Lynch syndrome; (3) carcinoma of anal canal and perianal carcinoma; (4) multiple primary cancer; (5) with serious cardiocerebrovascular diseases or multiple organ failure. Clinicopathlogical data of 32 DCRC patients who were diagnosed and treated in Peking University Shougang Hospital from December 2017 to December 2018 were retrospectively collected and analyzed. Forty nondiabetic colorectal cancer (CRC) patients during the same period were selected as control group according to the sex ratio and the age difference less than 5 years. Student's t test and χ(2) test were used to compare the difference between the two groups in baseline clinicopathological data, clinical test results, tumor markers and infiltration status of T cells in tumor immune microenvironment. Results: Among 32 DCRC patients, 24 were males and 8 were females with a mean age of (63.0±1.7) years; among 40 CRC patients, 30 were males and 10 were females with a mean age of (60.5±1.6) years. The duration of diabetes mellitus in DCRC patients (from the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus to the diagnosis of colorectal cancer) was (9.2±1.3) years. The body mass index (BMI) of DCRC group was significantly higher than that of CRC group [(24.8±0.6) kg/m(2) vs. (23.2±0.4) kg/m(2), t=2.372, P=0.020]. There were no significant differences in other baseline data (sex, age, primary site of tumor, R0 resection rate, pathological stage, pathological type, differentiation degree of tumor, preoperative intestinal obstruction) between the two groups (all P>0.05). Serum triglyceride level in DCRC group was higher than that in CRC group [(2.1±0.2) mmol/L vs. (1.5±0.1) mmol/L, t=3.085, P=0.003], while hemoglobin [(120.3±5.2) g/L vs. (132.7±2.8) g/L, t=-2.224, P=0.029], anti- thrombin III [(94.2±3.7)% vs. (103.5±2.4)%, t=-2.197, P=0.031], and red blood cell count [(4.2±0.1)×10(12)/L vs. (4.5±0.1)×10(12)L, t=-2.055, P=0.044] were all lower than those in CRC group. The preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level in DCRC group was higher than that in CRC group [(50.3±21.8) µg/L vs. (5.6±1.0) µg/L, t=2.339, P=0.022]. There were no significant differences in preoperative levels of other four tumor molecular markers (CA199, CA242, CA724 and CA125) between the two groups (all P>0.05). The expression of Foxp3 [specific markers of CD4+, CD25+ regulatory T cells (Treg)] in DCRC group was higher than that in CRC group [(82.7±6.2) cell/HPF vs. (62.6±4.9) cell/HPF, t=2.586, P=0.012]. There were no significant differences in the infiltration of CD4, CD8, PD-1 and PD-L1 positive cells between two groups (all P>0.05). Conclusions: The average diabetic history of DCRC patients is nearly 10 years. They have higher BMI and serum CEA level, and more Treg cell infiltration in the tumor. Close attention should be paid to these patients in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/cirurgia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Adenocarcinoma/sangue , Adenocarcinoma/complicações , Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Adenocarcinoma/cirurgia , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Antígeno Carcinoembrionário/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/complicações , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/fisiologia
14.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 68(12): 1935-1947, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31641795

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Due to the strong tumoricidal activities of activated natural killer T (NKT) cells, invariant NKT cell-based immunotherapy has shown promising clinical efficacy. However, suppressive factors, such as regulatory T cells (Tregs), may be obstacles in the use of NKT cell-based cancer immunotherapy for advanced cancer patients. Here, we investigated the suppressive effects of Tregs on NKT cells and the underlying mechanisms with the aim to improve the antitumor activities of NKT cells. METHODS: Peripheral blood samples were obtained from healthy donors, patients with benign tumors, and patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). NKT cells, induced with α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer), and monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) were co-cultured with naïve CD4+ T cell-derived Tregs to investigate the mechanism of the Treg suppressive effect on NKT cell cytotoxic function. The functions and phenotypes of NKT cells were evaluated with flow cytometry and cytometric bead array. RESULTS: Treg suppression on NKT cell function required cell-to-cell contact and was mediated via impaired DC maturation. NKT cells cultured under Treg-enriched conditions showed a decrease in CD4- NKT cell frequency, which exert strong tumoricidal responsiveness upon α-GalCer stimulation. The same results were observed in HNSCC patients with significantly increased effector Tregs. CONCLUSION: Tregs exert suppressive effects on NKT cell tumoricidal function by inducing more CD4- NKT cell anergy and less CD4+ NKT cell anergy. Both Treg depletion and NKT cell recovery from the anergy state may be important for improving the clinical efficacy of NKT cell-based immunotherapy in patients with advanced cancers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/imunologia , Células T Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Células Cultivadas , Anergia Clonal , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Feminino , Humanos , Vigilância Imunológica , Imunossupressão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 68(9): 1501-1513, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489465

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Brain metastases are a significant source of morbidity and mortality for patients with lung cancer. Lung cancer can induce local and systemic immunosuppression, promoting tumor growth and dissemination. One mechanism of immunosuppression is tumor-induced expansion of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expressing myeloid cells. Here, we investigate peripheral blood immune phenotype in NSCLC patients with or without brain metastasis. METHODS: Peripheral blood was collected from patients with lung metastatic brain tumors and pre-metastatic lung cancer. Immunosuppressive monocytes, myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), and regulatory T cells (Tregs) were quantified through flow cytometry. T cell reactivity was analyzed via ELISpot. Brain metastasis conditioned media was collected from tumor-derived cell cultures and analyzed for cytokines by ELISA. Naïve monocytes were stimulated with brain metastasis conditioned media to evaluate PD-L1 stimulation. RESULTS: Patients with brain metastatic lung carcinoma demonstrated increased peripheral monocyte PD-L1, MDSC abundance, and Treg percentage compared to early stage pre-metastatic patients and healthy controls. Patients with elevated peripheral monocyte PD-L1 had less reactive T cells and worse survival. Brain metastasis conditioned media stimulation increased monocyte PD-L1, and conditioned media IL-6 levels correlated with PD-L1 induction. Treatment with anti-IL-6 or anti-IL-6 receptor antibodies reduced PD-L1 expression. In summary, patients with lung cancer and brain metastases exhibit multiple markers of peripheral immunosuppression. CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of PD-L1+ myeloid cells correlated with the presence of brain metastases. Tumor-derived IL-6 was capable of inducing PD-L1+ myeloid cells in vitro, suggesting that monitoring of immunosuppressive factors in peripheral blood may identify new targets for therapeutic intervention in selected patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Células Supressoras Mieloides/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundário , Carcinogênese , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/secundário , Células Cultivadas , ELISPOT , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Tolerância Imunológica , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Análise de Sobrevida , Regulação para Cima
16.
Toxicol Lett ; 316: 27-34, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513887

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Atherosclerosis is an autoimmune inflammatory disease that is closely associated with long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5). CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a critical role in the regulation of T cell-mediated immune responses, and the depletion of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs has been thought to play a prominent role in atherosclerosis. Therefore, we investigated the association between the CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs population and atherosclerotic development in ApoE-/- mice exposed to PM2.5. METHODS: We employed a real-world system to subject 40 ApoE-/- mice to ambient inhalation of PM2.5 (PM2.5 group, n = 20) or filtered air (FA group, n = 20) for 12 weeks. PM2.5 source apportionment, atherosclerotic lesions within aorta, lipid deposition and plaque accumulation in whole artery, serum level of inflammatory factors and lipid profiles, CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs population in splenocytes, Foxp3 protein and mRNA expressions in descending aorta and spleen were quantified, respectively. RESULTS: The daily average concentration of PM2.5 was 57.4 ± 25.6 µg/m3. Atherosclerotic lesions within aorta, lipid deposition and plaque accumulation in whole artery, serum levels of IL-6, TNF-α, TC and LDL-C in the PM2.5 group increased significantly compared to the FA group. Whereas, serum levels of IL-10 and TGF-ß, CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs population in splenocytes, Foxp3 protein and mRNA expressions in descending aorta and spleen in the PM2.5 group decreased significantly compared to the FA group. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that PM2.5 could accelerate the development of atherosclerosis in ApoE-/- mice, which is related to CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs down-regulation, as well as lipid deposition and systemic inflammation.


Assuntos
Aorta/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças da Aorta/induzido quimicamente , Aterosclerose/induzido quimicamente , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-2/metabolismo , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Aorta/imunologia , Aorta/metabolismo , Aorta/patologia , Doenças da Aorta/sangue , Doenças da Aorta/imunologia , Doenças da Aorta/patologia , Aterosclerose/sangue , Aterosclerose/imunologia , Aterosclerose/patologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Citocinas/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/imunologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-2/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout para ApoE , Tamanho da Partícula , Fenótipo , Placa Aterosclerótica , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores/patologia , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (9): 80-85, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532171

RESUMO

This article discusses the need to implement effective methods for monitoring immune status and rehabilitation of patients after kidney transplantation. Induction of immunological tolerance which allows minimizing or even completely canceling supportive immunosuppressive therapy is one of the key tasks in the field of organ transplantation. Regulatory T-cells (TREGs) play an important role in maintaining immunological homeostasis, including limiting kidney transplant rejection, and potentially contribute to the development of immunological tolerance. At the same time, for the introduction of TREG therapy into clinical practice, it is necessary to overcome a number of unsolved problems, such as induction and cultivation of a sufficient number of TREG cells for therapeutic action as well as reducing the risks associated with TREG conversion to effector lymphocytes or an undesirable non-specific immunosuppressive effect. This review examines both the impact of common post-transplant pharmacological immunosuppression approaches on TREGs and the therapeutic potential of TREG cell cultures in prevention of kidney transplant rejection. The questions of ex vivo TREG manufacturing process and possible threats of applying cell technologies in this branch of transplantology were considered.


Assuntos
Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos/métodos , Rejeição de Enxerto/imunologia , Rejeição de Enxerto/prevenção & controle , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Rejeição de Enxerto/etiologia , Humanos , Tolerância Imunológica/imunologia , Imunossupressão/métodos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Rim/reabilitação , Imunologia de Transplantes/imunologia
18.
Int J Infect Dis ; 86: 178-187, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398453

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Most previous studies on poor immunological responders (PIRs) have been performed on one cohort at one time-point following highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The aim of this study was to investigate whether there are different subtypes of PIR and whether a certain population might achieve better immune reconstitution following longer HAART. METHODS: This study was designed as an ambispective cohort study, including a 4-5-year retrospective study and a 2-year prospective follow-up investigation. Thymic output, activated T cell and regulatory T cell (Treg) subset frequencies, expression levels of interferon-stimulated genes, and plasma concentrations of neopterin were determined at 4-5 years and 6-7 years following HAART initiation. RESULTS: PIRs were subdivided into two populations after 4-5 years of HAART, according to the kinetics of T cell recovery. Type II PIRs exhibited a significantly lower percentage of naïve CD4+ T cells and CD31+ naïve CD4+ T cells compared with type I PIRs. After an additional 2 years of HAART treatment, type I PIRs showed a better outcome than type II PIRs. Furthermore, it was found that 2 years of additional HAART could persistently improve thymic output. CONCLUSIONS: The two PIR subgroups are different in terms of immune characteristics and the response to prolonged HAART.


Assuntos
Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Adulto , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Estudos de Coortes , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Seguimentos , HIV-1/imunologia , Humanos , Ativação Linfocitária , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Carga Viral
19.
Transplant Proc ; 51(6): 2136-2140, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399190

RESUMO

A regulatory T (Treg) cell/T helper 17 (Th17) cell imbalance is involved in many autoimmune diseases. Rapamycin (Rapa), a clinically used immunosuppressive drug, has been shown to inhibit Th17 cell differentiation but promote Treg cell generation. In this study, we aimed to study the mechanism of Rapa acting on Treg and Th17 cell differentiation. Purified mouse CD4+CD25- T cells were stimulated and polarized in vitro to generate Th17 or Treg cells in the presence or absence of Rapa. We first confirmed that Rapa inhibited the differentiation of Th17 cells and greatly promoted Treg cell generation in vitro. As metabolic pathways play a key role in T cell differentiation, we then detected the metabolic programs in Rapa-treated T cells. We found that Rapa blocked glycolysis in induced Th17 cells, evidenced by reduced glucose uptake, and inhibited expression of glucose transporter 1 and the rate-limiting enzyme HK2. In addition, the expression of c-Myc and of HIF-1α transcription factor, which regulate many genes involved in glycolysis, were inhibited by Rapa. Conversely, Rapa promoted fatty acid oxidation (FAO) metabolism in differentiated Treg cells, with the elevation of FAO product ß-hydroxybutyrate, and increased expression of ATGL and CPT1A, the key enzymes of FAO in differentiated Treg cells. The expression of phospho-AMPKα, the key signal in the regulation of FAO, was also promoted in Rapa-treated induced Treg cells. Together, these findings indicated that Rapa abrogated glycolysis in Th17 cells but facilitated FAO in induced Treg cells, which may underlie the mechanism by which Rapa regulates the Treg/Th17 balance.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Sirolimo/farmacologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Th17/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Células Th17/imunologia
20.
Nat Immunol ; 20(9): 1208-1219, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31384057

RESUMO

Regulatory T cells (Treg cells) deficient in the transcription factor Foxp3 lack suppressor function and manifest an effector T (Teff) cell-like phenotype. We demonstrate that Foxp3 deficiency dysregulates metabolic checkpoint kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 2 (mTORC2) signaling and gives rise to augmented aerobic glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation. Specific deletion of the mTORC2 adaptor gene Rictor in Foxp3-deficient Treg cells ameliorated disease in a Foxo1 transcription factor-dependent manner. Rictor deficiency re-established a subset of Treg cell genetic circuits and suppressed the Teff cell-like glycolytic and respiratory programs, which contributed to immune dysregulation. Treatment of Treg cells from patients with FOXP3 deficiency with mTOR inhibitors similarly antagonized their Teff cell-like program and restored suppressive function. Thus, regulatory function can be re-established in Foxp3-deficient Treg cells by targeting their metabolic pathways, providing opportunities to restore tolerance in Treg cell disorders.


Assuntos
Reprogramação Celular/imunologia , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 2 de Rapamicina/metabolismo , Proteína Companheira de mTOR Insensível à Rapamicina/genética , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Glicólise/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 2 de Rapamicina/antagonistas & inibidores , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Fosforilação Oxidativa , Transdução de Sinais , Linfócitos T Reguladores/citologia
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