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1.
Tumour Biol ; 42(1): 1010428319901052, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959092

RESUMO

Feline invasive mammary carcinomas are characterized by their high clinical aggressiveness, rare expression of hormone receptors, and pathological resemblance to human breast cancer, especially triple-negative breast cancer (negative to estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and epidermal growth factor receptor type 2). Recent gene expression studies of triple-negative breast cancers have highlighted their heterogeneity and the importance of immune responses in their biology and prognostic assessment. Indeed, regulatory T cells may play a crucial role in producing an immune-suppressed microenvironment, notably in triple-negative breast cancers. Feline invasive mammary carcinomas arise spontaneously in immune-competent animals, in which we hypothesized that the immune tumor microenvironment also plays a role. The aims of this study were to determine the quantity and prognostic value of forkhead box protein P3-positive peritumoral and intratumoral regulatory T cells in feline invasive mammary carcinomas, and to identify an immune-suppressed subgroup of triple-negative basal-like feline invasive mammary carcinomas. One hundred and eighty female cats with feline invasive mammary carcinomas, treated by surgery only, with 2-year follow-up post-mastectomy, were included in this study. Forkhead box protein P3, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, Ki-67, epidermal growth factor receptor type 2, and cytokeratin 14 expression were assessed by automated immunohistochemistry. Peritumoral regulatory T cells were over 300 times more abundant than intratumoral regulatory T cells in feline invasive mammary carcinomas. Peritumoral and intratumoral regulatory T cells were associated with shorter disease-free interval and overall survival in both triple-negative (ER-, PR-, HER2-, N = 123 out of 180) and luminal (ER+ and/or PR+, N = 57) feline invasive mammary carcinomas. In feline triple-negative basal-like (CK14+) mammary carcinomas, a regulatory T-cell-enriched subgroup was associated with significantly poorer disease-free interval, overall survival, and cancer-specific survival than regulatory T-cell-poor triple-negative basal-like feline invasive mammary carcinomas. High regulatory T-cell numbers had strong and negative prognostic value in feline invasive mammary carcinomas, especially in the triple-negative basal-like subgroup, which might contain a "basal-like immune-suppressed" subtype, as described in triple-negative breast cancer. Cats with feline invasive mammary carcinomas may thus be interesting spontaneous animal models to investigate new strategies of cancer immunotherapy in an immune-suppressed tumor microenvironment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Mamárias Animais/patologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Animais , Gatos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Imunossupressão/métodos , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores/patologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral/fisiologia
2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4601, 2019 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601798

RESUMO

During pregnancy, trophoblast cells sustain the maternal-fetal tolerance via expressing and secreting various chemokines and cytokines. Our previous study revealed the expression of interleukin-35 (IL-35) in human first-trimester trophoblasts. Here we show that IL-35 is expressed in both human first-trimester primary trophoblast cells and a trophoblast cell line. Trophoblast cells inhibit the proliferation of human naive conventional T cells (Tconv cells) and convert suppressed Tconv cells into iTR35 in an IL-35-dependent manner. Mechanistically, trophoblast cell derived IL-35 mediates its function through phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT3. In vivo studies confirm that mice with immunologically spontaneous abortion have lower levels of IL-35 and iTR35 cells at the maternal-fetal interface, and neutralizing anti-IL-35 mAb enhances abortion rates. Meanwhile, exogenous IL-35 induces iTR35 and prevents immunological abortion. Our findings thus suggest that trophoblast cells have a critical function in preserving maternal-fetal tolerance via secreting IL-35 during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Interleucinas/metabolismo , Troca Materno-Fetal/fisiologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Trofoblastos/citologia , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Humanos , Tolerância Imunológica , Interleucinas/sangue , Interleucinas/imunologia , Interleucinas/farmacologia , Masculino , Troca Materno-Fetal/imunologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos DBA , Placenta/citologia , Placenta/imunologia , Gravidez , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Linfócitos T/citologia , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Trofoblastos/imunologia , Trofoblastos/metabolismo
3.
Anticancer Res ; 39(10): 5369-5374, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570431

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells are ex vivo expanded major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-unrestricted cytotoxic cells with promising effects against a variety of cancer types. Regulatory T-cells (T-reg) have been shown to reduce the effectiveness of CIK cells against tumor cells. Peptide P60 has been shown to inhibit the immunosuppressive functions of T-regs. This study aimed at examining the effect of p60 on CIK cells efficacy against renal and pancreatic cancer cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effect of P60 on CIK cytotoxicity was examined using flow cytometry, WST-8-based cell viability assay and interferon γ (IFNγ) ELISA. RESULTS: P60 treatment resulted in a significant decrease in the viability of renal and pancreatic cancer cell lines co-cultured with CIK cells. No increase in IFNγ secretion from CIK cells was detected following treatment with P60. P60 caused no changes in the distribution of major effector cell populations in CIK cell cultures. CONCLUSION: P60 may potentiate CIK cell cytotoxicity against tumor cells.


Assuntos
Células Matadoras Induzidas por Citocinas/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Cocultura/métodos , Células Matadoras Induzidas por Citocinas/metabolismo , Citotoxicidade Imunológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Neoplasias Renais/metabolismo , Pâncreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Pâncreas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo
4.
Gastroenterology ; 157(6): 1584-1598, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: T-regulatory (Treg) cells suppress the immune response to maintain homeostasis. There are 2 main subsets of Treg cells: FOXP3 (forkhead box protein 3)-positive Treg cells, which do not produce high levels of effector cytokines, and type 1 Treg (Tr1) cells, which are FOXP3-negative and secrete interleukin (IL) 10. IL10 is an anti-inflammatory cytokine, so Tr1 cells might be used in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases. We aimed to develop methods to isolate and expand human Tr1 cells and define their functions. METHODS: We obtained blood and colon biopsy samples from patients with Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis or healthy individuals (controls). CD4+ T cells were isolated from blood samples and stimulated with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 beads, and Tr1 cells were purified by using an IL10 cytokine-capture assay and cell sorting. FOXP3-positive Treg cells were sorted as CD4+CD25highCD127low cells from unstimulated cells. Tr1 and FOXP3-positive Treg cells were expanded, and phenotypes and gene expression profiles were compared. T cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy donors were stimulated with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 beads, and the suppressive abilities of Tr1 and FOXP3-positive Treg cells were measured. Human colon organoid cultures were established, cultured with supernatants from Tr1 or FOXP3-positive cells, and analyzed by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. T84 cells (human colon adenocarcinoma epithelial cells) were incubated with supernatants from Tr1 or FOXP3-positive cells, and transepithelial electrical resistance was measured to determine epithelial cell barrier function. RESULTS: Phenotypes of Tr1 cells isolated from control individuals vs patients with Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis did not differ significantly after expansion. Tr1 cells and FOXP3-positive Treg cells suppressed proliferation of effector T cells, but only Tr1 cells suppressed secretion of IL1B and tumor necrosis factor from myeloid cells. Tr1 cells, but not FOXP3-positive Treg cells, isolated from healthy individuals and patients with Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis secreted IL22, which promoted barrier function of human intestinal epithelial cells. Tr1 cell culture supernatants promoted differentiation of mucin-producing goblet cells in intestinal organoid cultures. CONCLUSIONS: Human Tr1 cells suppress proliferation of effector T cells (adaptive immune response) and production of IL1B and TNF by myeloid cells (inmate immune response). They also secrete IL22 to promote barrier function. They might be developed as a cell-based therapy for intestinal inflammatory disorders.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa/imunologia , Doença de Crohn/imunologia , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Biópsia , Comunicação Celular/imunologia , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Colite Ulcerativa/sangue , Colite Ulcerativa/terapia , Colo/citologia , Colo/imunologia , Colo/patologia , Doença de Crohn/sangue , Doença de Crohn/terapia , Feminino , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/imunologia , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Interleucina-10/imunologia , Interleucinas/imunologia , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/citologia , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cultura Primária de Células , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores/transplante
5.
DNA Cell Biol ; 38(11): 1387-1401, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549881

RESUMO

Immune cell infiltration is associated with the prognosis of cancer. This study focused on the immune infiltration profiling and their association with survival outcome in nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Research data were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus and The Cancer Genome Atlas databases. CIBERSORT algorithm was applied to assess the relative proportions of 22 kinds of immune cells. Log-rank test was performed to compare the survival outcome of patients with different proportions of immune cells. The estimated hazard ratios were presented with forest plot. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was conducted to estimate the adjusted associations between different types of infiltrating immune cells and survival prognosis controlling for other clinical features and confounders. With the CIBERSORT approach, we assessed the proportions of 22 infiltrating immune cells of 2050 cases with NSCLC. By conducting survival analysis, we found different survival outcomes among cases with different proportions of certain types of infiltrating immune cells. Among the cell subsets investigated, plasma cells (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.775, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.669-0.898) and regulatory T cells (HR = 1.258, 95% CI: 1.091-1.451) were associated with survival outcome of NSCLC patients controlling for other covariates. Subgroup analysis suggested a good consistency and robustness of our results. Our findings might provide useful information for prognosis prediction and cellular study in NSCLC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plasmócitos/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Análise de Sobrevida , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo
6.
Toxicol Lett ; 316: 27-34, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513887

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Atherosclerosis is an autoimmune inflammatory disease that is closely associated with long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5). CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a critical role in the regulation of T cell-mediated immune responses, and the depletion of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs has been thought to play a prominent role in atherosclerosis. Therefore, we investigated the association between the CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs population and atherosclerotic development in ApoE-/- mice exposed to PM2.5. METHODS: We employed a real-world system to subject 40 ApoE-/- mice to ambient inhalation of PM2.5 (PM2.5 group, n = 20) or filtered air (FA group, n = 20) for 12 weeks. PM2.5 source apportionment, atherosclerotic lesions within aorta, lipid deposition and plaque accumulation in whole artery, serum level of inflammatory factors and lipid profiles, CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs population in splenocytes, Foxp3 protein and mRNA expressions in descending aorta and spleen were quantified, respectively. RESULTS: The daily average concentration of PM2.5 was 57.4 ± 25.6 µg/m3. Atherosclerotic lesions within aorta, lipid deposition and plaque accumulation in whole artery, serum levels of IL-6, TNF-α, TC and LDL-C in the PM2.5 group increased significantly compared to the FA group. Whereas, serum levels of IL-10 and TGF-ß, CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs population in splenocytes, Foxp3 protein and mRNA expressions in descending aorta and spleen in the PM2.5 group decreased significantly compared to the FA group. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that PM2.5 could accelerate the development of atherosclerosis in ApoE-/- mice, which is related to CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs down-regulation, as well as lipid deposition and systemic inflammation.


Assuntos
Aorta/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças da Aorta/induzido quimicamente , Aterosclerose/induzido quimicamente , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-2/metabolismo , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Aorta/imunologia , Aorta/metabolismo , Aorta/patologia , Doenças da Aorta/sangue , Doenças da Aorta/imunologia , Doenças da Aorta/patologia , Aterosclerose/sangue , Aterosclerose/imunologia , Aterosclerose/patologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Citocinas/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/imunologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-2/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout para ApoE , Tamanho da Partícula , Fenótipo , Placa Aterosclerótica , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores/patologia , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol ; 33: 2058738419869055, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409163

RESUMO

The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of Astragalus membranaceus extract and ligustrazine combination on ameliorating inflammation in cerebral ischemic rats that have undergone thrombolysis. Astragalus membranaceus and ligustrazine per se, or a combination of A. membranaceus and ligustrazine was administered by intraperitoneal injection immediately after surgery and sham surgery. After the induction of thrombolysis, the neurological function was measured and cerebral lesion volume was determined. The regulatory T cells in the spleen were measured by flow cytometry. To explore the protective effects of the combination drug on the neurological function and inflammation, the expression of transcription factor Foxp3 and cytokines, including transforming growth factor beta 1, interleukin 10, interleukin 4, interleukin 1 beta, interferon gamma, interleukin 17, in damaged brain was examined using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The cerebral lesion volume was markedly reduced in the combination drug-treated rats compared to the rats treated with either A. membranaceus or ligustrazine alone (P < 0.05). The neurological function, regulatory T cells, transcription factor Foxp3, transforming growth factor beta 1, interleukin 10, and interleukin 4 were markedly elevated in the rats treated with combination drugs (P < 0.05). The expression of interleukin 1 beta, interferon gamma, and interleukin 17 was reduced in the rats treated with combination drug therapy (P < 0.05). Treatment with a combination of A. membranaceus and ligustrazine can ameliorate inflammation after thrombolysis and regulate the related cytokines by elevating the expression of endogenous regulatory T cells.


Assuntos
Astragalus propinquus/química , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Infarto Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrinolíticos/farmacologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Pirazinas/farmacologia , Animais , Isquemia Encefálica/metabolismo , Infarto Cerebral/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo
8.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 5229-5242, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31371958

RESUMO

Purpose: Dexamethasone (Dex) has long been used as a potent immunosuppressive agent in the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, despite serious side effects. In the present study, Dex and model antigen ovalbumin (OVA) were encapsulated with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) to deliver Dex and OVA preferentially to phagocytic cells, reducing systemic side effects of Dex. The OVA-specific immune tolerance-inducing activity of the nanoparticles (NPs) was examined. Methods: Polymeric NPs containing OVA and Dex (NP[OVA+Dex]) were prepared by the water-in-oil-in-water double emulsion solvent evaporation method. The effects of NP[OVA+Dex] on the maturation and function of immature dendritic cells (DCs) were examined in vitro. Furthermore, the OVA-specific immune tolerizing effects of NP[OVA+Dex] were confirmed in mice that were intravenously injected or orally fed with the NPs. Results: Immature DCs treated in vitro with NP[OVA+Dex] did not mature into immunogenic DCs but instead were converted into tolerogenic DCs. Furthermore, profoundly suppressed generation of OVA-specific cytotoxic T cells and production of OVA-specific IgG were observed in mice injected with NP[OVA+Dex], whereas regulatory T cells were concomitantly increased. Feeding of mice with NP[OVA+Dex] also induced OVA-specific immune tolerance. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that oral feeding as well as intravenous injection of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) NPs encapsulating both antigen and Dex is a useful means of inducing antigen-specific immune tolerance, which is crucial for the treatment of autoimmune diseases.


Assuntos
Antígenos/imunologia , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Epitopos/imunologia , Tolerância Imunológica , Nanopartículas/química , Administração Oral , Animais , Apresentação do Antígeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/biossíntese , Células Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Feminino , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Imunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Ovalbumina/imunologia , Fagocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Copolímero de Ácido Poliláctico e Ácido Poliglicólico/química , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(16)2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412561

RESUMO

Bacterial superantigens (SAgs) are exotoxins that promote a fulminant activation of the immune system. The subsequent intense release of inflammatory cytokines often results in hypotension, shock, and organ failure with high mortality rates. In the current paradigm, the direct and simultaneous binding of SAgs with T-cell receptor (TCR)-bearing Vß regions and conserved structures on major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC class II) on antigen-presenting cells (APCs) induces the activation of both cell types. However, by crosslinking MHC class II molecules, APCs can be activated by SAgs independently of T lymphocytes. Recently, we showed that streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A (SPEA) of Streptococcus pyogenes stimulates an immunogenic APC phenotype with upregulated costimulatory molecules and inflammatory cytokines. Additionally, we revealed that SPEA triggers immunosuppressive programs in monocytes that facilitate the accumulation of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in in vitro monocyte/CD4+ T-cell cocultures. Immunosuppressive factors include anti-inflammatory interleukin 10 (IL-10), co-inhibitory surface molecule programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1), and the inhibitory indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO)/kynurenine effector system. In the present study, we investigated the underlying mechanism of SPEA-stimulated monocyte-mediated accumulation of Tregs. Blood-derived monocytes from healthy donors were stimulated with SPEA for 48 h (SPEA-monocytes). For the evaluation of SPEA-monocyte-mediated modulation of CD4+ T lymphocytes, SPEA was removed from the culture through extensive washing of cells before adding allogeneic CD3/CD28-activated T cells. Results: In coculture with allogeneic CD4+ T cells, SPEA-monocytes mediate apoptosis of CD4+Foxp3- lymphocytes and accumulation of CD4+Foxp3+ Tregs. PD-L1 and kynurenine are critically involved in the mediated cell death because blocking both factors diminished apoptosis and decreased the proportion of the CD25+/Foxp3+ Treg subpopulation significantly. Upregulation of PD-L1 and kynurenine as well as SPEA-monocyte-mediated effects on T cells depend on inflammatory IL-1ß. Our study shows that monocytes activated by SPEA mediate apoptosis of CD4+Foxp3- T effector cells through PD-L1 and kynurenine. CD4+Foxp3+ T cells are resistant to apoptosis and accumulate in SPEA-monocyte/CD4+ T-cell coculture.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia , Comunicação Celular , Exotoxinas/imunologia , Cinurenina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Monócitos/imunologia , Monócitos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Apresentação do Antígeno/imunologia , Células Apresentadoras de Antígenos/imunologia , Células Apresentadoras de Antígenos/metabolismo , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Biomarcadores , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Superantígenos/imunologia
10.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 1050285, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31380412

RESUMO

Background: Th17/Treg balance skews towards Th17 in ITP patient. IRF4 has been highlighted for its close relationship to the immunosuppressive function of Treg cells and the IL-17 synthesis in CD4+ T cells. This study was aimed at examining the effects of IRF4 to the Th17/Treg cells in patients with ITP. Methods: Treg and Teff cells were isolated from PBMCs of newly diagnosed ITP patients. The percentages of CD4+CD25hiFoxp3+Treg cells and the CD3+CD4+IL-17+Th17 cells were detected by flow cytometry. After being cultured, the supernatants of Tregs were collected for IL-10 concentration test. The IRF4 levels of Tregs were measured. Teffs were cultured alone or with Tregs for 24 hours. Then the supernatants were collected for IL-17 concentration test. The binding intensity of IRF4 to the gene IL-10 in Treg cells was detected by ChIP-qPCR. Metabolic assays for Teffs and Tregs were performed with Agilent Seahorse XF96 Analyzer. Results: The secretion of IL-10 by Tregs was decreased in ITP patients. The intensity of IRF4 binding to IL-10 DNA of Tregs in patients was higher than that of normal controls and Teffs in ITP patients. The expressions of IRF4 of Tregs in ITP patients were remarkably lower than that of healthy controls. The percentage of Th17 cells in healthy controls was significantly increased after IRF4 mRNA silencing. Abnormal metabolism of Treg and Teff cells was found in ITP patients. Conclusion: The skewed ratio of Th17/Treg cells and dysfunction of Treg cells in newly diagnosed ITP patients was at least partly caused by IRF4 dysfunction. The underlying mechanism might be the impact of IRF4 on the metabolism of Treg and Teff cells.


Assuntos
Fatores Reguladores de Interferon/genética , Interleucina-10/genética , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/genética , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imunossupressão/métodos , Fatores Reguladores de Interferon/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ligação Proteica/imunologia , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/imunologia , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/patologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Células Th17/imunologia , Células Th17/metabolismo
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(14)2019 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337116

RESUMO

Regulatory T cells (Treg) are mandatory elements in the maintenance of human pregnancy, but their de novo differentiation has not been completely exposed. HSPE1 chaperone expressing trophoblast cells may have a role in it. Trophoblast-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs), either at the feto-maternal interface or in circulation, target CD4+ T cells. We hypothesized that HSPE1-associated trophoblastic cell line (BeWo)-derived EVs are active mediators of Treg cell differentiation. We proved at first that recombinant HSPE1 promote human Treg cell differentiation in vitro. Developing a CRISPR-Cas9 based HSPE1 knockout BeWo cell line we could also demonstrate, that EV-associated HSPE1 induces Treg development. Next-generation sequencing of miRNA cargo of BeWo-EVs characterized the regulatory processes of Treg polarization. By the use of single-cell transcriptomics analysis, seven Treg cell subtypes were distinguished and we demonstrated for the first time that the expression level of HSPE1 was Treg subtype dependent, and CAPG expression is characteristic to memory phenotype of T cells. Our data indicate that HSPE1 and CAPG may be used as markers for identification of Treg subtypes. Our results suggest, that trophoblastic-derived iEVs-associated HSPE1 and miRNA cargo have an important role in Treg cell expansion in vitro and HSPE1 is a useful marker of Treg subtype characterization.


Assuntos
Comunicação Celular , Diferenciação Celular , Linfócitos T Reguladores/citologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Trofoblastos/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Proteoma , Proteômica/métodos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Transcriptoma
12.
Hypertension ; 74(3): 581-589, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327269

RESUMO

Demethylation of the forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) corresponds with stability of FOXP3 expression and immunosuppressive function of regulatory T cells (Tregs). Previous studies have demonstrated that reduction in Tregs is associated with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The aim of this study was to establish the relationship between methylation level of FOXP3-TSDR (Treg-specific demethylated region) and clinical outcomes of ACS. We first evaluated the prognostic significance of methylation levels of FOXP3-TSDR in patients with ACS (n=171). Then, we explored the possible mechanism of methylation levels of FOXP3-TSDR on clinical outcomes of ACS in vivo. We analyzed methylation of FOXP3-TSDR, percentage of Tregs in total peripheral blood, and atherosclerotic lesions in aortic root in ApoE-/- mice (n=48; 6 groups). During the follow-up of 4.5±0.8 years, survival free of major adverse cardiovascular events was the lowest in the highest tertile of FOXP3-TSDR methylation (log-rank P=0.004). Multivariate analysis showed that FOXP3-TSDR methylation was independently and positively related to major adverse cardiovascular events (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.21-3.75; P=0.009). We observed a duration-dependent increase in the methylation levels of FOXP3-TSDR in mice fed with Western diet at a period of 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 weeks. Elevated methylation levels of FOXP3-TSDR were significantly correlated of severity of atherosclerosis. We further found that FOXP3-TSDR methylation was inversely related to the percentages of Treg TGF-ß (transforming growth factor-ß) and IL (interleukin)-10 levels. Our results indicate that elevated methylation levels of FOXP3-TSDR are associated with increased risk for adverse outcomes in patients with ACS.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/genética , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Metilação de DNA/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Biópsia por Agulha , Estudos de Coortes , Citocinas/metabolismo , Desmetilação , Citometria de Fluxo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Análise de Sobrevida , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo
13.
Mol Immunol ; 114: 72-80, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344551

RESUMO

Scleroderma is an inflammatory autoimmune disease characterized by extensive tissue fibrosis. The imbalance of effector T (Teff) and regulatory T (Treg) cells and the production of autoantibodies contribute to the pathogenesis of this disease. Metformin (MET) has anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects, but its effect on the in vivo pathogenesis of scleroderma remains unknown. Therefore, we investigated the potential therapeutic effects of MET treatment of mice with bleomycin (BLM)-induced scleroderma. Scleroderma was induced in female C57BL mice by daily subcutaneous injections of BLM for 28 days. After each 2 h BLM injection, mice received MET (200, 100 or 50 mg/kg) or saline (control) by intraperitoneal injection. At the end of the fourth week, spleen mononuclear cells were collected for flow cytometry analysis. Skin samples were harvested for immunohistochemistry and quantification of other biological parameters.Our results showed that BLM increased dermal thickness, collagen deposition, and hydroxyproline level, and MET markedly mitigated these effects. MET also restored the Treg/Teff cell balance. Accordingly, the level of IL-17A and RORγt (related to Th17 cells) decreased, but Foxp3 (related to Treg function) increased in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, MET treatment inhibited spleen germinal center formation. These results indicate that the immunomodulatory and anti-fibrosis effects of MET on BLM-induced scleroderma are mediated by the upregulation of Treg cell differentiation, inhibition of Teff cell differentiation, and suppression of spleen germinal center formation. These results suggest that MET may be a potential therapeutic for scleroderma.


Assuntos
Bleomicina/farmacologia , Centro Germinativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Metformina/farmacologia , Dermatopatias/induzido quimicamente , Dermatopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Colágeno/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Fibrose/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrose/metabolismo , Centro Germinativo/metabolismo , Hidroxiprolina/metabolismo , Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Membro 3 do Grupo F da Subfamília 1 de Receptores Nucleares/metabolismo , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/metabolismo , Dermatopatias/metabolismo , Baço/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Células Th17/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Th17/metabolismo
14.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349704

RESUMO

Epidemiological studies identified raw cow's milk consumption as an important environmental exposure that prevents allergic diseases. In the present study, we investigated whether raw cow's milk has the capacity to induce tolerance to an unrelated, non-milk, food allergen. Histone acetylation of T cell genes was investigated to assess potential epigenetic regulation. Female C3H/HeOuJ mice were sensitized and challenged to ovalbumin. Prior to sensitization, the mice were treated with raw milk, processed milk, or phosphate-buffered saline for eight days. Allergic symptoms were assessed after challenge and histone modifications in T cell-related genes of splenocyte-derived CD4+ T cells and the mesenteric lymph nodes were analyzed after milk exposure and after challenge. Unlike processed milk, raw milk decreased allergic symptoms. After raw milk exposure, histone acetylation of Th1-, Th2-, and regulatory T cell-related genes of splenocyte-derived CD4+ T cells was higher than after processed milk exposure. After allergy induction, this general immune stimulation was resolved and histone acetylation of Th2 genes was lower when compared to processed milk. Raw milk reduces allergic symptoms to an unrelated, non-milk, food allergen in a murine model for food allergy. The activation of T cell-related genes could be responsible for the observed tolerance induction, which suggested that epigenetic modifications contribute to the allergy-protective effect of raw milk.


Assuntos
Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina , Epigênese Genética , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/dietoterapia , Histonas/metabolismo , Tolerância Imunológica , Ativação Linfocitária , Leite/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Acetilação , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/genética , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C3H , Ovalbumina , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th1/metabolismo , Células Th2/imunologia , Células Th2/metabolismo
15.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 687, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307428

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In a prospective study with long-term follow-up, we analyzed circulating T cell subsets in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) in the context of primary tumor sidedness, KRAS status, and clinical outcome. Our primary goal was to investigate whether baseline levels of circulating T cell subsets serve as a potential biomarker of clinical outcome of mCRC patients treated with an anti-VEGF-based regimen. METHODS: The study group consisted of 36 patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma who started first-line chemotherapy with bevacizumab for metastatic disease. We quantified T cell subsets including Tregs and CD8+ T cells in the peripheral blood prior to therapy initiation. Clinical outcome was evaluated as progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and objective response rate (ORR). RESULTS: 1) mCRC patients with KRAS wt tumors had higher proportions of circulating CD8+ cytotoxic T cells among all T cells but also higher measures of T regulatory (Treg) cells such as absolute count and a higher proportion of Tregs in the CD4+ subset. 2) A low proportion of circulating Tregs among CD4+ cells, and a high CD8:Treg ratio at initiation of VEGF-targeting therapy, were associated with favorable clinical outcome. 3) In a subset of patients with primarily right-sided mCRC, superior PFS and OS were observed when the CD8:Treg ratio was high. CONCLUSIONS: The baseline level of circulating immune cells predicts clinical outcome of 1st-line treatment with the anti-VEGF angio/immunomodulatory agent bevacizumab. Circulating immune biomarkers, namely the CD8:Treg ratio, identified patients in the right-sided mCRC subgroup with favorable outcome following treatment with 1st-line anti-VEGF treatment.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Bevacizumab/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Metástase Neoplásica/tratamento farmacológico , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/antagonistas & inibidores , Adenocarcinoma/sangue , Adenocarcinoma/mortalidade , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Inibidores da Angiogênese/administração & dosagem , Bevacizumab/administração & dosagem , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Prospectivos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/análise , Taxa de Sobrevida
16.
J Immunol Res ; 2019: 8785263, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31281853

RESUMO

Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a critical role in controlling autoreactive T cells, and quantitative and/or qualitative deficiencies in Tregs are associated with autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes (T1D), in both humans and mice. Both the incidence of T1D and percentages of peripheral Tregs in NOD mice vary considerably between animal facilities. In our animal facility, the incidence of T1D in NOD mice is high at 90-100% and the percentages of peripheral CD4+Foxp3+ cells in ~9-10-week-old female NOD mice are decreased compared to control (B6) mice shortly before high glucose is first detected (~12 weeks). These data suggest that there is an imbalance between Tregs and potentially pathogenic effector T cells at this age that could have significant impact on disease progression to overt diabetes. The goal of the current study was to investigate mechanisms that play a role in peripheral Treg : T effector cell balance in NOD mice, including differences in persistence/survival, peripheral homeostatic proliferation, and thymic production and output of CD4+ T cells. We found no differences in persistence/survival or homeostatic proliferation of either Tregs or effector T cells between NOD and B6 mice. Furthermore, although the percentages and absolute numbers of CD4+Foxp3+ cells in thymus were not decreased in NOD compared to B6 mice, the percentage of CD4+ recent thymic emigrants (RTE) that were Foxp3+ was significantly lower in 9-week-old NOD mice. Interestingly, the thymic output of CD4+Foxp3+ cells was not lower in NOD mice, whereas the thymic output of CD4+Foxp3- cells was significantly higher in NOD mice at that age compared to B6 mice. These data suggest that the higher thymic output of CD4+Foxp3- T cells contributes, at least in part, to the lower percentages of peripheral CD4+Foxp3+ Tregs in NOD mice and an imbalance between Tregs and T effector cells that may contribute to the development of full-blown diabetes.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Timo/imunologia , Animais , Biomarcadores , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Movimento Celular , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/imunologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/metabolismo , Feminino , Imunomodulação , Imunofenotipagem , Contagem de Linfócitos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos Transgênicos , Especificidade da Espécie , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Timo/metabolismo
17.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 4877-4884, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31258152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) have been proved to exert crucial roles in immunological rejection. Exosomes (EXOs) secreted by CD4+CD25+ regulatory T (Treg) cells is believed to be deeply involved in immune regulation. Nevertheless, whether immunomodulatory effect of CD4+CD25+ Treg cells on CD8+ CTL depends on EXOs remains unknown and needs to be explored. MATERIAL AND METHODS We purified CD4+CD25+ Treg cells followed by in vitro amplification. EXOs in culture supernatants of Treg cells was separated and identified. The effect of CD4+CD25+ Treg cells and CD4+CD25+ Treg cells-derived EXOs on CD8+ CTL viability, proliferation, cell cycle mRNA, intracellular cytokines, and protein expression were investigated. RESULTS We successfully obtained EXOs from CD4+CD25+ Treg cells. The inhibition effect of EXOs on CD8+ CTL was concentration-dependent. In addition, the inhibition effect of CD4+CD25+ Treg cells could be reversed by GW4869, an EXOs inhibitor. The inhibition effect was associated with the regulation of IFN-γ and perforin. Our in vivo experiments proved that natural CD4+CD25+ Treg cells-released EXOs can prolong liver allograft survival. CONCLUSIONS CD4+CD25+ Treg cells-derived EXOs could become an alternative tool for manipulating the immune system to discover novel underlying immunomodulatory mechanisms.


Assuntos
Exossomos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Aloenxertos/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos CD4/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Exossomos/imunologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Transplante de Fígado/métodos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Ratos Wistar , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Tolerância ao Transplante/imunologia
18.
Cancer Sci ; 110(9): 2783-2793, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31325403

RESUMO

Oral cancer, a subtype of head and neck cancer, is characterized by increased infiltrating regulatory T cells (Treg); however, the pathological significance of the increase in Tregs in disease prognosis and progression and their underlying mechanism remain unestablished. C-C motif chemokine ligand 22 (CCL22) has been implicated in the recruitment of Tregs. We used RT-qPCR to determine CCL22 mRNA expression in clinical specimens and cultured cells. Loss-of-function and gain-of-function studies were carried out to analyze the effects of CCL22 modulations on cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and tumorigenesis and the mechanism involved in the deregulation of CCL22. In oral cancer specimens, CCL22 mRNA was upregulated. The increase was not only associated with reduced disease-free survival but also strongly correlated with an increase in FOXP3 mRNA, a master regulator of Treg development and functions. Silencing CCL22 expression reduced cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, whereas ectopic overexpression showed opposite effects. Manipulation of CCL22 expression in cancer cells altered tumorigenesis in both immune-compromised and -competent mice, supporting both autonomous and non-autonomous actions of CCL22. Release of interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß) from cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) induces CCL22 mRNA expression in oral cancer cells by activating transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). Our data support a model in which CAF-derived IL-1ß, CCL22, and its receptor CCR4 foster a protumor environment by promoting cell transformation and Treg infiltration. Intervention of the IL-1ß-CCL22-CCR4 signaling axis may offer a novel therapeutic strategy for oral cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/metabolismo , Quimiocina CCL22/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Animais , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/imunologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/imunologia , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/imunologia , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/patologia , Quimiocina CCL22/genética , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mucosa Bucal/patologia , Mucosa Bucal/cirurgia , Neoplasias Bucais/imunologia , Neoplasias Bucais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Bucais/cirurgia , Invasividade Neoplásica/imunologia , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Prognóstico , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Receptores CCR4/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/imunologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/cirurgia , Análise de Sobrevida , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
19.
Monoclon Antib Immunodiagn Immunother ; 38(3): 114-119, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192779

RESUMO

The establishment of a relevant regulatory T cell (Treg) pool in the periphery is of importance to ensure immune homoeostasis. Finely tuned signaling pathways in Tregs control the immune response during extreme endocrine changes in pregnancy and afterward. In this study, we investigate the population of Tregs and, in particular, the natural Tregs (nTregs) in healthy women divided into three groups according to the number of previous pregnancies, if any (Gr.1-one pregnancy, Gr.2-≥2 pregnancies, and Gr.0-no pregnancy). The overall analysis showed similar proportions in the entire Treg pool and nTregs (FoxP3+CD45RA+) in all the three groups (p > 0.05). However, the age-related trend of CD25+ nTregs was found to be different in parous and nonparous women. Analysis of phosphorylated ERK1/2, an important signaling molecule in T cell maintenance, showed a significantly higher percentage in CD25+ nTregs in the group of nonparous compared with parous women (p < 0.05). Thus, our results provide evidence that pregnancy may exert a long-lasting impact on the subset of nTregs due to the extreme changes in the hormonal status, which in turn, influences pre- and post-thymic maturation.


Assuntos
Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-2/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Paridade , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Adulto , Diferenciação Celular , Feminino , Humanos , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-2/imunologia , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/imunologia , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/imunologia , Gravidez , Linfócitos T Reguladores/citologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
20.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 536, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164094

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aerobic exercise has been shown to slow tumor progression in rodents and humans, but the mechanisms behind this effect are still unclear. Here we show that aerobic exercise in the form of chronic endurance training suppresses tumor recruitment of FoxP3+ Treg cells thus enhancing antitumor immune efficiency. METHODS: Adult wild-type and athymic BALB/c female mice were endurance-trained for 8 weeks. Circulating leukocytes as well as muscle and liver mtDNA copy number were compared to aged-matched concurrent sedentary controls to establish systemic effects. 4 T1 murine mammary tumor cells were injected subcutaneously to the 4th mammary pad at the end of the training period. Tumor growth and survival rates were compared, together with antitumor immune response. RESULTS: Exercised wild-type had 17% slower growth rate, 24% longer survival, and 2-fold tumor-CD+ 8/FoxP3+ ratio than sedentary controls. Exercised athymic BALB/c females showed no difference in tumor growth or survival rates when compared to sedentary controls. CONCLUSIONS: Cytotoxic T cells are a significant factor in endurance exercise-induced suppression of tumor growth. Endurance exercise enhances antitumor immune efficacy by increasing intratumoral CD8+/FoxP3+ ratio.


Assuntos
Progressão da Doença , Treino Aeróbico , Neoplasias Mamárias Experimentais/imunologia , Neoplasias Mamárias Experimentais/fisiopatologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Neoplasias Mamárias Experimentais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Mamárias Experimentais/prevenção & controle , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Projetos Piloto , Taxa de Sobrevida , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/metabolismo , Carga Tumoral
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