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1.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(17): 9182-9187, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965012

RESUMO

COVID-19 pandemic has underlined that unknown viral infections, which jump from animals to humans, can be extremely dangerous. In case of new viruses as SARS-CoV2, available drugs can fail to contrast the virus aggressiveness leading patients to death. Long time is necessary to create a vaccine, but immediate solutions are necessary to stop the mortality COVID-19 related. We have learned that the immune-system is the key to reduce the severity of COVID-19 and, through its modulation, it has been possible saving people's life. In this short communication, we discuss the use of nutraceuticals to modulate and stimulate the immune answer for reducing the severity of COVID-19 symptoms. The nutraceuticals are safe and can be administered to all ages. In addition, combination of natural anti-viral elements and immune-stimulating molecules already successfully tested against others upper-respiratory tract infections-could be efficient against SARS-CoV2. We believe that these natural molecules could really be a valid ally against COVID-19, especially in this moment in which a SARS-CoV2 vaccine is still not available.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/farmacologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Lactobacillus/fisiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Selênio/farmacologia , Selênio/uso terapêutico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Linfócitos T/citologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Lancet Haematol ; 7(9): e690-e696, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791043

RESUMO

People living with HIV are a global population with increased cancer risk but their access to modern immunotherapies for cancer treatment has been limited by socioeconomic factors and inadequate research to support safety and efficacy in this population. These immunotherapies include immune checkpoint inhibitors and advances in cellular immunotherapy, particularly chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy. Despite the field of cancer immunotherapy rapidly expanding with ongoing clinical trials, people with HIV are often excluded from such trials. In 2019, post-approval evaluation of anti-CD19 CAR T-cell therapy in people with HIV and aggressive B-cell lymphoma showed the feasibility of CAR T-cell therapy for cancer in this excluded group. Along with expanded treatment options for people with HIV is the ability to assess the effects of immunotherapy on the latent HIV reservoir, with certain immunotherapies showing the ability to alleviate this burden. This Series paper addresses the increased cancer burden in people with HIV, the increasing evidence for the safety and efficacy of immunotherapies in the context of HIV and cancer, and opportunities for novel applications of CAR-T therapy for the treatment of both haematological malignancies and HIV.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/patologia , Neoplasias Hematológicas/terapia , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/transplante , Antígenos CD19/imunologia , Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Neoplasias Hematológicas/complicações , Neoplasias Hematológicas/mortalidade , Humanos , Imunoterapia Adotiva , Taxa de Sobrevida , Linfócitos T/citologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo
3.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0235753, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745080

RESUMO

CD154 plays a major role in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. In addition to CD40, soluble CD154 (sCD154) binds to other receptors namely αIIbß3, αMß2, α5ß1 and αvß3 integrins. We have previously reported that binding of sCD154 to α5ß1 integrin expressed on several human T cell lines is capable of inhibiting Fas-induced cell death. In the current study, we show that such effect of the sCD154/α5ß1 interaction is not restricted to the cell death response induced by Fas but could also be exhibited toward other death signals such as TRAIL and TNF- α. We also demonstrate that sCD154 is capable of inhibiting Fas-mediated death of human activated T cells, more importantly of CD4+ than CD8+ T ones. Our data also show that membrane-bound CD154 and α5ß1 integrin expressed on the surface of distinct cells failed to influence cell death responses. However, when membrane-bound CD154 and α5ß1 are expressed on the surface of same cell, their interaction was capable of down regulating cell death. CD154 was shown to co-localize with the α5ß1 integrin on the surface of these cells. These data strongly suggest a cis-type of interaction between CD154 and α5ß1 when both are expressed on the same cell surface, rather than a trans-interaction which usually implicates the ligand and its receptor each expressed on the surface of a distinct cell. Taken together, these findings add to the list of roles through which CD154 is contributing to the pathogenesis of autoimmune-inflammatory diseases, i.e. by protecting T cells from death and enhancing their survival.


Assuntos
Ligante de CD40/metabolismo , Integrina alfa5beta1/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/citologia , Ligante de CD40/análise , Morte Celular , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Integrina alfa5beta1/análise , Células Jurkat , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Linfócitos T/metabolismo
4.
Nature ; 585(7823): 96-101, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32814898

RESUMO

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are neurodegenerative disorders that overlap in their clinical presentation, pathology and genetic origin. Autoimmune disorders are also overrepresented in both ALS and FTD, but this remains an unexplained epidemiologic observation1-3. Expansions of a hexanucleotide repeat (GGGGCC) in the C9orf72 gene are the most common cause of familial ALS and FTD (C9-ALS/FTD), and lead to both repeat-containing RNA and dipeptide accumulation, coupled with decreased C9orf72 protein expression in brain and peripheral blood cells4-6. Here we show in mice that loss of C9orf72 from myeloid cells alone is sufficient to recapitulate the age-dependent lymphoid hypertrophy and autoinflammation seen in animals with a complete knockout of C9orf72. Dendritic cells isolated from C9orf72-/- mice show marked early activation of the type I interferon response, and C9orf72-/- myeloid cells are selectively hyperresponsive to activators of the stimulator of interferon genes (STING) protein-a key regulator of the innate immune response to cytosolic DNA. Degradation of STING through the autolysosomal pathway is diminished in C9orf72-/- myeloid cells, and blocking STING suppresses hyperactive type I interferon responses in C9orf72-/- immune cells as well as splenomegaly and inflammation in C9orf72-/- mice. Moreover, mice lacking one or both copies of C9orf72 are more susceptible to experimental autoimmune encephalitis, mirroring the susceptibility to autoimmune diseases seen in people with C9-ALS/FTD. Finally, blood-derived macrophages, whole blood and brain tissue from patients with C9-ALS/FTD all show an elevated type I interferon signature compared with samples from people with sporadic ALS/FTD; this increased interferon response can be suppressed with a STING inhibitor. Collectively, our results suggest that patients with C9-ALS/FTD have an altered immunophenotype because their reduced levels of C9orf72 cannot suppress the inflammation mediated by the induction of type I interferons by STING.


Assuntos
Proteína C9orf72/genética , Proteína C9orf72/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Células Mieloides/metabolismo , Envelhecimento/imunologia , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Animais , Proteína C9orf72/deficiência , Células Dendríticas/citologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/genética , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/imunologia , Interferon Tipo I/biossíntese , Interferon Tipo I/imunologia , Proteínas de Membrana/antagonistas & inibidores , Camundongos , Células Mieloides/imunologia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Linfócitos T/citologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(13)2020 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640747

RESUMO

The present is a comprehensive review of the immunopathology of Covid-19. The immune reaction to SARS-CoV-2 infection is characterized by differentiation and proliferation of a variety of immune cells with immune mediator production and release, and activation of other pathogen resistance mechanisms. We fully address the humoral and cellular immune changes induced by the virus, with particular emphasis on the role of the "cytokine storm" in the evolution of the disease. Moreover, we also propose some immune alterations (i.e., inflammatory parameters, cytokines, leukocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations) as prognostic markers of the disease. Furthermore, we discuss how immune modifying drugs, such as tocilizumab, chloroquine, glucocorticoids and immunoglobulins, and blood purification therapy, can constitute a fundamental moment in the therapy of the infection. Finally, we made a critical analysis of a number of substances, not yet utilized, but potentially useful in SARS-CoV-2 patients, such as IFN lambda, TNF blockers, ulinastatin, siponimod, tacrolimus, mesenchymal stem cells, inhibitors of mononuclear macrophage recruitment, IL-1 family antagonists, JAK-2 or STAT-3 inhibitors.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Prognóstico , Linfócitos T/citologia
6.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235705, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649682

RESUMO

Mutations of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex occur in 20% of all human cancers, including ovarian cancer. Approximately half of ovarian clear cell carcinomas (OCCC) carry mutations in the SWI/SNF subunit ARID1A, while small cell carcinoma of the ovary hypercalcemic type (SCCOHT) presents with inactivating mutations of the SWI/SNF ATPase SMARCA4 alongside epigenetic silencing of the ATPase SMARCA2. Loss of these ATPases disrupts SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling activity and may also interfere with the function of other histone-modifying enzymes that associate with or are dependent on SWI/SNF activity. One such enzyme is lysine-specific histone demethylase 1 (LSD1/KDM1A), which regulates the chromatin landscape and gene expression by demethylating proteins such as histone H3. Cross-cancer analysis of the TCGA database shows that LSD1 is highly expressed in SWI/SNF-mutated tumors. SCCOHT and OCCC cell lines have shown sensitivity to the reversible LSD1 inhibitor SP-2577 (Seclidemstat), suggesting that SWI/SNF-deficient ovarian cancers are dependent on LSD1 activity. Moreover, it has been shown that inhibition of LSD1 stimulates interferon (IFN)-dependent anti-tumor immunity through induction of endogenous retroviral elements and may thereby overcome resistance to checkpoint blockade. In this study, we investigated the ability of SP-2577 to promote anti-tumor immunity and T-cell infiltration in SCCOHT and OCCC cell lines. We found that SP-2577 stimulated IFN-dependent anti-tumor immunity in SCCOHT and promoted the expression of PD-L1 in both SCCOHT and OCCC. Together, these findings suggest that the combination therapy of SP-2577 with checkpoint inhibitors may induce or augment immunogenic responses of SWI/SNF-mutated ovarian cancers and warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Transcrição/antagonistas & inibidores , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma de Células Pequenas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados/química , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados/farmacologia , DNA Helicases/genética , DNA Helicases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Histonas/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Interferons/farmacologia , Mutação , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/imunologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Linfócitos T/citologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
7.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0230835, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701966

RESUMO

Syndecan-1 (Sdc-1) is a heparan sulfate proteoglycan that can bind cytokines and chemokines via its heparan sulfate side chains, and has immunomodulatory properties in experimental models. Sdc-1 expression has been reported on dendritic cells (DC) and T cells. The potential role of Sdc-1 in DC-T cell interaction has not been investigated yet. We postulate that Sdc-1 is involved in DC-T cell interaction and may influence graft survival in an allogeneic transplant model. Sdc-1 expression on bone marrow-derived DC and T cells was analyzed by flow cytometry. Unstimulated and LPS stimulated Sdc-1 deficient DC were evaluated in vitro for phenotype and stimulatory capacity in mixed lymphocyte reaction. Sdc-1 deficient T cells were evaluated for proliferative capacity and differentiation in a mixed lymphocyte reaction and a proliferation assay. Allograft survival was evaluated in a fully MHC mismatched heterotopic heart transplant model, with either Sdc-1 deficient donors or recipients. Sdc-1 was expressed on the cell surface of unstimulated and LPS matured DC. Sdc-1 deficiency had no effect on expression of co-stimulatory molecules, cytokine production or T cell stimulatory capacity as compared to WT DC. Sdc-1 expression was not detectable on WT T cells, although intracellular Sdc-1 expression could be demonstrated after ConA activation. Sdc-1 deficient T cells showed reduced proliferation upon DC or ConA stimulation and reduced IL-17 production upon ConA stimulation, compared to WT T cells. Sdc-1 deficiency of either allograft or recipient did not prolong allograft survival. In conclusion, Sdc-1 is expressed on the cell surface of DC, where its absence does not affect DC phenotype or T cell stimulatory capacity. Sdc-1 is intracellularly expressed in ConA activated T cells. Sdc-1 deficiency in T cells results in a reduced proliferative response in vitro, as induced by DC and ConA. Sdc-1 deficiency in donor or recipient does not affect allograft survival.


Assuntos
Comunicação Celular , Células Dendríticas/citologia , Sindecana-1/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/citologia , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fenótipo
8.
Nature ; 584(7821): 463-469, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32717743

RESUMO

Recent studies have provided insights into the pathogenesis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)1-4. However, the longitudinal immunological correlates of disease outcome remain unclear. Here we serially analysed immune responses in 113 patients with moderate or severe COVID-19. Immune profiling revealed an overall increase in innate cell lineages, with a concomitant reduction in T cell number. An early elevation in cytokine levels was associated with worse disease outcomes. Following an early increase in cytokines, patients with moderate COVID-19 displayed a progressive reduction in type 1 (antiviral) and type 3 (antifungal) responses. By contrast, patients with severe COVID-19 maintained these elevated responses throughout the course of the disease. Moreover, severe COVID-19 was accompanied by an increase in multiple type 2 (anti-helminths) effectors, including interleukin-5 (IL-5), IL-13, immunoglobulin E and eosinophils. Unsupervised clustering analysis identified four immune signatures, representing growth factors (A), type-2/3 cytokines (B), mixed type-1/2/3 cytokines (C), and chemokines (D) that correlated with three distinct disease trajectories. The immune profiles of patients who recovered from moderate COVID-19 were enriched in tissue reparative growth factor signature A, whereas the profiles of those with who developed severe disease had elevated levels of all four signatures. Thus, we have identified a maladapted immune response profile associated with severe COVID-19 and poor clinical outcome, as well as early immune signatures that correlate with divergent disease trajectories.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Citocinas/análise , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise por Conglomerados , Citocinas/imunologia , Eosinófilos/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/análise , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Interleucina-13/análise , Interleucina-13/imunologia , Interleucina-5/análise , Interleucina-5/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Linfócitos T/citologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
9.
Nature ; 585(7823): 107-112, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32728218

RESUMO

Treating patients who have cancer with vaccines that stimulate a targeted immune response is conceptually appealing, but cancer vaccine trials have not been successful in late-stage patients with treatment-refractory tumours1,2. We are testing melanoma FixVac (BNT111)-an intravenously administered liposomal RNA (RNA-LPX) vaccine, which targets four non-mutated, tumour-associated antigens that are prevalent in melanoma-in an ongoing, first-in-human, dose-escalation phase I trial in patients with advanced melanoma (Lipo-MERIT trial, ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02410733). We report here data from an exploratory interim analysis that show that melanoma FixVac, alone or in combination with blockade of the checkpoint inhibitor PD1, mediates durable objective responses in checkpoint-inhibitor (CPI)-experienced patients with unresectable melanoma. Clinical responses are accompanied by the induction of strong CD4+ and CD8+ T cell immunity against the vaccine antigens. The antigen-specific cytotoxic T-cell responses in some responders reach magnitudes typically reported for adoptive T-cell therapy, and are durable. Our findings indicate that RNA-LPX vaccination is a potent immunotherapy in patients with CPI-experienced melanoma, and suggest the general utility of non-mutant shared tumour antigens as targets for cancer vaccination.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Vacinas Anticâncer/genética , Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Melanoma/imunologia , Melanoma/terapia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , RNA Neoplásico/genética , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Vacinas Anticâncer/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Anticâncer/efeitos adversos , Terapia Combinada , Humanos , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Linfócitos T/citologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/citologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Vacinação
10.
Nature ; 583(7817): 596-602, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669715

RESUMO

Ageing is the single greatest cause of disease and death worldwide, and understanding the associated processes could vastly improve quality of life. Although major categories of ageing damage have been identified-such as altered intercellular communication, loss of proteostasis and eroded mitochondrial function1-these deleterious processes interact with extraordinary complexity within and between organs, and a comprehensive, whole-organism analysis of ageing dynamics has been lacking. Here we performed bulk RNA sequencing of 17 organs and plasma proteomics at 10 ages across the lifespan of Mus musculus, and integrated these findings with data from the accompanying Tabula Muris Senis2-or 'Mouse Ageing Cell Atlas'-which follows on from the original Tabula Muris3. We reveal linear and nonlinear shifts in gene expression during ageing, with the associated genes clustered in consistent trajectory groups with coherent biological functions-including extracellular matrix regulation, unfolded protein binding, mitochondrial function, and inflammatory and immune response. Notably, these gene sets show similar expression across tissues, differing only in the amplitude and the age of onset of expression. Widespread activation of immune cells is especially pronounced, and is first detectable in white adipose depots during middle age. Single-cell RNA sequencing confirms the accumulation of T cells and B cells in adipose tissue-including plasma cells that express immunoglobulin J-which also accrue concurrently across diverse organs. Finally, we show how gene expression shifts in distinct tissues are highly correlated with corresponding protein levels in plasma, thus potentially contributing to the ageing of the systemic circulation. Together, these data demonstrate a similar yet asynchronous inter- and intra-organ progression of ageing, providing a foundation from which to track systemic sources of declining health at old age.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , Animais , Proteínas Sanguíneas/análise , Proteínas Sanguíneas/genética , Feminino , Cadeias J de Imunoglobulina/genética , Cadeias J de Imunoglobulina/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Plasmócitos/citologia , Plasmócitos/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/análise , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA-Seq , Análise de Célula Única , Linfócitos T/citologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Transcriptoma
11.
Scand J Immunol ; 92(3): e12924, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32602962

RESUMO

Magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS) using magnetic nanoparticles coated with specific antibodies is commonly used in immunology research. For in vitro isolation purposes, it is important to know to what extent the magnetic properties remain present in the isolated cell populations and whether it has consequences for sequential isolations. We hypothesized that only upon cell division, cells will lose their magnetic properties via dilution of the particles in/on their daughter cells. We analysed residual magnetic properties of cells that divided vs cells that did not divide after magnetic bead-based cell separation. As a model, we isolated T cells using beads targeting the non-modulating surface molecule CD45RO. Cells were labelled with the cell division tracking dye PKH and cultured under different conditions to induce variable degrees of cell division. We demonstrate that T cells that underwent no, or only minimal, cell divisions after MACS retained magnetic properties for up to at least 2 weeks of in vitro culture. The presence of nanoparticles was detected on their cell surface and intracellularly using Labeling Check reagent. These results have important consequences for procedures requiring repetitive isolation rounds after in vitro culture.


Assuntos
Separação Imunomagnética/métodos , Linfócitos T/citologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Proliferação de Células , Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Humanos , Memória Imunológica , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia
12.
Gene ; 754: 144838, 2020 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525043

RESUMO

In recent years, conclusive data have emerged on a relationship between immune system, especially the T-cell, and blood pressure (BP). The objective of the present study was to determine the association between BP and four polymorphisms in CD80, CD86, CD28 and CTLA4 genes that code for key proteins in the T-cell co-stimulation process, in a female cohort. To that end, an association study in a cohort of 934 women over 40 years old from two hospitals was done. Raw data showed a significant association between the SNP rs1129055 of CD86 gene and BP. Analyzing this association against inheritance patterns, higher SBP (p < 0.000) and DBP (p = 0.005) values were observed in AA than in GG/GA genotype subjects in the largest sample cohort (Hospital 1). In multivariate linear regression studies, with adjustment for presumed independent predictors of BP, the SNP of the CD86 gene remained a predictor of SBP (p = 0.001) and DBP (p = 0.006), as did the SNP rs867234 of the CD80 gene for DBP (p < 0.000), both resisting the Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. As conclusion, we report a robust association between the SNP rs1129055 of CD86 gene and BP. The SNP rs867234 of CD80 gene was also shown to be a strong predictor of DBP.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-1/genética , Antígeno B7-2/genética , Pressão Sanguínea , Antígenos CD28/genética , Antígeno CTLA-4/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Adulto , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linfócitos T/citologia
13.
Nature ; 582(7813): 582-585, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32581372

RESUMO

Eukaryotic cells migrate by coupling the intracellular force of the actin cytoskeleton to the environment. While force coupling is usually mediated by transmembrane adhesion receptors, especially those of the integrin family, amoeboid cells such as leukocytes can migrate extremely fast despite very low adhesive forces1. Here we show that leukocytes cannot only migrate under low adhesion but can also transmit forces in the complete absence of transmembrane force coupling. When confined within three-dimensional environments, they use the topographical features of the substrate to propel themselves. Here the retrograde flow of the actin cytoskeleton follows the texture of the substrate, creating retrograde shear forces that are sufficient to drive the cell body forwards. Notably, adhesion-dependent and adhesion-independent migration are not mutually exclusive, but rather are variants of the same principle of coupling retrograde actin flow to the environment and thus can potentially operate interchangeably and simultaneously. As adhesion-free migration is independent of the chemical composition of the environment, it renders cells completely autonomous in their locomotive behaviour.


Assuntos
Citoesqueleto de Actina/metabolismo , Movimento Celular , Microambiente Celular , Linfócitos T/citologia , Actinas/metabolismo , Animais , Adesão Celular , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Camundongos , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Talina/deficiência
14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3083, 2020 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32576828

RESUMO

Short-term fasting protects tumor-bearing mice against the toxic effects of chemotherapy while enhancing therapeutic efficacy. We randomized 131 patients with HER2-negative stage II/III breast cancer, without diabetes and a BMI over 18 kg m-2, to receive either a fasting mimicking diet (FMD) or their regular diet for 3 days prior to and during neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Here we show that there was no difference in toxicity between both groups, despite the fact that dexamethasone was omitted in the FMD group. A radiologically complete or partial response occurs more often in patients using the FMD (OR 3.168, P = 0.039). Moreover, per-protocol analysis reveals that the Miller&Payne 4/5 pathological response, indicating 90-100% tumor-cell loss, is more likely to occur in patients using the FMD (OR 4.109, P = 0.016). Also, the FMD significantly curtails chemotherapy-induced DNA damage in T-lymphocytes. These positive findings encourage further exploration of the benefits of fasting/FMD in cancer therapy. Trial number: NCT02126449.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/dietoterapia , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Dieta , Jejum , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Dano ao DNA , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Glucose/química , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Menopausa , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Países Baixos , Qualidade de Vida , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/citologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia
15.
Anticancer Res ; 40(5): 2675-2685, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366412

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: To evaluate the anti-cancer mechanism of N-Farnesyl-norcantharimide (NC15). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The viability of NC15-treated human leukemic Jurkat T (JKT) cells was assessed using the Kit-8 cell counting method. Flow cytometry analysis, human apoptosis antibody array assay, and whole genome sequencing were adopted to investigate the mechanism underlying the anti-cancer activity of NC15 in JKT cells. RESULTS: The growth inhibition rates of NC15 in JKT cells were about 80% and 95% after treatment with 8 µmol/l NC15 for 24 and 48 h, respectively. The percentages of NC15-treated JKT cells in the sub-G1 phase at 24 and 48 h were 22.0% and 34.3%, respectively, in contrast to the 1.5% in the control. Next-generation sequencing showed that many tumor suppressor genes (TSG) were up-regulated, while many genes associated with steroid biosynthesis, metabolic pathways, and fatty acid metabolism were down-regulated. CONCLUSION: NC15 can reduce the cell viability and increase the percentage of JKT cells in the sub-G1 phase by up-regulating TSG and related genes, and down-regulating the genes for steroid biosynthesis, metabolic pathways and fatty acid metabolism, instead of through apoptosis.


Assuntos
Cantaridina/análogos & derivados , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Genes Supressores de Tumor , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Esteroides/biossíntese , Linfócitos T/citologia , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/genética , Vias Biossintéticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Cantaridina/química , Cantaridina/farmacologia , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , DNA de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Humanos , Células Jurkat , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima/genética
16.
Nature ; 583(7816): 437-440, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434211

RESUMO

In December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by the new coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was identified in Wuhan (Hubei province, China)1; it soon spread across the world. In this ongoing pandemic, public health concerns and the urgent need for effective therapeutic measures require a deep understanding of the epidemiology, transmissibility and pathogenesis of COVID-19. Here we analysed clinical, molecular and immunological data from 326 patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in Shanghai. The genomic sequences of SARS-CoV-2, assembled from 112 high-quality samples together with sequences in the Global Initiative on Sharing All Influenza Data (GISAID) dataset, showed a stable evolution and suggested that there were two major lineages with differential exposure history during the early phase of the outbreak in Wuhan. Nevertheless, they exhibited similar virulence and clinical outcomes. Lymphocytopenia, especially reduced CD4+ and CD8+ T cell counts upon hospital admission, was predictive of disease progression. High levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 during treatment were observed in patients with severe or critical disease and correlated with decreased lymphocyte count. The determinants of disease severity seemed to stem mostly from host factors such as age and lymphocytopenia (and its associated cytokine storm), whereas viral genetic variation did not significantly affect outcomes.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Linfopenia/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/virologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento , Animais , Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus/classificação , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estado Terminal/epidemiologia , Progressão da Doença , Evolução Molecular , Feminino , Variação Genética , Genoma Viral/genética , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/imunologia , Interleucina-6/sangue , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Interleucina-8/sangue , Interleucina-8/imunologia , Contagem de Linfócitos , Linfopenia/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Filogenia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/complicações , Linfócitos T/citologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Virulência/genética , Eliminação de Partículas Virais , Adulto Jovem , Zoonoses/transmissão , Zoonoses/virologia
17.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents ; 34(2): 319-326, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32431140

RESUMO

The relationship between allergic diseases and cancer is a very controversial topic, widely discussed in the last decades. Many studies have demonstrated inverse association between allergy and cancer, but others have reached neutral conclusions or have indicated a positive role of allergy in the development of cancer. However, either inhibiting or favoring, many cells and molecules relevant in the allergic process play a role in tumorigenesis. On the one hand, activated immune cells, like classically activated macrophages "M1", activated dendritic cells, IL-33 and amphiregulin stimulated Innate Lymphoid Cells (ILC2), Th1, IFN-γ producing T CD8+ and B lymphocytes have inhibitory effects on tumorigenesis and tumor progression. On the other hand, tolerogenic immune cells, like alternatively activated macrophages "M2" (M2a, M2b and M2c), tolerogenic dendritic cells, ILC3, T regulatory and B regulatory lymphocytes, while inhibiting allergic sensitization and response, appear to favour carcinogenesis. Furthermore, M2 subtypes macrophages (M2a, M2b), IL-25 stimulated ILC2 and Th2 lymphocytes have a role both in inducing allergic reactions and in favouring cancer progression. In addition, mast cells, pivotal cells in allergy, have a different effect of tumorigenesis based on their location - they can promote cancer progression or inhibit it. Finally, eosinophils have shown a prevalent tumoricidal function mediated by α-defensins, TNF-α, granzymes A and IL-18. Better understanding the role of various cells on carcinogenesis can help in developing new strategies (diagnostic, therapeutic and of follow up) against tumor.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade/complicações , Imunidade Inata , Neoplasias/complicações , Linfócitos B/citologia , Carcinogênese , Transformação Celular Neoplásica , Eosinófilos/citologia , Humanos , Macrófagos/citologia , Linfócitos T/citologia
18.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2198, 2020 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366944

RESUMO

The thymus supports multiple αß T cell lineages that are functionally distinct, but mechanisms that control this multifaceted development are poorly understood. Here we examine medullary thymic epithelial cell (mTEC) heterogeneity and its influence on CD1d-restricted iNKT cells. We find three distinct mTEClow subsets distinguished by surface, intracellular and secreted molecules, and identify LTßR as a cell-autonomous controller of their development. Importantly, this mTEC heterogeneity enables the thymus to differentially control iNKT sublineages possessing distinct effector properties. mTEC expression of LTßR is essential for the development thymic tuft cells which regulate NKT2 via IL-25, while LTßR controls CD104+CCL21+ mTEClow that are capable of IL-15-transpresentation for regulating NKT1 and NKT17. Finally, mTECs regulate both iNKT-mediated activation of thymic dendritic cells, and iNKT availability in extrathymic sites. In conclusion, mTEC specialization controls intrathymic iNKT cell development and function, and determines iNKT pool size in peripheral tissues.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Células Epiteliais/imunologia , Células T Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Timócitos/imunologia , Timo/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos CD1d/genética , Antígenos CD1d/imunologia , Antígenos CD1d/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Linhagem da Célula/genética , Linhagem da Célula/imunologia , Proliferação de Células/genética , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Receptor beta de Linfotoxina/genética , Receptor beta de Linfotoxina/imunologia , Receptor beta de Linfotoxina/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Células T Matadoras Naturais/citologia , Células T Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Linfócitos T/citologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Timócitos/citologia , Timócitos/metabolismo , Timo/citologia , Timo/metabolismo
19.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 2971-2986, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32431496

RESUMO

Background: Due to their extraordinary physical and chemical properties, MoS2 nanosheets (MSNs) are becoming more widely used in nanomedicine. However, their influence on immune systems remains unclear. Materials and Methods: Two few-layered MSNs at sizes of 100-250 nm (S-MSNs) and 400-500 nm (L-MSNs) were used in this study. Bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs) were exposed to both MSNs at different doses (0, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128 µg/mL) for 48 h and subjected to analyses of surface marker expression, cytokine secretion, lymphoid homing and in vivo T cell priming. Results: Different-sized MSNs of all doses did not affect the viability of DCs. The expression of CD40, CD80, CD86 and CCR7 was significantly higher on both S-MSN- and L-MSN-treated DCs at a dose of 128 µg/mL. As the dose of MSN increased, the secretion of IL-12p70 remained unchanged, the secretion of IL-1ß decreased, and the production of TNF-α increased. A significant increase in IL-6 was observed in the 128 µg/mL L-MSN-treated DCs. In particular, MSN treatment dramatically improved the ex vivo movement and in vivo homing ability of both the local resident and blood circulating DCs. Furthermore, the cytoskeleton rearrangement regulated by ROS elevation was responsible for the enhanced homing ability of the MSNs. More robust CD4+ and CD8+ T cell proliferation and activation (characterized by high expression of CD107a, CD69 and ICOS) was observed in mice vaccinated with MSN-treated DCs. Importantly, exposure to MSNs did not interrupt LPS-induced DC activation, homing and T cell priming. Conclusion: Few-layered MSNs ranging from 100 to 500 nm in size could play an immunostimulatory role in enhancing DC maturation, migration and T cell elicitation, making them a good candidate for vaccine adjuvants. Investigation of this study will not only expand the applications of MSNs and other new transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) but also shed light on the in vivo immune-risk evaluation of MSN-based nanomaterials.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular , Movimento Celular , Células Dendríticas/citologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Dissulfetos/farmacologia , Molibdênio/farmacologia , Nanopartículas/química , Linfócitos T/citologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citoesqueleto/efeitos dos fármacos , Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Med Hypotheses ; 143: 109842, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32425304

RESUMO

The incidence of COVID-19 in children and teenagers is only about 2% in China. Children had mild symptoms and hardly infected other children or adults. It is worth considering that children are the most vulnerable to respiratory pathogens, but fatal SARS-like virus had not caused severe cases among them. According to the pathological studies of COVID-19 and SARS, a sharp decrease in T lymphocytes leads to the breakdown of the immune system. The cellular immune system of children differs from that of adults may be the keystone of atypical clinical manifestations or even covert infection. The frequent childhood vaccinations and repeated pathogens infections might be resulting in trained immunity of innate immune cells, immune fitness of adaptive immune cells or cross-protection of antibodies in the children. Therefore, due to lack of specific vaccine, some vaccines for tuberculosis, influenza and pneumonia may have certain application potential for the front-line health workers in the prevention and control of COVID-19. However, for high-risk susceptible populations, such as the elderly with basic diseases such as hypertension and diabetes, it is necessary to explore the remedial effect of the planned immune process on their immunity to achieve the trained immunity or immune fitness, so as to improve their own antiviral ability.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Vacinação , Adolescente , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Coinfecção , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Lactente , Linfócitos T/citologia
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