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1.
Recent Results Cancer Res ; 214: 71-91, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473849

RESUMO

Bispecific T cell engagers are antibody constructs directed to a tumor-specific target on the one hand and to CD3-positive T cells on the other hand. Blinatumomab is a compound with specificity for the pan-B cell marker CD19. Clinical activity was tested in relapsed and refractory (R/R) non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL), R/R acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and ALL patients with minimal residual disease. Trials have already been started in de novo ALL. The most clinically relevant toxicities are neurologic events and cytokine release syndrome as with other T cell-activating therapies. The mechanisms of resistance are not fully understood. Higher leukemia load and later stage disease represent unfavorable factors. Besides, an upregulation of regulatory T cells and inhibitory molecules like PD-1/PD-L1 may have a role as the loss of target by several mechanisms. The future will show whether the use of bispecifics in ALL can change the standard treatment algorithms and whether bispecific T cell engagers will also be successfully used in other malignant entities.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Biespecíficos/farmacologia , Linfoma não Hodgkin/terapia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/terapia , Linfócitos T/citologia , Antígenos CD19 , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Humanos , Neoplasia Residual/terapia
2.
Recent Results Cancer Res ; 214: 129-151, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473851

RESUMO

The adoptive cell transfer (ACT) of genetically engineered T cell receptor (TCR) T cells is one of the burgeoning fields of immunotherapy, with promising results in current clinical trials. Presently, clinicaltrials.gov has over 200 active trials involving adoptive cell therapy. The ACT of genetically engineered T cells not only allows the ability to select for TCRs with desired properties such as high-affinity receptors and tumor reactivity but to further enhance those receptors allowing for better targeting and killing of cancer cells in patients. Moreover, the addition of genetic material, including cytokines and cytokine receptors, can increase the survival and persistence of the T cell allowing for complete and sustained remission of cancer targets. The potential for improvement in adoptive cell therapy is limitless, with genetic modifications targeting to improve weaknesses of ACT and to thus enhance receptor affinity and functional avidity of the genetically engineered T cells.


Assuntos
Engenharia Genética , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias/terapia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T , Linfócitos T/citologia , Humanos
3.
Genes Dev ; 33(17-18): 1117-1135, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481536

RESUMO

T-cell development in mammals is a model for lineage choice and differentiation from multipotent stem cells. Although T-cell fate choice is promoted by signaling in the thymus through one dominant pathway, the Notch pathway, it entails a complex set of gene regulatory network and chromatin state changes even before the cells begin to express their signature feature, the clonal-specific T-cell receptors (TCRs) for antigen. This review distinguishes three developmental modules for T-cell development, which correspond to cell type specification, TCR expression and selection, and the assignment of cells to different effector types. The first is based on transcriptional regulatory network events, the second is dominated by somatic gene rearrangement and mutation and cell selection, and the third corresponds to establishing a poised state of latent regulator priming through an unknown mechanism. Interestingly, in different lineages, the third module can be deployed at variable times relative to the completion of the first two modules. This review focuses on the gene regulatory network and chromatin-based kinetic constraints that determine activities of transcription factors TCF1, GATA3, PU.1, Bcl11b, Runx1, and E proteins in the primary establishment of T-cell identity.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Linfócitos T/citologia , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Linhagem da Célula , Cromatina/metabolismo , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Hematopoese , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Timo/citologia , Timo/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
4.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 21(7): 503, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31507132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tumor treating fields (TTFields) are low-intensity, intermediate frequency electric fields that affect proliferating cells. TTFields are FDA approved for treatment of newly diagnosed and recurrent glioblastoma. Combining TTFields with immunotherapy is a rational approach due to their different mechanisms of action (MOA) and to the ability of TTFields to induce immunogenic cell death. Conversely, TTFields may interfere with immune functions critical for effective T-cell responses. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of TTFields on pivotal antitumoral T-cell functions. METHODS: T-cells from healthy donor peripheral blood (PB) or from viably dissociated human glioblastoma samples were cultured under normal or TTFields conditions, with or without superantigen stimulation. Multiparametric flow cytometry (8-color) was used to assess T-cell responses by monitoring select pivotal functions: proliferation (CFSE), IFNγ secretion, cytotoxic degranulation (CD107a), and activation/exhaustion (PD-1). Cellular viability was assessed in a dedicated assay. A chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell-based assay directly evaluated cellular cytotoxicity. RESULTS: Activated PB T-cells and tumor-infiltrating T-cells (TILs) preserved all monitored anti- tumoral functions under TTFields, apart from proliferation. This finding also applied specifically to PD-1 + TILs, comprised predominantly of tumor antigen-specific cells. Activated T-cells that attempted to proliferate under TTFields demonstrated decreased viability, in line with TTField MOA. Small or no reduction in viability was found in T-cells that did not attempt to proliferate, whether activated or resting. CONCLUSIONS: All monitored anti-tumoral T cell functions, except for proliferation, were unhindered by TTFields. Our results support further investigation into combinations of TTFields with T-cell based immunotherapeutic approaches.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Sobrevivência Celular/fisiologia , Terapia por Estimulação Elétrica/métodos , Glioblastoma/terapia , Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Glioblastoma/patologia , Humanos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Linfócitos T/citologia
5.
Cancer Sci ; 110(10): 3079-3088, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432594

RESUMO

Chimeric antigen receptor-engineered T (CAR-T)-cell therapy holds significant promise for the treatment of hematological malignancies, especially for B-cell leukemia and lymphoma. However, its efficacy against non-hematological malignancies has been limited as a result of several biological problems characteristic of the tumor microenvironment of solid tumors. One of the main hurdles is the heterogeneous nature of tumor-associated antigens (TAA) expressed in solid tumors. Another hurdle is the inefficient activation and limited persistence of CAR-T cells, mainly as a result of T-cell exhaustion caused by immunosuppressive factors in the tumor microenvironment. In the present study, to address these problems, we engineered CAR-T cells to produce antagonistic anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) single-chain variable fragment (scFv), by which PD-1-dependent inhibitory signals in CAR-T cells and adjacent tumor-specific non-CAR-T cells are attenuated. In mouse solid tumor models, PD-1 scFv-producing CAR-T cells induced potent therapeutic effects superior to those of conventional CAR-T cells, along with a significant reduction of apoptotic cell death not only in CAR-T cells themselves but also in TAA-specific T cells in the tumor tissue. In addition, the treatment with anti-PD-1 scFv-producing CAR-T cells resulted in an increased concentration of PD-1 scFv in tumor tissue but not in sera, suggesting an induction of less severe systemic immune-related adverse events. Hence, the present study developed anti-PD-1 scFv-producing CAR-T cell technology and explored its cellular mechanisms underlying potent antitumor efficacy.


Assuntos
Imunoterapia Adotiva/métodos , Neoplasias/terapia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/metabolismo , Anticorpos de Cadeia Única/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Técnicas de Cocultura , Masculino , Camundongos , Neoplasias/imunologia , Linfócitos T/citologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
6.
Anticancer Res ; 39(8): 4495-4502, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366551

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: In mice, fetal liver is the first tissue of definitive erythropoiesis for definitive erythroid expansion and maturation. ZFAT, originally identified as a candidate susceptibility gene for autoimmune thyroid disease, has been reported to be involved in primitive hematopoiesis and T cell development. The aim of this study was to examine whether or not Zfat is involved in definitive erythropoiesis in the fetal liver during mammalian development. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The role of Zfat during mouse fetal erythropoiesis in the fetal liver was examined using tamoxifen-inducible CreERT2 Zfat-deficient mice. RESULTS: Zfat-deficient mice exhibit moderate anemia with small and pale fetal liver through a decreased number of erythroblasts by E12.5. Apoptosis sensitivity in fetal liver erythroid progenitors was enhanced by Zfat-deficiency ex vivo. Moreover, Zfat knockdown partially inhibited CD71-/lowTer119- to CD71highTer119- transition of fetal liver erythroid progenitors with impairment in the elevation of CD71 expression. CONCLUSION: Zfat plays a critical role for erythropoiesis in the fetal liver.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD/genética , Eritropoese/genética , Fígado/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Receptores da Transferrina/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Animais , Apoptose/genética , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Células Eritroides/metabolismo , Células Eritroides/patologia , Desenvolvimento Fetal/genética , Feto , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Camundongos , Linfócitos T/citologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Tireoidite Autoimune/genética , Tireoidite Autoimune/patologia
7.
Results Probl Cell Differ ; 67: 223-231, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31435797

RESUMO

T cells effectively explore the tissue in search for antigens. When activated, they dedicate a big amount of energy and resources to arrange a complex structure called immunological synapse (IS), containing a particular distribution of molecules defined as supramolecular activation clusters (SMACs), and become polarized toward the target cell in a manner that channels the information specifically. This arrangement is symmetrical and requires the polarization of the MTOC and the Golgi to be operational, especially for the proper delivery of lytic granules and the recycling of molecules three dimensionally segregated at the clustered interface. Alternatively, after the productive encounter, T cells need to rearrange again to newly navigate through the tissue, changing back to a motile state called immunological kinapse (IK). In this IK state, the MTOC and the Golgi apparatus are repositioned and recruited at the back of the T cell to facilitate motility, while the established symmetry of the elements of the SMACs is broken and distributed in a different pattern. Both states, IS and IK, are interchangeable and are mainly orchestrated by the MTOC/Golgi complex, being critical for an effective immune response.


Assuntos
Complexo de Golgi , Sinapses Imunológicas , Centro Organizador dos Microtúbulos , Linfócitos T/citologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Movimento Celular
8.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2935, 2019 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270335

RESUMO

Trace elements play important roles in human health, but little is known about their functions in humoral immunity. Here, we show an important role for iron in inducing cyclin E and B cell proliferation. We find that iron-deficient individuals exhibit a significantly reduced antibody response to the measles vaccine when compared to iron-normal controls. Mice with iron deficiency also exhibit attenuated T-dependent or T-independent antigen-specific antibody responses. We show that iron is essential for B cell proliferation; both iron deficiency and α-ketoglutarate inhibition could suppress cyclin E1 induction and S phase entry of B cells upon activation. Finally, we demonstrate that three demethylases, KDM2B, KDM3B and KDM4C, are responsible for histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9) demethylation at the cyclin E1 promoter, cyclin E1 induction and B cell proliferation. Thus, our data reveal a crucial role of H3K9 demethylation in B cell proliferation, and the importance of iron in humoral immunity.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/imunologia , Proliferação de Células , Histonas/química , Histonas/imunologia , Imunidade Humoral , Lisina/imunologia , Animais , Linfócitos B/química , Linfócitos B/citologia , Ciclo Celular , Células Cultivadas , Ciclina E/genética , Ciclina E/imunologia , Desmetilação , Proteínas F-Box/genética , Proteínas F-Box/imunologia , Histonas/genética , Ferro/metabolismo , Histona Desmetilases com o Domínio Jumonji/genética , Histona Desmetilases com o Domínio Jumonji/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Lisina/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteínas Oncogênicas/genética , Proteínas Oncogênicas/imunologia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Linfócitos T/citologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia
9.
Nature ; 571(7764): 205-210, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270459

RESUMO

The mammalian brain contains neurogenic niches that comprise neural stem cells and other cell types. Neurogenic niches become less functional with age, but how they change during ageing remains unclear. Here we perform single-cell RNA sequencing of young and old neurogenic niches in mice. The analysis of 14,685 single-cell transcriptomes reveals a decrease in activated neural stem cells, changes in endothelial cells and microglia, and an infiltration of T cells in old neurogenic niches. T cells in old brains are clonally expanded and are generally distinct from those in old blood, which suggests that they may experience specific antigens. T cells in old brains also express interferon-γ, and the subset of neural stem cells that has a high interferon response shows decreased proliferation in vivo. We find that T cells can inhibit the proliferation of neural stem cells in co-cultures and in vivo, in part by secreting interferon-γ. Our study reveals an interaction between T cells and neural stem cells in old brains, opening potential avenues through which to counteract age-related decline in brain function.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Encéfalo/citologia , Movimento Celular , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Neurogênese , Análise de Célula Única , Nicho de Células-Tronco/fisiologia , Linfócitos T/citologia , Animais , Sangue , Proliferação de Células , Células Clonais/citologia , Técnicas de Cocultura , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microglia/citologia , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transdução de Sinais , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/genética
10.
Cancer Sci ; 110(7): 2100-2109, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31100180

RESUMO

The presence of interleukin (IL)-17-producing T cells has recently been reported in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. However, the long-term prognostic significance of these populations in NSCLC patients remains unknown. In the present study, we collected peripheral blood from 82 NSCLC patients and 22 normal healthy donors (NC). Percentages of IL-17-producing CD4+ T (Th17), CD8+ T (Tc17) and γδT cells (γδT17) were measured to determine their association with clinical outcomes and overall survival (OS) in NSCLC. All NSCLC patients were followed up until July 2018. Median follow-up time was 13.5 months (range 1-87 months). The 3- and 5-year survival rate was 27% and 19.6%, respectively. We found that Th17 cells and γδT17 cells were significantly increased, whereas Tc17 cells were markedly decreased in patients with NSCLC compared with those in NC. In addition, Th17 cells were significantly positively associated with T helper type 1 cells (Th1), whereas γδT17 cells were significantly negatively associated with γδT + interferon (IFN)-γ+ cells. High percentages of peripheral Tc17 cells were significantly associated with favorable 5-year OS (P = .025), especially in patients with early TNM stage (P = .016). Furthermore, high percentages of peripheral Th17 cells were positively associated with favorable 5-year OS in patients with late TNM stage (P = .002). However, no significant association was observed between γδT17 cells and OS, regardless of the TNM stage. In conclusion, our findings suggest that enhanced Th17 and reduced Tc17 cells in the peripheral blood could be a significant predictor of a favorable prognosis for NSCLC patients.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Linfócitos T/citologia , Células Th17/citologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/citologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/citologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/imunologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Linfócitos Intraepiteliais/citologia , Linfócitos Intraepiteliais/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Análise de Sobrevida , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Células Th1/citologia , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th17/imunologia
11.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 20(Suppl 7): 0, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31074382

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) technologies have advanced rapidly in recent years and enabled the quantitative characterization at a microscopic resolution. With the exponential growth of the number of cells profiled in individual scRNA-seq experiments, the demand for identifying putative cell types from the data has become a great challenge that appeals for novel computational methods. Although a variety of algorithms have recently been proposed for single-cell clustering, such limitations as low accuracy, inferior robustness, and inadequate stability greatly impede the scope of applications of these methods. RESULTS: We propose a novel model-based algorithm, named VPAC, for accurate clustering of single-cell transcriptomic data through variational projection, which assumes that single-cell samples follow a Gaussian mixture distribution in a latent space. Through comprehensive validation experiments, we demonstrate that VPAC can not only be applied to datasets of discrete counts and normalized continuous data, but also scale up well to various data dimensionality, different dataset size and different data sparsity. We further illustrate the ability of VPAC to detect genes with strong unique signatures of a specific cell type, which may shed light on the studies in system biology. We have released a user-friendly python package of VPAC in Github ( https://github.com/ShengquanChen/VPAC ). Users can directly import our VPAC class and conduct clustering without tedious installation of dependency packages. CONCLUSIONS: VPAC enables highly accurate clustering of single-cell transcriptomic data via a statistical model. We expect to see wide applications of our method to not only transcriptome studies for fully understanding the cell identity and functionality, but also the clustering of more general data.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Análise por Conglomerados , Humanos , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Linfócitos T/citologia
12.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 50(2): 145-151, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31106530

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test the killing effect of type Ⅰ receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor (ROR1) chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR-T) on several ROR1-expressing tumor cells in vitro. METHODS: The CAR gene was designed and synthesized by constructing the lentiviral vector plasmid, and BamHⅠ/EcoRⅠ was used to identify the plasmid. The expression levels of ROR1 among a variety of tumor cell lines were compared using flow cytometry (FCM). The killing effect of CAR-T on positive cells was detected by FCM, the LDH assay and ELISA. RESULTS: The double enzyme digestion identified CAR gene was successfully constructed to the lentivirus vector plasmid. FCM detection showed that the efficiency of CAR-T infection was about 47.23%. Multiple tumor cells expressed ROR1 in varying degrees. The FCM and the LDH assay indicated that CAR-T specifically killed ROR1-positive tumor cells. On positive target cells, more interferonI-γ (FN-γ) could be released during the CAR-T killing process than control T (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: We successfully constructed ROR1 CAR-T. CAR-T can specifically kill ROR1-positive tumor cells and cause the release of large amounts of IFN-γ, providing an experimental basis for clinical application.


Assuntos
Imunoterapia Adotiva , Receptores Órfãos Semelhantes a Receptor Tirosina Quinase/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos , Linfócitos T/citologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Lentivirus
13.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 17(1): 72, 2019 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31133024

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nano-sized vesicles, so called extracellular vesicles (EVs), from regenerative cardiac cells represent a promising new therapeutic approach to treat cardiovascular diseases. However, it is not yet sufficiently understood how cardiac-derived EVs facilitate their protective effects. Therefore, we investigated the immune modulating capabilities of EVs from human cardiac-derived adherent proliferating (CardAP) cells, which are a unique cell type with proven cardioprotective features. RESULTS: Differential centrifugation was used to isolate EVs from conditioned medium of unstimulated or cytokine-stimulated (IFNγ, TNFα, IL-1ß) CardAP cells. The derived EVs exhibited typical EV-enriched proteins, such as tetraspanins, and diameters mostly of exosomes (< 100 nm). The cytokine stimulation caused CardAP cells to release smaller EVs with a lower integrin ß1 surface expression, while the concentration between both CardAP-EV variants was unaffected. An exposure of either CardAP-EV variant to unstimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) did not induce any T cell proliferation, which indicates a general low immunogenicity. In order to evaluate immune modulating properties, PBMC cultures were stimulated with either Phytohemagglutin or anti-CD3. The treatment of those PBMC cultures with either CardAP-EV variant led to a significant reduction of T cell proliferation, pro-inflammatory cytokine release (IFNγ, TNFα) and increased levels of active TGFß. Further investigations identified CD14+ cells as major recipient cell subset of CardAP-EVs. This interaction caused a significant lower surface expression of HLA-DR, CD86, and increased expression levels of CD206 and PD-L1. Additionally, EV-primed CD14+ cells released significantly more IL-1RA. Notably, CardAP-EVs failed to modulate anti-CD3 triggered T cell proliferation and pro-inflammatory cytokine release in monocultures of purified CD3+ T cells. Subsequently, the immunosuppressive feature of CardAP-EVs was restored when anti-CD3 stimulated purified CD3+ T cells were co-cultured with EV-primed CD14+ cells. Beside attenuated T cell proliferation, those cultures also exhibited a significant increased proportion of regulatory T cells. CONCLUSIONS: CardAP-EVs have useful characteristics that could contribute to enhanced regeneration in damaged cardiac tissue by limiting unwanted inflammatory processes. It was shown that the priming of CD14+ immune cells by CardAP-EVs towards a regulatory type is an essential step to attenuate significantly T cell proliferation and pro-inflammatory cytokine release in vitro.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Vesículas Extracelulares/imunologia , Monócitos/imunologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/imunologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/imunologia , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células , Técnicas de Cocultura , Citocinas/metabolismo , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunomodulação , Leucócitos Mononucleares/citologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Monócitos/citologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/citologia , Regeneração , Linfócitos T/citologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia
14.
Ann Lab Med ; 39(5): 438-446, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31037862

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is an acquired pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell disorder associated with an increase in the number of glycosyl-phosphatidyl inositol (GPI)-deficient blood cells. We investigated PNH clonal proliferation in the three cell lineages-granulocytes, T lymphocytes, and red blood cells (RBCs)-by analyzing PIGA gene mutations and T-cell receptor (TCR) clonality. METHODS: Flow cytometry was used on peripheral blood samples from 24 PNH patients to measure the GPI-anchored protein (GPI-AP) deficient fraction in each blood cell lineage. PIGA gene mutations were analyzed in granulocytes and T lymphocytes by Sanger sequencing. A TCR clonality assay was performed in isolated GPI-AP deficient T lymphocytes. RESULTS: The GPI-AP deficient fraction among the three lineages was the highest in granulocytes, followed by RBCs and T lymphocytes. PIGA mutations were detected in both granulocytes and T lymphocytes of 19 patients (79.2%), with a higher mutation burden in granulocytes. The GPI-AP deficient fractions of granulocytes and T lymphocytes correlated moderately (rs=0.519, P=0.049) and strongly (rs=0.696, P=0.006) with PIGA mutation burden, respectively. PIGA mutations were more frequently observed in patients with clonal rearrangements in TCR genes (P=0.015). The PIGA mutation burden of T lymphocytes was higher in patients with clonal TCRB rearrangement. CONCLUSIONS: PIGA mutations were present in approximately 80% of PNH patients. PNH clone size varies according to blood cell lineage, and clonal cells may obtain proliferation potential or gain a survival advantage over normal cells.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células , Granulócitos/citologia , Hemoglobinúria Paroxística/diagnóstico , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Linfócitos T/citologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Linhagem da Célula , Criança , Feminino , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/deficiência , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/genética , Rearranjo Gênico , Granulócitos/metabolismo , Hemoglobinúria Paroxística/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo Genético , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/genética , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
15.
Nature ; 569(7754): 126-130, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30988509

RESUMO

The intestinal immune system has the challenging task of tolerating foreign nutrients and the commensal microbiome, while excluding or eliminating ingested pathogens. Failure of this balance leads to conditions such as inflammatory bowel diseases, food allergies and invasive gastrointestinal infections1. Multiple immune mechanisms are therefore in place to maintain tissue integrity, including balanced generation of effector T (TH) cells and FOXP3+ regulatory T (pTreg) cells, which mediate resistance to pathogens and regulate excessive immune activation, respectively1-4. The gut-draining lymph nodes (gLNs) are key sites for orchestrating adaptive immunity to luminal perturbations5-7. However, it is unclear how they simultaneously support tolerogenic and inflammatory reactions. Here we show that gLNs are immunologically specific to the functional gut segment that they drain. Stromal and dendritic cell gene signatures and polarization of T cells against the same luminal antigen differ between gLNs, with the proximal small intestine-draining gLNs preferentially giving rise to tolerogenic responses and the distal gLNs to pro-inflammatory T cell responses. This segregation permitted the targeting of distal gLNs for vaccination and the maintenance of duodenal pTreg cell induction during colonic infection. Conversely, the compartmentalized dichotomy was perturbed by surgical removal of select distal gLNs and duodenal infection, with effects on both lymphoid organ and tissue immune responses. Our findings reveal that the conflict between tolerogenic and inflammatory intestinal responses is in part resolved by discrete gLN drainage, and encourage antigen targeting to specific gut segments for therapeutic immune modulation.


Assuntos
Duodeno/imunologia , Linfonodos/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos CD4/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Movimento Celular , Polaridade Celular , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Duodeno/citologia , Duodeno/microbiologia , Feminino , Linfonodos/citologia , Linfonodos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Boca/imunologia , Boca/microbiologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Células Estromais/imunologia , Células Estromais/microbiologia , Linfócitos T/citologia , Linfócitos T/microbiologia
16.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1898, 2019 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31015515

RESUMO

N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification plays important roles in various cellular responses by regulating mRNA biology. However, how m6A modification is involved in innate immunity via affecting the translation of immune transcripts remains to be further investigated. Here we report that RNA methyltransferase Mettl3-mediated mRNA m6A methylation promotes dendritic cell (DC) activation and function. Specific depletion of Mettl3 in DC resulted in impaired phenotypic and functional maturation of DC, with decreased expression of co-stimulatory molecules CD40, CD80 and cytokine IL-12, and reduced ability to stimulate T cell responses both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, Mettl3-mediated m6A of CD40, CD80 and TLR4 signaling adaptor Tirap transcripts enhanced their translation in DC for stimulating T cell activation, and strengthening TLR4/NF-κB signaling-induced cytokine production. Our findings identify a new role for Mettl3-mediated m6A modification in increasing translation of certain immune transcripts for physiological promotion of DC activation and DC-based T cell response.


Assuntos
Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Epigênese Genética , Metiltransferases/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Adenosina/imunologia , Adenosina/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Antígenos/imunologia , Antígenos/farmacologia , Antígeno B7-1/genética , Antígeno B7-1/imunologia , Células da Medula Óssea/citologia , Células da Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Células da Medula Óssea/imunologia , Antígenos CD40/genética , Antígenos CD40/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/citologia , Células Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Interleucina-12/genética , Interleucina-12/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Metilação , Metiltransferases/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Peptídeos/imunologia , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Cultura Primária de Células , Biossíntese de Proteínas , RNA Mensageiro/imunologia , Receptores de Interleucina-1/genética , Receptores de Interleucina-1/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais , Linfócitos T/citologia , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/imunologia
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(7)2019 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30978945

RESUMO

The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a highly conserved pathway that allows cells to respond to stress in the endoplasmic reticulum caused by an accumulation of misfolded and unfolded protein. This is of great importance to secretory cells because, in order for proteins to traffic from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), they need to be folded appropriately. While a wealth of literature has implicated UPR in immune responses, less attention has been given to the role of UPR in T cell development and function. This review discusses the importance of UPR in T cell development, homeostasis, activation, and effector functions. We also speculate about how UPR may be manipulated in T cells to ameliorate pathologies.


Assuntos
Ativação Linfocitária , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Resposta a Proteínas não Dobradas , Animais , Asma/imunologia , Asma/patologia , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Humanos , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Doenças Reumáticas/imunologia , Doenças Reumáticas/patologia , Linfócitos T/citologia , Linfócitos T/patologia
18.
Nat Biotechnol ; 37(4): 461-468, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30936567

RESUMO

Recent single-cell RNA-sequencing studies have suggested that cells follow continuous transcriptomic trajectories in an asynchronous fashion during development. However, observations of cell flux along trajectories are confounded with population size effects in snapshot experiments and are therefore hard to interpret. In particular, changes in proliferation and death rates can be mistaken for cell flux. Here we present pseudodynamics, a mathematical framework that reconciles population dynamics with the concepts underlying developmental trajectories inferred from time-series single-cell data. Pseudodynamics models population distribution shifts across trajectories to quantify selection pressure, population expansion, and developmental potentials. Applying this model to time-resolved single-cell RNA-sequencing of T-cell and pancreatic beta cell maturation, we characterize proliferation and apoptosis rates and identify key developmental checkpoints, data inaccessible to existing approaches.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise de Célula Única/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Apoptose/genética , Biotecnologia , Proliferação de Células/genética , Feminino , Células Secretoras de Insulina/citologia , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , Funções Verossimilhança , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Modelos Biológicos , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Murinas/citologia , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Murinas/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/citologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(7)2019 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30987036

RESUMO

Treatment with extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) have been suggested as novel therapeutic option in acute inflammation-associated disorders due to their immune-modulatory capacities. As we have previously observed differences in the cytokine profile of independent MSC-EV preparations, functional differences of MSC-EV preparations have to be considered. To evaluate the immune-modulatory capabilities of specific MSC-EV preparations, reliable assays are required to characterize the functionality of MSC-EV preparations prior to administration to a patient. To this end, we established an in vitro assay evaluating the immune-modulatory capacities of MSC-EV preparations. Here, we compared the efficacy of four independent MSC-EV preparations to modulate the induction of T cell differentiation and cytokine production after phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)/Ionomycin stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) derived from six healthy donors. Flow cytometric analyses revealed that the four MSC-EV preparations differentially modulate the expression of surface markers, such as CD45RA, on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, resulting in shifts in the frequencies of effector and effector memory T cells. Moreover, cytokine profile in T cell subsets was affected in a MSC-EV-specific manner exclusively in CD8+ naïve T cells. Strikingly, hierarchical clustering revealed that the T cell response towards the MSC-EV preparations largely varied among the different PBMC donors. Thus, besides defining functional activity of MSC-EV preparations, it will be crucial to test whether patients intended for treatment with MSC-EV preparations are in principal competent to respond to the envisioned MSC-EV therapy.


Assuntos
Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Imunomodulação , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise por Conglomerados , Citocinas/biossíntese , Vesículas Extracelulares/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Imunomodulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Ionomicina/farmacologia , Antígenos Comuns de Leucócito/metabolismo , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/citologia , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Acetato de Tetradecanoilforbol/farmacologia
20.
Protein Pept Lett ; 26(7): 542-549, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30950342

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bursa of Fabricius is the acknowledged central humoral immune organ. The bursal-derived peptides play the important roles on the immature B cell development and antibody production. OBJECTIVES: Here we explored the functions of the new isolated bursal hexapeptide and pentapeptide on the humoral, cellular immune response and antigen presentation to Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) vaccine in mice immunization. METHODS: The bursa extract samples were purified following RP HPLC method, and were analyzed with MS/MS to identify the amino acid sequences. Mice were twice subcutaneously injected with AIV inactivated vaccine plus with two new isolated bursal peptides at three dosages, respectively. On two weeks after the second immunization, sera samples were collected from the immunized mice to measure AIV-specific IgG antibody levels and HI antibody titers. Also, on 7th day after the second immunization, lymphocytes were isolated from the immunized mice to detect T cell subtype and lymphocyte viabilities, and the expressions of co-stimulatory molecule on dendritic cells in the immunized mice. RESULTS: Two new bursal hexapeptide and pentapeptide with amino acid sequences KGNRVY and MPPTH were isolated, respectively. Our investigation proved the strong regulatory roles of bursal hexapeptide on AIV-specific IgG levels and HI antibody titers, and lymphocyte viabilities, and the significant increased T cells subpopulation and expressions of MHCII molecule on dendritic cells in the immunized mice. Moreover, our findings verified the significantly enhanced AIV-specific IgG antibody and HI titers, and the strong increased T cell subpopulation and expressions of CD40 molecule on dendritic cells in the mice immunized with AIV vaccine and bursal pentapeptide. CONCLUSION: We isolated and identified two new hexapeptide and pentapeptide from bursa, and proved that these two bursal peptides effectively induced the AIV-specific antibody, T cell and antigen presentation immune responses, which provided an experimental basis for the further clinical application of the bursal derived active peptide on the vaccine improvement.


Assuntos
Bolsa de Fabricius/química , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H9N2/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Oligopeptídeos/química , Animais , Anticorpos/metabolismo , Formação de Anticorpos , Bolsa de Fabricius/imunologia , Antígenos CD40/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Galinhas , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Feminino , Imunidade Humoral , Influenza Aviária/prevenção & controle , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Oligopeptídeos/imunologia , Linfócitos T/citologia , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos
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