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1.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 68(10): 1661-1669, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We previously found that PD-L1 expression is increased on tumor cells following vaccination treatments that lead to increased tumor-specific T cells that secrete IFNγ. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is another IFNγ inducible gene that has potent immunosuppressive effects. There have been reports of IDO expression in prostate cancer; however, it is unknown whether IDO expression might similarly increase in prostate tumors following T-cell-based immunotherapy. METHODS: Blood samples from normal male blood donors (n = 12) and patients with different stages of prostate cancer (n = 89), including patients with metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer treated with a DNA vaccine and/or pembrolizumab, were evaluated for IDO activity by kynurenine and tryptophan levels. Metastatic tissue biopsies obtained pre- and post-treatments were evaluated for IDO expression. IDO suppression of vaccine-induced T-cell function was assessed by ELISPOT. RESULTS: Overall, IDO activity was increased in patients with more advanced prostate cancer. This activity, and IDO expression as detected immunohistochemically, increased following treatment with either a DNA vaccine encoding the prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) tumor antigen or PD-1 blockade with pembrolizumab. Increased IDO activity after treatment was associated with the absence of clinical effect, as assessed by lack of PSA decline following treatment. Increased antigen-specific T-cell response, as measured by IFNγ release, to the vaccine target antigen was detected following in vitro stimulation of peripheral blood cells with 1-methyltryptophan. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that IDO expression is a mechanism of immune evasion used by prostate cancer and that future clinical trials using T-cell-based immune strategies might best include IDO inhibition.


Assuntos
Vacinas Anticâncer/administração & dosagem , Imunoterapia , Indolamina-Pirrol 2,3,-Dioxigenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Seguimentos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Indolamina-Pirrol 2,3,-Dioxigenase/imunologia , Indolamina-Pirrol 2,3,-Dioxigenase/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/imunologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/metabolismo , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Prognóstico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/imunologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 145(12): 3021-3036, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617075

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In recent years, immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) therapies have shown good clinical responses in various solid cancers. However, a major challenge in the process of ICB treatment is when tumors do not have enough infiltrating T cells. Antiangiogenic drugs targeting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors have been approved for the treatment of various malignant solid tumors alone or in combination with other therapies. Our review mainly discusses the preclinical rationale and clinical efficacy of antiangiogenic and ICB combination therapy in urogenital tumors. METHODS: We reviewed relevant literature on preclinical research and clinical trial results regarding antiangiogenic and ICB combination therapy in urogenital tumors from PubMed. In addition, we searched ongoing clinical trials on ClinicalTrials.gov to collect information related to this specific topic. RESULTS: Antiangiogenesis therapy could enhance T cell recruitment and increase T cell infiltration into the tumor microenvironment by blocking VEGF-VEGF receptor 2 binding and downstream signaling pathways to normalize tumor blood vessels. The combination of ICB and antiangiogenesis therapy could improve antitumor activity according to subsequent preclinical experiments and several phase I/II/III clinical trials on urogenital tumors. CONCLUSION: Combined therapy has shown some antitumor efficacy in several urogenital tumors, such as metastatic renal cell carcinoma, metastatic urothelial and genitourinary tumors, endometrial carcinoma, ovarian cancer, and fallopian tube cancer. Combination therapy is a promising strategy that can be used to improve the therapeutic efficacy, and the identification of precise biomarkers of this combined therapy is the direction of future studies.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Urogenitais/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Nature ; 574(7776): 45-56, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578484

RESUMO

New therapies that promote antitumour immunity have been recently developed. Most of these immunomodulatory approaches have focused on enhancing T-cell responses, either by targeting inhibitory pathways with immune checkpoint inhibitors, or by targeting activating pathways, as with chimeric antigen receptor T cells or bispecific antibodies. Although these therapies have led to unprecedented successes, only a minority of patients with cancer benefit from these treatments, highlighting the need to identify new cells and molecules that could be exploited in the next generation of immunotherapy. Given the crucial role of innate immune responses in immunity, harnessing these responses opens up new possibilities for long-lasting, multilayered tumour control.


Assuntos
Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Imunoterapia/tendências , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Animais , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/imunologia
4.
Tumour Biol ; 41(9): 1010428319873749, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31496424

RESUMO

Differentiation therapy is directed to the self-renewing cancer stem cells, as well as their progeny transit amplifying cells, to force them to mature to terminal differentiation. Differentiation therapy is effective in treatment of neuroblastomas and myeloid leukemias. Checkpoint inhibition therapy removes blocks to cancer reactive T-killer cells and allows them to react to malignant cells and limit the growth of cancer. The percentage of patients with a given cancer that responds to either therapy is less than hoped for, and the duration of response is variable. Multiplying the response rate (percentage of patients responding to therapy) by the duration of response may be used to derive a survival score for patients treated with differentiation therapy or checkpoint inhibition. By this criterion, differentiation therapy gives better survival scores than checkpoint inhibition. Yet, checkpoint inhibition is considered a great success, mostly because it may be applied to many different types of cancer, and differentiation therapy is considered relatively ineffective because it is limited to a few specific cancers. On the other hand, the cost of checkpoint inhibition treatment is 10-20 times more per patient than that of differentiation therapy. Hopefully, future combined treatments and advances in both approaches will increase the effectiveness of these cancer treatments.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Sobreviventes de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/patologia , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida
5.
Nat Med ; 25(9): 1402-1407, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501610

RESUMO

Natalizumab (NZM), a humanized monoclonal IgG4 antibody to α4 integrins, is used to treat patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS)1,2, but in about 6% of the cases persistent neutralizing anti-drug antibodies (ADAs) are induced leading to therapy discontinuation3,4. To understand the basis of the ADA response and the mechanism of ADA-mediated neutralization, we performed an in-depth analysis of the B and T cell responses in two patients. By characterizing a large panel of NZM-specific monoclonal antibodies, we found that, in both patients, the response was polyclonal and targeted different epitopes of the NZM idiotype. The neutralizing activity was acquired through somatic mutations and correlated with a slow dissociation rate, a finding that was supported by structural data. Interestingly, in both patients, the analysis of the CD4+ T cell response, combined with mass spectrometry-based peptidomics, revealed a single immunodominant T cell epitope spanning the FR2-CDR2 region of the NZM light chain. Moreover, a CDR2-modified version of NZM was not recognized by T cells, while retaining binding to α4 integrins. Collectively, our integrated analysis identifies the basis of T-B collaboration that leads to ADA-mediated therapeutic resistance and delineates an approach to design novel deimmunized antibodies for autoimmune disease and cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/administração & dosagem , Epitopos de Linfócito T/imunologia , Esclerose Múltipla/tratamento farmacológico , Natalizumab/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/química , Formação de Anticorpos/efeitos dos fármacos , Formação de Anticorpos/imunologia , Linfócitos B/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/química , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Integrina alfa4/antagonistas & inibidores , Integrina alfa4/imunologia , Esclerose Múltipla/imunologia , Esclerose Múltipla/patologia , Conformação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/química , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/imunologia
6.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 216: 109892, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446206

RESUMO

Cyclosporine and glucocorticoids are powerful immunosuppressive agents used to treat many inflammatory diseases in dogs. Cyclosporine inhibits calcineurin-dependent pathways of T cell activation and resultant T cell cytokine production, and glucocorticoids directly inhibit genes coding for cytokines. Little work has been done comparing the effects of these agents on T cell cytokine production in dogs. Our study measured T cell interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) production using flow cytometry and T cell IL-2 and IFN-γ gene expression using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in activated canine T cells incubated with cyclosporine and dexamethasone in vitro. For flow cytometric assays, diluted whole blood was cultured for 7 h in the presence of cyclosporine (10, 100, 500, and 1000 ng/mL) or dexamethasone (10 ng/mL, 100 ng/mL, 1 µg/mL, and 10 µg/mL). For qRT-PCR, whole blood was cultured for 5 h with the same drugs at the same concentrations, and RNA was then extracted from leukocytes. Flow cytometry and qRT-PCR both demonstrated inhibition of IL-2 and IFN-γ that was concentration-dependent in response to cyclosporine, and was more variable for dexamethasone. Quantitative RT-PCR but not flow cytometry documented significant reduction of IL-2 expression after dexamethasone treatment, while both methods showed concentration-dependent suppression of IFN-γ. Quantitative RT-PCR also revealed additional cytokine suppression at higher cyclosporine concentrations, an effect not found using flow cytometry, and may therefore be the preferred method for cytokine determination in dogs. Suppression of IL-2 and IFN-γ in activated T cells may have potential as an indicator of the efficacy of cyclosporine and glucocorticoids in suppressing canine T cell function in vivo, and may therefore be of value for characterizing the immunosuppression induced by these drugs in clinical patients.


Assuntos
Ciclosporina/farmacologia , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-2/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Ciclosporina/administração & dosagem , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Cães , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Glucocorticoides/farmacologia , Imunidade Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Interferon gama/genética , Interleucina-2/genética
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(32): 9070-9078, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31343168

RESUMO

In this study, an immunologically active novel microparticulate mushroom ß-glucan (PRA-1p) was prepared using an alkali-soluble glucan PRA-1 by an emulsification and cross-linking method. PRA-1 was a hyperbranched (1→3),(1→6)-ß-d-glucan with a degree of branching of 0.89, isolated from the sclerotia of Polyporus rhinocerus. PRA-1 had a rod-like conformation, while PRA-1p exhibited a monodisperse and homogeneous spherical conformation with a diameter ranging from 0.3 to 2.0 µm in water. PRA-1p significantly induced nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production as well as morphological changes of murine macrophages (RAW 264.7 cells) and upregulated their phagocytic activity. Furthermore, PRA-1p treatment markedly enhanced the secretion of cytokines, including cutaneous T cell-attracting chemokine 27, granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, macrophage inflammatory protein 1α, macrophage inflammatory protein 2, regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted, soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1, and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases. Activation of RAW 264.7 cells triggered by PRA-1p was associated with activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase, nuclear factor κB, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and protein kinase B. This work suggests that novel PRA-1p derived from the mushroom sclerotia of P. rhinocerus has potential application as an immunostimulatory agent.


Assuntos
Fatores Imunológicos/química , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polyporus/química , beta-Glucanas/química , beta-Glucanas/farmacologia , Animais , Quimiocina CCL27/genética , Quimiocina CCL27/imunologia , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/genética , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/imunologia , Fatores Imunológicos/isolamento & purificação , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Óxido Nítrico/imunologia , Fagocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Polyporus/imunologia , Células RAW 264.7 , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/imunologia , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/imunologia , beta-Glucanas/isolamento & purificação
8.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 163, 2019 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277636

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Therapeutic vaccines against cervical cancer remain ineffective. Previously, we demonstrated that blocking the signalling of a cytokine, interleukin 10, at the time of immunisation elicited significantly higher numbers of antigen specific T cells and inhibited tumour growth in mice. RESULTS: In the current paper, we demonstrate, in a HPV16 E6/E7 transformed TC-1 tumour mouse model, that despite increased antigen specific T cell numbers, blocking IL-10 signalling at the time of immunisation does not increase the survival time of the TC-1 tumour bearing mice compared to mice receiving the same immunisation with no IL-10 signalling blockade. Moreover, the function of tumour infiltrating T cells isolated 3 weeks post TC-1 transplantation is more suppressed than those isolated 2 weeks after tumour inoculation. We demonstrate that synthesized caerin peptides, derived from amphibian skin secretions, 1) were able to inhibit TC-1 tumour growth both in vitro and in vivo; 2) are environmentally stable; and 3) promote the secretion of pro-inflammatory interlukine-6 by TC-1 cells. Notably caerin peptides were able to increase the survival time of TC-1 tumour bearing mice after therapeutic vaccination with a HPV16E7 peptide-based vaccine containing IL-10 inhibitor, via recruiting increased levels of T cells to the tumour site. CONCLUSION: Caerin peptides increase the efficacy of a therapeutic vaccine by recruiting more T cells to the tumour site.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Anfíbios/farmacologia , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/farmacologia , Vacinas Anticâncer/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Anfíbios/uso terapêutico , Animais , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/uso terapêutico , Vacinas Anticâncer/farmacologia , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Feminino , Células HeLa , Humanos , Interleucina-10/antagonistas & inibidores , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Transplante de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Experimentais/tratamento farmacológico , Linfócitos T/metabolismo
9.
APMIS ; 127(12): 737-745, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273832

RESUMO

Currently, adoptive immunotherapy is considered as one of the leading treatments in cancer. Successful adoptive immunotherapy depends on producing large numbers of desired T cells ex vivo for infusion. This requires an effective protocol for maximum functional T-cell expansion while keeping the time and costs to a minimum. Current T-cell expansion protocols are diverse in their methodology, and a universal protocol of expansion is wanting. Also, new findings regarding T-cell biology, signaling, and activation have reshaped the strategies of T-cell propagation over the years, introducing new ways to expand T cells. Here, we reviewed different conditions for blood-derived polyclonal T-cell expansion so as to elucidate the influential factors of T-cell expansion and their efficacy.


Assuntos
Imunoterapia Adotiva , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Meios de Cultura , Humanos , Interleucinas/farmacologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/metabolismo
10.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 145(8): 2149-2156, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273513

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: First-line rituximab therapy together with chemotherapy is the standard care for patients with advanced follicular B-cell lymphoma, as rituximab together with chemotherapy prolongs progression-free and overall survival (Herold et al. 2007; Marcus et al. 2005). However, as not all patient subgroups benefit from combined immuno-chemotherapy, we asked whether the microenvironment may predict benefit from rituximab-based therapy. DESIGN: To address this question, we performed a retrospective immunohistochemical analysis on pathological specimens of 18 patients recruited into a randomized clinical trial, where patients with advanced follicular lymphoma were randomized into either chemotherapy or immuno-chemotherapy with rituximab (Herold et al. 2007). RESULTS: We show here that rituximab exerts beneficial effects, especially in the subgroup of follicular lymphoma patients with low intrafollicular CD3, CD5, CD8, and ZAP70 and high CD56 and CD68 expression. CONCLUSION: Rituximab may overcome immune-dormancy in follicular lymphoma in cases with lower intrafollicular T-cell numbers and higher CD56 and CD68 cell counts. As this was a retrospective analysis on a small subgroup of patients, these data need to be corroborated in larger clinical trials.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/patologia , Linfoma Folicular/diagnóstico , Linfoma Folicular/tratamento farmacológico , Linfoma Folicular/imunologia , Rituximab/administração & dosagem , Linfócitos T/patologia , Clorambucila/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Contagem de Linfócitos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfoma Folicular/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mitoxantrona/administração & dosagem , Prednisona/administração & dosagem , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Resultado do Tratamento , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
11.
Carbohydr Polym ; 219: 121-129, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151509

RESUMO

Galectin-3 (Gal-3) can induce T-cell activation and apoptosis and plays a role in tumor immune tolerance. Here, we demonstrate that ginseng pectins selectively inhibit Gal-3-induced T-cell apoptosis, while not affecting T-cell activation. This finding stands in contrast to that from the use of modified citrus pectin (MCP) and potato galactan (P-galactan) that inhibit both. Whereas PKC/ERK and ROS/ERK pathways are involved in both T-cell activation and apoptosis, the Ras/PI3K/Akt pathway is unique to T-cell activation. Ginseng pectins selectively inhibit the ROS/ERK pathway. Using the Sarcomar-180 mouse model in which Gal-3 expression is increased, we found that ginseng pectins (but not MCP or P-galactan) significantly promote T-cell proliferation and IL-2 expression, and inhibit tumor growth by 45%. These in vivo data correlate well with selective effects of pectins on Gal-3-mediated T-cell apoptosis and activation. Our study suggests a novel approach for the development of polysaccharide-based agents that target Gal-3 function.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Galactanos/farmacologia , Galectina 3/metabolismo , Panax/metabolismo , Pectinas/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Interleucina-2/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo
12.
Phytochemistry ; 164: 184-191, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31158603

RESUMO

Eleven highly oxygenated meroterpenoids, named terreustoxins A-K, along with five known analogues, were isolated from the Antarctic fungus Aspergillus terreus. The structures and absolute configurations of these undescribed compounds were characterized by NMR spectroscopy, single-crystal X-ray crystallography, and ECD experiments. Terreustoxins A-D are the first examples of meroterpenoids with two ortho-hydroxy groups at C-6 and C-7 in the terretonins family. Terreustoxin C and terretonin inhibited the proliferation of Con A-induced murine T cells at the concentration of 10 µM.


Assuntos
Aspergillus/química , Oxigênio/farmacologia , Terpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Aspergillus/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Concanavalina A , Cristalografia por Raios X , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Camundongos , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular , Oxigênio/química , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Estereoisomerismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Terpenos/química , Terpenos/metabolismo
13.
Microbiol Immunol ; 63(7): 261-268, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209918

RESUMO

Pasteurella multocida is one of the most important bacteria responsible for diseases of animals. Crude extracts from sonicated P. multocida strain Dainai-1, which is serotype A isolated from bovine pneumonia, were found to inhibit proliferation of mouse spleen cells stimulated with Con A. The crude extract was purified by cation and anion exchange chromatography and hydroxyapatite chromatography. Its molecular weight was 27 kDa by SDS-PAGE and it was named PM27. PM27 was found to inhibit proliferation of mouse spleen cells stimulated with Con A as effectively as did the crude extract; however, its activity was lost after heating to 100°C for 20 min. PM27 did not directly inhibit proliferation of HT-2 cells, which are an IL-2-dependent T cell line, nor did it modify IL-2 production by Con A-stimulated mouse spleen cells. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of PM27 was determined and BLAST analysis revealed its identity to uridine phosphorylase (UPase) from P. multocida. UPase gene from P. multocida Dainai-1 was cloned into expression vector pQE-60 in Escherichia coli XL-1 Blue. Recombinant UPase (rUPase) tagged with His at the C-terminal amino acid was purified with Ni affinity chromatography. rUPase was found to inhibit proliferation of mouse spleen cells stimulated with Con A; however, as was true for PM27, its activity was lost after heating to 100°C for 20 min. Thus, PM27/UPase purified from P. multocida has significant antiproliferative activity against Con A-stimulated mouse spleen cells and may be a virulence factor.


Assuntos
Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Pasteurella multocida/metabolismo , Uridina Fosforilase/isolamento & purificação , Uridina Fosforilase/farmacologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/genética , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/metabolismo , Bovinos , Linhagem Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/genética , Humanos , Interleucina-2/metabolismo , Camundongos , Peso Molecular , Pasteurella multocida/genética , Fosforilases , Proteínas Recombinantes , Baço , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Uridina Fosforilase/genética , Uridina Fosforilase/metabolismo
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(11)2019 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159348

RESUMO

During the last few years, the gut microbiota has gained increasing attention as a consequence of its emerging role as a modulator of the immune system. With the advent of the era of checkpoint inhibitors immunotherapy and adoptive cell transfer (ACT) in oncology, these findings became of primary relevance in light of experimental data that suggested the microbiota involvement as a plausible predictor of a good or poor response. These remarks justify the efforts to pinpoint the specific actions of the microbiota and to identify new strategies to favorably edit its composition.


Assuntos
Imunoterapia , Microbiota , Neoplasias/etiologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoterapia/efeitos adversos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Imunoterapia Adotiva , Microbiota/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo
15.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2688, 2019 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217437

RESUMO

Neoantigens (nAgs) are promising tumor antigens for cancer vaccination with the potential of inducing robust and selective T cell responses. Genetic vaccines based on Adenoviruses derived from non-human Great Apes (GAd) elicit strong and effective T cell-mediated immunity in humans. Here, we investigate for the first time the potency and efficacy of a novel GAd encoding multiple neoantigens. Prophylactic or early therapeutic vaccination with GAd efficiently control tumor growth in mice. In contrast, combination of the vaccine with checkpoint inhibitors is required to eradicate large tumors. Gene expression profile of tumors in regression shows abundance of activated tumor infiltrating T cells with a more diversified TCR repertoire in animals treated with GAd and anti-PD1 compared to anti-PD1. Data suggest that effectiveness of vaccination in the presence of high tumor burden correlates with the breadth of nAgs-specific T cells and requires concomitant reversal of tumor suppression by checkpoint blockade.


Assuntos
Adenoviridae/imunologia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Vacinas Anticâncer/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/terapia , Vacinas Virais/uso terapêutico , Adenoviridae/genética , Animais , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Vacinas Anticâncer/genética , Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/transplante , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Camundongos , Neoplasias/imunologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Carga Tumoral/imunologia , Vacinas Sintéticas/genética , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia , Vacinas Sintéticas/uso terapêutico , Vacinas Virais/genética , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
16.
Scand J Immunol ; 90(2): e12776, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31069824

RESUMO

The number of the X chromosome-linked genes has been previously suggested to influence immune responses and the development of autoimmune diseases. In the present study, we aimed at evaluating the level of expression of CD40L (an X-linked gene involved in adaptive immunity) and TLR7 (an X-linked gene involved in innate immunity) in a variety of different karyotypes. Those included males, females and patients with X chromosome aneuploidy. Healthy females (46, XX; n = 10) and healthy males (46, XY; n = 10) were compared to females with Turner syndrome (TS) (45, X; n = 11) and males with Klinefelter syndrome (KS) (47, XXY; n = 5). Stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with PMA and ionomycin resulted in higher percentage of CD3 + CD40L+ T cells (P < 0.001) and higher level expression of CD40L in T cell (P < 0.001) in female and KS patients compared with male and TS patients. TLR7-mediated IFN-alpha production by HLADR + CD3- CD19- cells was significantly upregulated in healthy women compared with healthy males, TS and KS patients (P < 0.001). TLR7 agonist-stimulated PBMCs from healthy females and KS patients expressed significantly higher levels of TLR7 mRNA than those from male and TS patients (P < 0.05). The increased expression of the X-linked genes TLR7 and CD40L in healthy females and KS patients suggests that the presence of two X chromosomes plays a major role in enhancing both innate and adaptive immune responses. These results may contribute to the explanation of sex-based differences in immune biology and the sex bias in predisposition to autoimmune diseases.


Assuntos
Imunidade Adaptativa/genética , Ligante de CD40/biossíntese , Ligante de CD40/genética , Cromossomos Humanos X/genética , Dosagem de Genes/genética , Imunidade Inata/genética , Receptor 7 Toll-Like/biossíntese , Receptor 7 Toll-Like/genética , Imunidade Adaptativa/imunologia , Antígenos CD19/biossíntese , Complexo CD3/biossíntese , Células Cultivadas , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Interferon-alfa/biossíntese , Ionomicina/farmacologia , Síndrome de Klinefelter/genética , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Masculino , Ácidos Polimetacrílicos/farmacologia , RNA Mensageiro/biossíntese , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Síndrome de Turner/genética
17.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 17(1): 65, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31092246

RESUMO

It is essential that prophylactic drugs do not interfere with the normal function of the immune system. The use of nanoparticles as vaginal microbicides is a promising prevention strategy against sexually transmitted infections. With that aim, our group is working with the G2-S16, a second generation carbosilane dendrimer with sulfonate groups in the periphery, which has been previously shown to be effective against HIV-1 and HSV-2 infection, and it is now on the road to clinical trials. Our objective in this new study is to assess the effects of G2-S16 on the immune barrier of the female reproductive tract. The expression of differentiation, maturation and activation markers was measured in epithelial cells, dendritic cells, M and GM macrophages, and T cells using RT-qPCR and flow cytometry. The results demonstrate that G2-S16 does not alter the natural immunity of the vagina, strongly supporting the biosafety of this dendrimer for clinical use.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Dendrímeros/química , Sistema Imunitário/efeitos dos fármacos , Silanos/química , Vagina/metabolismo , Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Infecciosos/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamanho da Partícula , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1974: 141-150, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31099000

RESUMO

Elevated levels of microRNAs in cancer cells are often associated with oncogenic effects and thus provide potential therapeutic targets. However, the lack of efficient delivery methods for synthetic miRNA inhibitors, antagomiR, or anti-miR oligonucleotides hindered clinical translation of such strategies. We recently developed an approach for targeted delivery of synthetic, 2'-O-methyl-modified antagomiR molecules to normal and malignant myeloid cells and B cells by tethering to the single-stranded, phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides (PSO). The PSO-antagomiR are rapidly internalized through scavenger receptor-mediated endocytosis by human monocytes, dendritic cells, B cells, as well as myeloid leukemia and B-cell lymphoma cells, but not by T cells. Following internalization, the unformulated PSO-antagomiR potently reduces levels of target miRNA and modulates expression of downstream protein targets, both in vitro and in vivo. The simple design of PSO-antagomiR conjugates enable adaptation of this strategy for targeting oncogenic miRNAs in nonmalignant and malignant myeloid cells and B cells.


Assuntos
Antagomirs/farmacologia , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Leucemia Mieloide/genética , Linfoma de Células B/genética , Animais , Linfócitos B , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide/terapia , Linfoma de Células B/terapia , Camundongos , MicroRNAs/efeitos dos fármacos , MicroRNAs/genética , Células Mieloides/efeitos dos fármacos , Oligonucleotídeos Fosforotioatos/genética , Oligonucleotídeos Fosforotioatos/farmacologia , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Inflamm Res ; 68(7): 545-555, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31055608

RESUMO

AIM AND OBJECTIVE: Efficient production of monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (M-MDSCs) with stable immunosuppressive function is crucial for immunomodulatory cell therapy for many diseases such as transplant rejection, graft-versus-host disease and autoimmune diseases. METHODS: We used M-CSF as growth factor for myeloid progenitor cell differentiation and activated them with IFN-γ during early stage in vitro to produce M-MDSCs. The cell phenotypes were determined using flow cytometry, the immunosuppressive function and mechanisms were determined by skin grafted mouse models and genetic modified mice. RESULTS: IFN-γ treatment endows these cell strong immunosuppressive function by inhibition of T cell proliferation and cytokine productions. The phenotype of these cells also changed towards M-MDSCs. IFN-γ significantly upregulated iNOS expression in these M-MDSCs and inhibition of this molecule significantly reversed their immune regulatory function. The functional stability of induced M-MDSCs by IFN-γ was tested in vivo by transferring them to alloskin-grafted mice. Adoptive transfer of these cells significantly prolonged allograft survival and promoted immune tolerance, whereas iNOS deficiency in these cells reversed this effect. CONCLUSIONS: We established one M-MDSCs-inducting protocol with the combination of M-CSF and IFN-γ in vitro. M-CSF+IFN-γ-induced M-MDSCs are promising to prevent graft rejection by immune regulation.


Assuntos
Interferon gama/farmacologia , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Macrófagos/farmacologia , Células Supressoras Mieloides/efeitos dos fármacos , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/imunologia , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Transferência Adotiva , Aloenxertos/imunologia , Animais , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Tolerância Imunológica , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Células Supressoras Mieloides/imunologia , Transplante de Pele , Linfócitos T/imunologia
20.
Curr Pharm Biotechnol ; 20(7): 562-572, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31132974

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) are blood tests used to measure the amount of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) released by T lymphocytes after stimulation by antigens specific for the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection. A mitogen serves as a positive control to assess the immune function in IGRAs. METHODS: This in vitro study was conducted to evaluate IFN-γ production by human whole blood stimulated with heat-treated and/or cation-supplemented phytohemagglutinin (PHA), concanavalin A (Con A) and pokeweed mitogen (PWM), using QuantiFERON-TB Gold Kit ELISA tests. RESULTS: The optimal concentrations of PWM, Con A and PHA for IGRAs were 2 µg/mL, 5 µg/mL and 10 µg/mL, respectively. The results showed that IFN-γ production in response to PWM was the highest and PHA was the lowest amount. The median values of three mitogens were in the following order: PWM≥Con A≥ positive control>>PHA-P>>negative control. PWM and PHA were heat stable, while Con A was heat sensitive. The mitogen response of lymphocytes to untreated or heat-treated PWM and heat-treated Con A was increased in 1 mM Ca2+-supplemented groups, whereas the response to heat-treated PHA was decreased. Exposure to 1 mM Mg2+ had no effect on untreated or heat-treated PWM, and a concentration of 1 mM Zn2+ inhibited the stimulation of un-treated PWM. We found that calcium supplementation improved the PWM-induced production of IFN-γ. CONCLUSION: Therefore, PWM is an appropriate mitogen for use as a positive control in IGRAs. It is a potential indicator of cytokine production in the diagnostic as well as research settings, and calcium supplementation improved stimulation.


Assuntos
Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Temperatura Alta , Interferon gama/sangue , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitógenos da Erva-dos-Cancros/farmacologia , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Idoso , Cátions , Concanavalina A/imunologia , Concanavalina A/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fito-Hemaglutininas/imunologia , Fito-Hemaglutininas/farmacologia , Mitógenos da Erva-dos-Cancros/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/sangue , Adulto Jovem
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