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1.
Pol J Microbiol ; 68(4): 457-464, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880890

RESUMO

Unravelling of the interplay between the immune system and non-diphtheria corynebacteria would contribute to understanding their increasing role as medically important microorganisms. We aimed at the analysis of pro- (TNF, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-12p70) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines produced by Jurkat T cells in response to planktonic and biofilm Corynebacterium amycolatum. Two reference strains: C. amycolatum ATCC 700207 (R-CA), Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 (R-SA), and ten clinical strains of C. amycolatum (C-CA) were used in the study. Jurkat T cells were stimulated in vitro by the planktonic-conditioned medium (PCM) and biofilm-conditioned medium (BCM) derived from the relevant cultures of the strains tested. The cytokine concentrations were determined in the cell culture supernatants using the flow cytometry. The levels of the cytokines analyzed were lower after stimulation with the BCM when compared to the PCM derived from the cultures of C-CA; statistical significance (p < 0.05) was observed for IL-1ß, IL-12 p70, and IL-10. Similarly, planktonic R-CA and R-SA stimulated a higher cytokine production than their biofilm counterparts. The highest levels of pro-inflammatory IL-8, IL-1ß, and IL-12p70 were observed after stimulation with planktonic R-SA whereas the strongest stimulation of anti-inflammatory IL-10 was noted for the BCM derived from the mixed culture of both reference species. Our results are indicative of weaker immunostimulatory properties of the biofilm C. amycolatum compared to its planktonic form. It may play a role in the persistence of biofilm-related infections. The extent of the cytokine response can be dependent on the inherent virulence of the infecting microorganism.Unravelling of the interplay between the immune system and non-diphtheria corynebacteria would contribute to understanding their increasing role as medically important microorganisms. We aimed at the analysis of pro- (TNF, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-12p70) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines produced by Jurkat T cells in response to planktonic and biofilm Corynebacterium amycolatum. Two reference strains: C. amycolatum ATCC 700207 (R-CA), Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 (R-SA), and ten clinical strains of C. amycolatum (C-CA) were used in the study. Jurkat T cells were stimulated in vitro by the planktonic-conditioned medium (PCM) and biofilm-conditioned medium (BCM) derived from the relevant cultures of the strains tested. The cytokine concentrations were determined in the cell culture supernatants using the flow cytometry. The levels of the cytokines analyzed were lower after stimulation with the BCM when compared to the PCM derived from the cultures of C-CA; statistical significance (p < 0.05) was observed for IL-1ß, IL-12 p70, and IL-10. Similarly, planktonic R-CA and R-SA stimulated a higher cytokine production than their biofilm counterparts. The highest levels of pro-inflammatory IL-8, IL-1ß, and IL-12p70 were observed after stimulation with planktonic R-SA whereas the strongest stimulation of anti-inflammatory IL-10 was noted for the BCM derived from the mixed culture of both reference species. Our results are indicative of weaker immunostimulatory properties of the biofilm C. amycolatum compared to its planktonic form. It may play a role in the persistence of biofilm-related infections. The extent of the cytokine response can be dependent on the inherent virulence of the infecting microorganism.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Infecções por Corynebacterium/imunologia , Corynebacterium/fisiologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linhagem Celular , Corynebacterium/genética , Corynebacterium/imunologia , Infecções por Corynebacterium/genética , Infecções por Corynebacterium/microbiologia , Citocinas/genética , Humanos , Interleucina-10/genética , Interleucina-10/imunologia , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/imunologia , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Interleucina-8/genética , Interleucina-8/imunologia , Plâncton/genética , Plâncton/fisiologia
2.
Anticancer Res ; 39(11): 6231-6240, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704852

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The present study aimed to prospectively examine the usefulness of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) release (IGR) as a biomarker in non-small-cell lung cancer patients receiving immune checkpoint inhibitor treatment (ICI-Tx). PATIENTS AND METHODS: IGR was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at four time points: within 14 days before ICI-Tx (T1), and 8±3 (T2), 22±7 (T3), and 43±7 (T4) days after ICI-Tx. RESULTS: Twenty-nine patients were divided into three groups based on IFN-γ levels in the IGR-positive control: Group-1 (n=8) with <10 IU/ml at T1, Group-2 (n=12) with a decrease in IFN-γ levels to <10 IU/ml at T3 and/or T4, and Group-3 (n=9) without changes in IFN-γ levels. Early progression and ICI-induced interstitial pneumonitis were frequently observed in Group-1 and Group-2, respectively. Group-3 exhibited more treatment cycles than the other groups. All three groups showed clear differences in clinical outcomes. CONCLUSION: IFN-γ levels could be a biomarker for ICI-Tx.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia/efeitos adversos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Interferon gama/sangue , Tuberculose Latente/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Latente/etiologia , Tuberculose Latente/metabolismo , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/etiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nivolumabe/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Fatores de Tempo
3.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1168: 131-145, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713169

RESUMO

Adoptive T cell transfer (ACT) is a new era for cancer treatment, involving infusion of autologous lymphocytes. Chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) on the surface of T cells are emerging as a novel therapeutic that is giving other direction to T-cell specificity and precision medicine. T cells are engineered modification to recognize specific target antigen and are co-stimulated with intracellular signal to increase the T cell response. CAR-T cells have impressive involvement in outcome on hematological malignancies; however severe toxicities as cytokine release syndrome or neurotoxicity are a challenge to face. Solid tumors have heterogeneous antigens and tumor microenvironment that hinder CAR-T cell efficacy and increase the risk of on-target/off-tumor. Novel strategies to increase CAR-Ts specificity, safety and efficacy are ongoing in clinical trials to improve clinical outcomes in hematological and solid malignances.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Medicina de Precisão , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos , Linfócitos T , Antígenos de Neoplasias , Humanos , Imunoterapia Adotiva , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Medicina de Precisão/tendências , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T/imunologia
4.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 68(11): 1901-1907, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690955

RESUMO

L-arginine depletion by regulatory cells and cancer cells expressing arginase-1 (Arg-1) is a vital contributor to the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment in patients with cancer. We have recently described the existence of pro-inflammatory effector T cells that recognize Arg-1. Hence, Arg-1-specific self-reactive T cells are a naturally occurring part of the memory T-cell repertoire of the human immune system. Here, we further characterize a highly immunogenic epitope from Arg-1. We describe frequent T-cell-based immune responses against this epitope in patients with cancer, as well as in healthy donors. Furthermore, we show that Arg-1-specific T cells expand in response to the TH2 cytokine interleukin (IL)-4 without any specific stimulation. Arg-1-specific memory TH1 cells that respond to increased IL-4 concentration may, therefore, drive the immune response back into the TH1 pathway. Arg-1-specific T cells thus appear to have an important function in immune regulation. Because Arg-1 plays an important role in the immunosuppressive microenvironment in most cancers, an immune modulatory vaccination approach can readily be employed to tilt the balance away from immune suppression in these settings.


Assuntos
Arginase/imunologia , Vacinas Anticâncer/administração & dosagem , Epitopos de Linfócito T/imunologia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Animais , Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Humanos , Vacinação
5.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 68(12): 2005-2014, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701161

RESUMO

Checkpoint inhibitors (CPI) have significantly changed the therapeutic landscape of oncology. We adopted a non-invasive metabolomic approach to understand immunotherapy response and failure in 28 urological cancer patients. In total, 134 metabolites were quantified in patient sera before the first, second, and third CPI doses. Modeling the association between metabolites and CPI response and patient characteristics revealed that one predictive metabolite class  (n = 9/10) were very long-chain fatty acid-containing lipids (VLCFA-containing lipids). The best predictive performance was achieved through a multivariate model, including age and a centroid of VLCFA-containing lipids prior to first immunotherapy (sensitivity: 0.850, specificity: 0.825, ROC: 0.935). We hypothesize that the association of VLCFA-containing lipids with CPI response is based on enhanced peroxisome signaling in T cells, which results in a switch to fatty acid catabolism. Beyond use as a novel predictive non-invasive biomarker, we envision that nutritional supplementation with VLCFA-containing lipids might serve as an immuno sensitizer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/terapia , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Imunoterapia/métodos , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Neoplasias Urológicas/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células Renais/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/mortalidade , Receptores Coestimuladores e Inibidores de Linfócitos T/antagonistas & inibidores , Feminino , Humanos , Imunização , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peroxissomos/metabolismo , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Transdução de Sinais , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Neoplasias Urológicas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Urológicas/mortalidade
6.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1182: 39-77, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31777014

RESUMO

The antitumor effect of Ganoderma (Lingzhi) is closely related to immunoregulation. Based on our research and other references, this article discussed the antitumor effect of Ganoderma mediated by immunological mechanism, including promoting the function of mononuclear-macrophages and natural killers; promoting M1-type macrophage polarization vs M2-type; promoting maturation and differentiation of dendritic cells, increasing its antigen presentation, activating lymphocytes and increasing cytotoxicity of cytotoxin T lymphocyte; promoting production of cytokines; and inhibiting tumor escape from immune surveillance. Also, clinical studies with immunological indexes were reviewed.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Imunomodulação , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Reishi/química , Apresentação do Antígeno , Diferenciação Celular , Citocinas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Humanos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia
7.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(16): 3448-3453, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602908

RESUMO

The aim of this paper was to study the influence of triptolide in the immune response pathways of acquired immune deficiency syndrome( AIDS). Target proteins of triptolide and related genes of AIDS were searched in PubChem and Gene databases on line. Molecular networks and canonical pathways comparison analyses were performed by bioinformatics software( IPA). There were 15 targets proteins of triptolide and 258 related genes of AIDS. Close biological relationships of molecules of triptolide and AIDS were established by networks analysis. There were 21 common immune response pathways of triptolide and AIDS,including neuroinflammation signaling pathway,Th1 and Th2 activation pathway and role of pattern recognition receptors in recognition of bacteria and viruses. Triptolide stimulated immune response pathways by the main molecules of IFNγ,JAK2,NOD1,PTGS2,RORC. IFNγ is the focus nodes of triptolide and AIDS,and regulates genes of AIDS directly or indirectly. Triptolide may against AIDS by regulating molecules IFNγ in immune response pathways.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Interferon gama/genética , Fenantrenos/farmacologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/imunologia , Biologia Computacional , Compostos de Epóxi/farmacologia , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos , Receptores de Reconhecimento de Padrão/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais , Linfócitos T/imunologia
8.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 68(10): 1661-1669, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We previously found that PD-L1 expression is increased on tumor cells following vaccination treatments that lead to increased tumor-specific T cells that secrete IFNγ. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is another IFNγ inducible gene that has potent immunosuppressive effects. There have been reports of IDO expression in prostate cancer; however, it is unknown whether IDO expression might similarly increase in prostate tumors following T-cell-based immunotherapy. METHODS: Blood samples from normal male blood donors (n = 12) and patients with different stages of prostate cancer (n = 89), including patients with metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer treated with a DNA vaccine and/or pembrolizumab, were evaluated for IDO activity by kynurenine and tryptophan levels. Metastatic tissue biopsies obtained pre- and post-treatments were evaluated for IDO expression. IDO suppression of vaccine-induced T-cell function was assessed by ELISPOT. RESULTS: Overall, IDO activity was increased in patients with more advanced prostate cancer. This activity, and IDO expression as detected immunohistochemically, increased following treatment with either a DNA vaccine encoding the prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) tumor antigen or PD-1 blockade with pembrolizumab. Increased IDO activity after treatment was associated with the absence of clinical effect, as assessed by lack of PSA decline following treatment. Increased antigen-specific T-cell response, as measured by IFNγ release, to the vaccine target antigen was detected following in vitro stimulation of peripheral blood cells with 1-methyltryptophan. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that IDO expression is a mechanism of immune evasion used by prostate cancer and that future clinical trials using T-cell-based immune strategies might best include IDO inhibition.


Assuntos
Vacinas Anticâncer/administração & dosagem , Imunoterapia , Indolamina-Pirrol 2,3,-Dioxigenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Seguimentos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Indolamina-Pirrol 2,3,-Dioxigenase/imunologia , Indolamina-Pirrol 2,3,-Dioxigenase/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/imunologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/metabolismo , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Prognóstico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/imunologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(42): e17506, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626107

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy has produced promising response rates in patients with B cell malignancies. However, previous meta-analyses have demonstrated that CAR T-cell efficacy is unsatisfactory in patients with lymphoma unlike in patient with other hematological malignancies, but these studies included insufficient numbers of studies and patients with lymphoma. Furthermore, clinicians are interested in the effects of infusion dose, CAR structure, interleukin-2 (IL-2), and conditioning therapy regimen. METHODS: All clinical trials administering autologous CAR T-cell therapy in lymphoma patients were searched in medical databases. A traditional meta-analysis was performed to assess the safety and efficacy of CAR T-cells in lymphoma treatment. Subgroup analysis was performed to determine the relationships between potential factors and efficacy. The best overall response rate (ORR), 6 month ORR (6m ORR), and severe cytokine release syndrome (sCRS) rate were calculated by Stata 14.0. RESULTS: A total of 411 patients across all the studies were included. Our analysis showed a best ORR of 0.71, a 6m ORR of 0.63, and an overall CRS (grade ≥ 3) rate of 0.18. The subgroup analysis showed that increased response rates and reduced CRS (grade ≥ 3) rates were associated with a low dose of CAR T-cells. No IL-2 administration and the use of a fludarabine-containing lymphodepletion regimen led to improved efficacy, while anti-CD19 CAR T cells led to a more successful outcome than anti-CD20 CAR T cells. In addition, 2nd- and 3rd-generation CAR T cells exhibited increased effectiveness in clinical studies, and no significant effect diversity was found between the 2nd- and 3rd-generation CAR T cells. sCRS was associated with a high dose of infused CAR T cells when IL-2 and fludarabine were excluded from the positive factors for sCRS. CONCLUSION: CAR T cells are promising in the treatment of relapsed or refractory lymphoma. Doses lower than 10/m, no IL-2 administration, fludarabine administration, and anti-CD19 CAR T cells were related to improved efficacy and safety.


Assuntos
Imunoterapia Adotiva/métodos , Linfoma/terapia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/administração & dosagem , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Interleucina-2/imunologia , Linfoma/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1172: 21-62, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628650

RESUMO

Molecules encoded by the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) bind self or foreign peptides and display these at the cell surface for recognition by receptors on T lymphocytes (designated T cell receptors-TCR) or on natural killer (NK) cells. These ligand/receptor interactions govern T cell and NK cell development as well as activation of T memory and effector cells. Such cells participate in immunological processes that regulate immunity to various pathogens, resistance and susceptibility to cancer, and autoimmunity. The past few decades have witnessed the accumulation of a huge knowledge base of the molecular structures of MHC molecules bound to numerous peptides, of TCRs with specificity for many different peptide/MHC (pMHC) complexes, of NK cell receptors (NKR), of MHC-like viral immunoevasins, and of pMHC/TCR and pMHC/NKR complexes. This chapter reviews the structural principles that govern peptide/MHC (pMHC), pMHC/TCR, and pMHC/NKR interactions, for both MHC class I (MHC-I) and MHC class II (MHC-II) molecules. In addition, we discuss the structures of several representative MHC-like molecules. These include host molecules that have distinct biological functions, as well as virus-encoded molecules that contribute to the evasion of the immune response.


Assuntos
Imunidade Adaptativa , Imunidade Inata , Complexo Principal de Histocompatibilidade , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T , Linfócitos T , Imunidade Adaptativa/imunologia , Animais , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Complexo Principal de Histocompatibilidade/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/química , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Receptores de Células Matadoras Naturais/química , Receptores de Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia
11.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1172: 63-78, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628651

RESUMO

The co-stimulation and co-inhibition signal pathways, immune checkpoints, are among the central mechanisms to regulate the T-cell immunity. Optimal signals involve intricate interactions of numerous ligands and receptors. Manipulation of these signals offers great clinical opportunities and has revolutionized the cancer treatment therapies. The 2018 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to James P. Allison and Tasuku Honjo in recognition of their discovery of cancer immunotherapy by inhibition of immune checkpoint molecules. Despite the landmark discovery in cancer immunotherapy, the efforts to harness immunity against cancer are also restricted by the limited knowledge on the co-stimulation and co-inhibition signaling networks. Understanding the structures of these molecules, in particular, tackling the interaction paradigms from the structural perspective, help to provide more accurate insights into the signaling mechanisms, which may further facilitate the development of novel biologics and improve the efficacy of the existing biologics against these targets. Here we review our current understanding on the structures of these co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory molecules. Specifically, we focus on the structural basis of several checkpoint molecules among the CD28-B7 family and discuss the therapeutic drugs against these targets for the treatment of human cancers, autoimmune disorders, and transplantation.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD28 , Linfócitos T , Doenças Autoimunes , Antígenos CD28/química , Antígenos CD28/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias/terapia , Transplante de Órgãos , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia
12.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 68(11): 1881-1889, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595324

RESUMO

Adoptive cell transfer (ACT) using T cell receptor (TCR) gene-modified T cells is an exciting and rapidly evolving field. Numerous preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated various levels of feasibility, safety, and efficacy using TCR-engineered T cells to treat cancer and viral infections. Although evidence suggests their use can be effective, to what extent and how to improve these therapeutics are still matters of investigation. As TCR affinity has been generally accepted as the central role in defining T cell specificity and sensitivity, selection for and generation of high affinity TCRs has remained a fundamental approach to design more potent T cells. However, traditional methods for affinity-enhancement by random mutagenesis can induce undesirable cross-reactivity causing on- and off-target adverse events, generate exhausted effectors by overstimulation, and ignore other kinetic and cellular parameters that have been shown to impact antigen specificity. In this Focussed Research Review, we comment on the preclinical and clinical potential of TCR gene-modified T cells, summarize our contributions challenging the role TCR affinity plays in antigen recognition, and explore how structure-guided design can be used to manipulate antigen specificity and TCR cross-reactivity to improve the safety and efficacy of TCR gene-modified T cells used in ACT.


Assuntos
Citotoxicidade Imunológica/imunologia , Genes Codificadores dos Receptores de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias/terapia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/transplante , Animais , Especificidade de Anticorpos , Reações Cruzadas , Genes Codificadores dos Receptores de Linfócitos T/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Especificidade do Receptor de Antígeno de Linfócitos T , Linfócitos T/metabolismo
13.
Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi ; 35(10): 726-732, 2019 Oct 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658543

RESUMO

Objective: To preliminarily investigate the influence of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) on the immune function of younger children with severe burn injuries. Methods: A total of 30 younger children with severe burn injuries, conforming to the study criteria, were admitted to our hospital from July 2016 to July 2018. They were enrolled in the prospective, randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial and divided into group rhGH [n=15, 10 boys and 5 girls, aged (22±10) months] and control group [n=15, 8 boys and 7 girls, aged (21±7) months] according to the random number table. The patients in control group received anti-shock, anti-infection, and wound caring therapies, etc. On the basis of above-mentioned treatment, the patients in group rhGH were subcutaneously injected with rhGH once every night before bedding, with a dosage of 0.2 IU·kg(-1)·d(-1), from the 3rd day post injury for 7 consecutive days. Before and on the 3rd and 7th day of rhGH treatments, the fasting peripheral venous blood was collected from patients in both groups. Blood glucose level was detected by glucometer. Percentages of CD4(+) T lymphocytes, CD8(+) T lymphocytes, CD3(+) T lymphocytes, CD19(+) B lymphocytes, and ratio of CD4(+) T lymphocytes to CD8(+) T lymphocytes were determined by flow cytometer. Mass concentration of serum immune globulin (Ig) A, IgG, and complement C3 were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data were processed with Fisher's exact probability test, independent sample t test, analysis of variance for repeated measurement and Bonferroni correction, and Mann-Whitney U test. Results: (1) The blood glucose levels of children in the two groups were similar before and on the 3rd and 7th day of rhGH treatment (t=0.474, 1.652, 1.997, P>0.05). The glucose levels of children in group rhGH on the 3rd and 7th day of rhGH treatment [(6.9±1.0) and (7.7±1.1) mmol/L] were significantly higher than (5.9±0.9) mmol/L before rhGH treatment (P<0.05). The glucose level of children in control group on the 7th day of rhGH treatment was significantly higher than that before rhGH treatment (P<0.05). (2) The percentages of CD4(+) T lymphocytes of children in group rhGH before rhGH treatment and on the 7th day of rhGH treatment were (35.1±2.0)% and (38.5±2.2)%, which were close to (36.2±2.0)% and (33.6±2.2)% in control group, respectively (t=0.371, 1.553, P>0.05). The percentages of CD4(+) T lymphocytes of children in group rhGH on the 7th day of rhGH treatment[(44.7±2.2)%] was significantly higher than (36.5±2.2)% in control group (t=2.624, P<0.05). The percentage of CD4(+) T lymphocytes of children in group rhGH on the 7th day of rhGH treatment was significantly higher than that before rhGH treatment (P<0.05). The percentages of CD4(+) T lymphocytes of children in control group on the 3rd and 7th day of rhGH treatment were both close to the percentage before rhGH treatment (P>0.05). (3) The percentage of CD8(+) T lymphocytes of children in group rhGH on the 3rd day of rhGH treatment was significantly lower than that in control group (t=2.107, P<0.05). (4) The ratio of CD4(+) T lymphocytes to CD8(+) T lymphocytes of children in group rhGH on the 7th day of rhGH treatment (2.36±0.20) was significantly higher than 1.72±0.20 in control group (t=2.285, P<0.05). The ratio of CD4(+) T lymphocytes to CD8(+) T lymphocytes of children in group rhGH on the 7th day of rhGH treatment was significantly higher than 2.04±0.19 before rhGH treatment (P<0.05). (5) The percentages of CD3(+) T lymphocytes and CD19(+) B lymphocytes of children in the two groups were similar before and on the 3rd and 7th day of rhGH treatment (t=1.913, 0.552, 1.327, 1.465, 1.587, 0.407, P>0.05). The percentages of CD3(+) T lymphocytes of children in group rhGH on the 3rd and 7th day of rhGH treatment were significantly higher than the percentage before rhGH treatment (P<0.05). (6) The mass concentration of serum IgA, complement C3, and IgG of children in the two groups was similar before and on the 3rd and 7th day of rhGH treatment (t=-1.596, -0.100, 1.263, -0.220, 1.378, 1.631, Z=0.228, 0.519, 1.182, P>0.05). The mass concentration of serum IgA and complement C3 of children in group rhGH on the 3rd and 7th day of rhGH treatment was significantly higher than that before rhGH treatment(P<0.05). Conclusions: rhGH has little effect on humoral immunity of younger children with severe burn injuries with limited influence on CD19(+) B lymphocyte, mass concentration of serum IgA, IgG, and complement C3. It may improve the cellular immunity function mainly through promoting the release of CD4(+) T lymphocyte, reducing the release of CD8(+) T lymphocyte. It can be used in clinical treatment of younger children with severe burn injuries.


Assuntos
Queimaduras/terapia , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/administração & dosagem , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Queimaduras/imunologia , Queimaduras/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Lactente , Injeções Subcutâneas , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Proteínas Recombinantes , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Mol Biol (Mosk) ; 53(5): 849-859, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661483

RESUMO

T cells play a key role in adaptive immunity reactions, recognizing antigens using variable TCRs. Functional TCR subunit genes are formed by somatic rearrangement, and some of the resulting TCRs recognize autoantigens, the body's own molecules. The autoreactive T cells that carry such TCRs pose a threat of inducing immune reactions against their own organism. In the course of the immune system's development, some autoreactive T lymphocytes are eliminated by apoptosis, some differentiate into immunosuppressive regulatory T cells, which support immunological tolerance to autoantigens, and the rest fall into a non-functional state of anergy. Suppression of effector T cells by regulatory T cells is mediated by immunosuppressive cytokines and costimulatory molecules, depletion of stimulating IL-2, removal of autoreactive peptides together with MHC molecules, and in other ways. Impairment of self-tolerance leads to autoimmune diseases. However, the loss of immunological tolerance can be employed in tumor treatment, allowing immunotherapy and the use of the potential of autoreactive effector T cells. The fact that the efficacious immunotherapy of tumors is often accompanied by adverse autoimmune reactions currently seems to be the inevitable price paid by using this approach.


Assuntos
Autoantígenos/imunologia , Epitopos/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Tolerância a Antígenos Próprios/imunologia
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(43): e17608, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651870

RESUMO

This study aims to investigate the changes of cytokines and the effect of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) signaling pathway on T cell function in patients with immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP).Totally, 40 untreated ITP patients were recruited and 30 healthy people were recruited as the healthy control. Then whole blood of ITP patients and healthy control was collected, respectively. The sPD-L1/anti-PD-1 was used to activate or block the programmed death (PD-1)/PD-L1 signaling pathway. The expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were detected by flow cytometry. PBMCs were treated with cluster of differentiation (CD3), cluster of differentiation 28 (CD28), and phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) for 48 hours. Serum levels of sPD-1, sPD-L1, and cytokines were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Compared with the healthy control group, the percentages of PD-1+CD3+CD4+ T cells and PD-L1+HLA-DR+CD11c+ DC cells were increased in ITP patients. The levels of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin-17 (IL-17), and sPD-1 in the serum of ITP patients were increased, while IL-4 and transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß) were decreased. Additionally, the level of sPD-1 was negatively correlated with the platelet count. Consistently, after treatment with CD3, CD28, and PHA, IFN-γ and IL-17 levels in culture supernatant of PBMCs from ITP patients were significantly higher than those from healthy controls whereas IL-4 and TGF-ß levels were significantly lower. Furthermore, IFN-γ and IL-17 levels secreted by PBMCs from ITP patients decreased after sPD-L1 administration, however, IL-4 and TGF-ß levels were increased. The level of IFN-γ in ITP group remained higher after anti-PD-1 blockage, but the levels of IL-4, TGF-ß, and IL-17 were not significantly influenced.sPD-1 may cause the dysfunction of PD-1/PD-L1 signaling pathway, and its level is related to the severity of ITP patients. Activation of PD-1/PD-L1 with sPD-L1 may restore the imbalance of Th1/Th2 and Treg/Th17 cell subtypes in ITP patients but anti-PD-1 may exacerbate disease by enhancing IFN-γ production.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Equilíbrio Th1-Th2/fisiologia , Células Th17/imunologia , Adulto , Antígenos CD28/imunologia , Complexo CD3/imunologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Citocinas/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fito-Hemaglutininas/imunologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/fisiologia , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/sangue , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Equilíbrio Th1-Th2/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo
16.
Anticancer Res ; 39(10): 5531-5539, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570447

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Possible correlations between the expression of immune checkpoint molecules and prognosis in childhood acute leukemia were investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression of programmed-death 1 (PD1), cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4), and B- and T-lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) was determined by flow cytometry on peripheral αß+ and γδ+ T-cells from patients with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) (n=9) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML) (n=12), and from healthy volunteers (n=7). The expression of programmed-death ligand 1 (PD-L1), B7-1, B7-2, human leukocyte antigen-ABC (HLA-ABC), and herpesvirus-entry mediator (HVEM) ligands was determined on leukemia blasts. RESULTS: PD1 expression on αß+ and γδ+ T-cells was significantly higher in patients with ALL than in those with AML (p=0.0019 and 0.0239, respectively). CTLA-4 expression was moderately higher on αß+ and γδ+ T-cells in ALL (p=0.077 and 0.077, respectively), whereas HLA-ABC expression was significantly higher in AML blast cells (p=0.0182). The expression of CTLA-4 on γδ+ T-cells and the B7-2 ligand on blasts was higher in patients with high-risk ALL (p=0.02 and 0.02, respectively). In AML, PD1 expression on αß+ T-cells was higher in the intermediate-risk group (p=0.05), whereas HVEM expression was significantly higher in the low-risk group (p=0.02). Expression of CTLA-4 on γδ+ T-cells and PD-L1 on blasts were both associated with poor relapse-free survival outcomes in ALL (p=0.049). CONCLUSION: The higher expression of immune checkpoint molecules, in particular, CTLA-4 and PD-L1 are associated with a poorer prognosis in ALL, suggesting that selective use of the immune checkpoint blockade might improve the clinical outcomes in patients with ALL.


Assuntos
Leucemia/metabolismo , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Antígeno CTLA-4/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Ligantes , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Adulto Jovem
17.
Nature ; 574(7776): 45-56, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578484

RESUMO

New therapies that promote antitumour immunity have been recently developed. Most of these immunomodulatory approaches have focused on enhancing T-cell responses, either by targeting inhibitory pathways with immune checkpoint inhibitors, or by targeting activating pathways, as with chimeric antigen receptor T cells or bispecific antibodies. Although these therapies have led to unprecedented successes, only a minority of patients with cancer benefit from these treatments, highlighting the need to identify new cells and molecules that could be exploited in the next generation of immunotherapy. Given the crucial role of innate immune responses in immunity, harnessing these responses opens up new possibilities for long-lasting, multilayered tumour control.


Assuntos
Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Imunoterapia/tendências , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Animais , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/imunologia
18.
Nature ; 574(7779): 565-570, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645726

RESUMO

Co-inhibitory immune receptors can contribute to T cell dysfunction in patients with cancer1,2. Blocking antibodies against cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) partially reverse this effect and are becoming standard of care in an increasing number of malignancies3. However, many of the other axes by which tumours become inhospitable to T cells are not fully understood. Here we report that V-domain immunoglobulin suppressor of T cell activation (VISTA) engages and suppresses T cells selectively at acidic pH such as that found in tumour microenvironments. Multiple histidine residues along the rim of the VISTA extracellular domain mediate binding to the adhesion and co-inhibitory receptor P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1). Antibodies engineered to selectively bind and block this interaction in acidic environments were sufficient to reverse VISTA-mediated immune suppression in vivo. These findings identify a mechanism by which VISTA may engender resistance to anti-tumour immune responses, as well as an unexpectedly determinative role for pH in immune co-receptor engagement.


Assuntos
Antígenos B7/química , Antígenos B7/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Animais , Anticorpos Bloqueadores/imunologia , Anticorpos Bloqueadores/farmacologia , Antígenos B7/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígenos B7/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/citologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Cristalografia por Raios X , Epitopos de Linfócito B/química , Epitopos de Linfócito B/imunologia , Feminino , Histidina/metabolismo , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Ligantes , Masculino , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Camundongos , Modelos Moleculares , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/imunologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Domínios Proteicos , Linfócitos T/citologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
19.
Nat Med ; 25(9): 1402-1407, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501610

RESUMO

Natalizumab (NZM), a humanized monoclonal IgG4 antibody to α4 integrins, is used to treat patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS)1,2, but in about 6% of the cases persistent neutralizing anti-drug antibodies (ADAs) are induced leading to therapy discontinuation3,4. To understand the basis of the ADA response and the mechanism of ADA-mediated neutralization, we performed an in-depth analysis of the B and T cell responses in two patients. By characterizing a large panel of NZM-specific monoclonal antibodies, we found that, in both patients, the response was polyclonal and targeted different epitopes of the NZM idiotype. The neutralizing activity was acquired through somatic mutations and correlated with a slow dissociation rate, a finding that was supported by structural data. Interestingly, in both patients, the analysis of the CD4+ T cell response, combined with mass spectrometry-based peptidomics, revealed a single immunodominant T cell epitope spanning the FR2-CDR2 region of the NZM light chain. Moreover, a CDR2-modified version of NZM was not recognized by T cells, while retaining binding to α4 integrins. Collectively, our integrated analysis identifies the basis of T-B collaboration that leads to ADA-mediated therapeutic resistance and delineates an approach to design novel deimmunized antibodies for autoimmune disease and cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/administração & dosagem , Epitopos de Linfócito T/imunologia , Esclerose Múltipla/tratamento farmacológico , Natalizumab/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/química , Formação de Anticorpos/efeitos dos fármacos , Formação de Anticorpos/imunologia , Linfócitos B/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/química , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Integrina alfa4/antagonistas & inibidores , Integrina alfa4/imunologia , Esclerose Múltipla/imunologia , Esclerose Múltipla/patologia , Conformação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/química , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/imunologia
20.
Nat Med ; 25(9): 1341-1355, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501612

RESUMO

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy for B cell malignancies has surpassed expectations, driving an ever-expanding number of clinical trials and the first US Food and Drug Administration approvals of cell therapies for the treatment of cancer. This experience has illuminated some generalizable requirements for CAR T cell efficacy as well as the interplay between disease biology and clinical outcomes. Major CAR intrinsic variables affecting T cell behavior have been defined, and mechanisms of tumor resistance are increasingly understood. Here, we review the clinical experience with CAR T cells amassed to date, including but not limited to B cell malignancies, emphasizing factors associated with efficacy, resistance and major barriers to success. We also discuss how these insights are driving next-generation clinical trials, including those in solid tumors.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Neoplasias/uso terapêutico , Imunoterapia Adotiva/tendências , Neoplasias/terapia , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Humanos , Neoplasias/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration
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