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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(39): e17311, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574860

RESUMO

Immune infiltration of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is closely associated with the patients' prognosis. However, previous studies have not interpreted the difference of infiltrating immune cells in NPC.We comprehensively analyzed the tumor-infiltrating immune cells present in NPC for the first time, which was based on a scientific deconvolution algorithm (CIBERSORT) and the gene expression data of GSE64634. The fractions of 22 immune cells were assessed to reveal the associations between normal samples and NPC samples.Profiles of immune infiltration vary significantly between normal samples and NPC samples, and the variation could characterize the individual differences. NPC samples contained a higher proportion for M1 macrophages, whereas memory B cells and CD4 memory resting T cells were relatively lower.Our data suggest that the differences in the infiltrating immune cells in NPC and these differences would probably facilitate patient consultation and individualized treatment.


Assuntos
Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas , Adulto , Algoritmos , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/patologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/patologia , China , Correlação de Dados , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Memória Imunológica , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/classificação , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/patologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/imunologia , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/patologia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/imunologia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/patologia , Prognóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
2.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 145(12): 3105-3114, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562550

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Tumor inflammatory response was evaluated as a prognostic feature in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and compared with the clinical prognosticators of breast cancer and selected biomarkers of cancer cell proliferation. METHODS: TNBC patients (n = 179) with complete clinical data and up to 18-year follow-up were obtained from Auria biobank, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and several subtypes of inflammatory cells detected with immunohistochemistry were evaluated in different tumor compartments in full tissue sections and tissue microarrays. RESULTS: Deficiency of stromal TILs and low number of CD8+ T cells independently predicted mortality in TNBC (HR 2.4, p 0.02 and HR 2.1, p 0.02, respectively). Each 10% decrease in stromal TILs resulted in 20% increased risk of mortality. An average of 13.2-year survival difference was observed between the majority (> 75%) of patients with low (< 14% of TILs) vs high (≥ 14% of TILs) frequency of CD8+ T cells. The prognostic value of TILs and CD8+ T cells varied when evaluated in different tumor compartments. TILs and CD8+ T cells were significantly associated with Securin and Separase, essential regulators of metaphase-anaphase transition of the cell cycle. DISCUSSION: TILs and CD8+ T cells provide additional prognostic value to the established clinical prognostic markers in TNBC. However, possible clinical applications would still benefit from systematic guidelines for evaluating tumor inflammatory response. Increasing understanding on the interactions between the regulation of cancer cell proliferation and inflammatory response may in future advance treatment of TNBC.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/patologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante/métodos , Prognóstico
3.
Anticancer Res ; 39(9): 4995-5001, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519606

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Adoptive transfer of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) combined with non-myeloablative chemotherapy (NMA) has been shown to prolong survival in patients with metastatic disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tissue harvesting was performed form a variety of sites. TILs were isolated, expanded and infused with bolus high-dose IL-2. RESULTS: Between 2008 and 2018, 242 lesions were resected for TILs harvesting from a range of sites form 196 patients without mortality and with minimal morbidity. Of those harvested, 75 were unable to complete therapy because of clinical deterioration during the wait period. Of 121 evaluable treated patients, there was no effect of metastatic site biopsied on the mean fold TIL expansion. Those receiving prior ipilimumab had a higher TIL fold expansion but a lower TIL fold expansion than those exposed to anti-PD1 therapy. CONCLUSION: Harvesting may be safely performed with successful TIL expansion from most sites. Prior check point inhibitory immunotherapy may potentially influence TIL fold expansion.


Assuntos
Imunoterapia Adotiva , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Melanoma/imunologia , Melanoma/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia Adotiva/métodos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/metabolismo , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/patologia , Masculino , Melanoma/metabolismo , Melanoma/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 17(1): 87, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387604

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adoptive T cell-transfer (ATC) therapy is a highly promising cancer-treatment approach. However, in vivo-administered T cells tend to disperse, with only a small proportion reaching the tumour. To remedy this, magnetic targeting of T cells has been recently explored. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) functionalised with antibodies were attached to effector T cells and magnetically recruited to tumour sites under MRI guidance. In this study, we investigated whether 3-aminopropyl-triethoxysilane (APS)-coated MNPs directly attached to CD8+ T cell membranes could also magnetically target and accumulate tumour-specific CD8+ T cells in solid tumours using an external magnetic field (EMF). As it has been shown that T cells associated with APS-coated MNPs are retained in lymph nodes (LNs), and tumour-draining LNs are the most common sites of solid-tumour metastases, we further evaluated whether magnetic targeting of APS-MNP-loaded CD8+ T cells could cause them to accumulate in tumour-draining LNs. RESULTS: First, we show that antigen-specific CD8+ T cells preserve their antitumor activity in vitro when associated with APS-MNPs. Next, we demonstrate that the application of a magnetic field enhanced the retention of APS-MNP-loaded OT-I CD8+ T cells under flow conditions in vitro. Using a syngeneic mouse model, we found similar numbers of APS-MNP-loaded OT-I CD8+ T cells and OT-I CD8+ T cells infiltrating the tumour 14 days after cell transfer. However, when a magnet was placed near the tumour during the transfer of tumour-specific APS-MNP-loaded CD8+ T cells to improve tumour infiltration, a reduced percentage of tumour-specific T cells was found infiltrating the tumour 14 days after cell transfer, which was reflected in a smaller reduction in tumour size compared to tumour-specific CD8+ T cells transferred with or without MNPs in the absence of a magnetic field. Nonetheless, magnet placement near the tumour site during cell transfer induced infiltration of activated tumour-specific CD8+ T cells in tumour-draining LNs, which remained 14 days after cell transfer. CONCLUSIONS: The use of an EMF to improve targeting of tumour-specific T cells modified with APS-MNPs reduced the percentage of these cells infiltrating the tumour, but promoted the retention and the persistence of these cells in the tumour-draining LNs.


Assuntos
Transferência Adotiva , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/transplante , Linfonodos/patologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/química , Neoplasias Experimentais/terapia , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular , Proliferação de Células , Sobrevivência Celular , Feminino , Linfonodos/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/patologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Transplante de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Experimentais/imunologia , Neoplasias Experimentais/patologia , Propilaminas/química , Silanos/química
5.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 145(8): 2149-2156, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273513

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: First-line rituximab therapy together with chemotherapy is the standard care for patients with advanced follicular B-cell lymphoma, as rituximab together with chemotherapy prolongs progression-free and overall survival (Herold et al. 2007; Marcus et al. 2005). However, as not all patient subgroups benefit from combined immuno-chemotherapy, we asked whether the microenvironment may predict benefit from rituximab-based therapy. DESIGN: To address this question, we performed a retrospective immunohistochemical analysis on pathological specimens of 18 patients recruited into a randomized clinical trial, where patients with advanced follicular lymphoma were randomized into either chemotherapy or immuno-chemotherapy with rituximab (Herold et al. 2007). RESULTS: We show here that rituximab exerts beneficial effects, especially in the subgroup of follicular lymphoma patients with low intrafollicular CD3, CD5, CD8, and ZAP70 and high CD56 and CD68 expression. CONCLUSION: Rituximab may overcome immune-dormancy in follicular lymphoma in cases with lower intrafollicular T-cell numbers and higher CD56 and CD68 cell counts. As this was a retrospective analysis on a small subgroup of patients, these data need to be corroborated in larger clinical trials.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/patologia , Linfoma Folicular/diagnóstico , Linfoma Folicular/tratamento farmacológico , Linfoma Folicular/imunologia , Rituximab/administração & dosagem , Linfócitos T/patologia , Clorambucila/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Contagem de Linfócitos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfoma Folicular/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mitoxantrona/administração & dosagem , Prednisona/administração & dosagem , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Resultado do Tratamento , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
6.
Molecules ; 24(11)2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31212694

RESUMO

Recent evidence suggests that PPARγ agonists may promote anti-tumor immunity. We show that immunogenic PDV cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) tumors are rejected when injected intradermally at a low cell number (1 × 106) into immune competent syngeneic hosts, but not immune deficient mice. At higher cell numbers (5 × 106 PDV cells), progressively growing tumors were established in 14 of 15 vehicle treated mice while treatment of mice with the PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone resulted in increased tumor rejection (5 of 14 tumors), a significant decrease in PDV tumor size, and a significant decrease in tumor cell Ki67 labeling. Rosiglitazone treatment had no effect on tumor rejection, tumor volume or PDV tumor cell proliferation in immune deficient NOD.CB17-PrkdcSCID/J mice. Rosiglitazone treatment also promoted an increase in tumor infiltrating CD3+ T-cells at both early and late time points. In contrast, rosiglitazone treatment had no significant effect on myeloid cells expressing either CD11b or Gr-1 but suppressed a late accumulation of myeloid cells expressing both CD11b and Gr-1, suggesting a potential role for CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells in the late anti-tumor immune response. Overall, our data provides evidence that the PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone promotes immune-mediated anti-neoplastic activity against tumors derived from this immunogenic CSCC cell line.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/imunologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Imunomodulação/efeitos dos fármacos , PPAR gama/agonistas , Rosiglitazona/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Progressão da Doença , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/metabolismo , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Células Mieloides/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Mieloides/imunologia , Células Mieloides/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Transplante Isogênico , Carga Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Nature ; 571(7764): 270-274, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207604

RESUMO

Tumour-specific CD8 T cell dysfunction is a differentiation state that is distinct from the functional effector or memory T cell states1-6. Here we identify the nuclear factor TOX as a crucial regulator of the differentiation of tumour-specific T (TST) cells. We show that TOX is highly expressed in dysfunctional TST cells from tumours and in exhausted T cells during chronic viral infection. Expression of TOX is driven by chronic T cell receptor stimulation and NFAT activation. Ectopic expression of TOX in effector T cells in vitro induced a transcriptional program associated with T cell exhaustion. Conversely, deletion of Tox in TST cells in tumours abrogated the exhaustion program: Tox-deleted TST cells did not upregulate genes for inhibitory receptors (such as Pdcd1, Entpd1, Havcr2, Cd244 and Tigit), the chromatin of which remained largely inaccessible, and retained high expression of transcription factors such as TCF-1. Despite their normal, 'non-exhausted' immunophenotype, Tox-deleted TST cells remained dysfunctional, which suggests that the regulation of expression of inhibitory receptors is uncoupled from the loss of effector function. Notably, although Tox-deleted CD8 T cells differentiated normally to effector and memory states in response to acute infection, Tox-deleted TST cells failed to persist in tumours. We hypothesize that the TOX-induced exhaustion program serves to prevent the overstimulation of T cells and activation-induced cell death in settings of chronic antigen stimulation such as cancer.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Proteínas de Grupo de Alta Mobilidade/metabolismo , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Neoplasias/imunologia , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/citologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Grupo de Alta Mobilidade/deficiência , Proteínas de Grupo de Alta Mobilidade/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Humanos , Memória Imunológica , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/citologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/metabolismo , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/patologia , Camundongos , Neoplasias/patologia , Fenótipo , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Transcrição Genética
8.
BMC Med ; 17(1): 106, 2019 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164128

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intratumoral immune infiltrates have manifested a robust prognostic signature in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We hypothesized that a novel tissue-related immune signature (TRIS) could improve the prediction of postoperative survival for patients diagnosed with early/intermediate HCC. METHODS: Twenty-eight immune features were immunohistochemically examined on 352 HCC specimens. The LASSO Cox regression model was used to construct a five-feature-based TRIS. The univariate and multivariate Cox analyses were performed. Based on independent predictors, the immune-clinical prognostic index (ICPI) was established. Performance assessment was measured with C-index and compared with seven traditional staging systems. The independent validation cohort (n = 393) was included to validate the model. RESULTS: By using the LASSO method, the TRIS were constructed on the basis of five immune features, CD3intratumoral (T), CD27T, CD68peritumoral (P), CD103T, and PD1T. Multivariate Cox analysis showed that the TRIS was an independent prognostic predictor. In the training cohort, γ-glutamyl transferase, tumor diameter, tumor differentiation, and TRIS were incorporated into the ICPI. The ICPI presented satisfactory discrimination ability, with C-index values of 0.691 and 0.686 in the training and validation cohorts, respectively. Compared with seven conventional staging systems (C-index, training cohort, 0.548-0.597; validation cohort, 0.519-0.610), the ICPI exhibited better performance for early/intermediate-stage HCCs. Further, the patients were categorized into three subgroups with X-tile software, and the stratified ICPI presented a superior corrected Akaike information criterion and homogeneity in both cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: Our ICPI was a useful and reliable prognostic tool which may offer good individualized prediction capability for HCC patients with early/intermediate stage.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico , Imunofenotipagem , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/mortalidade , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Imunofenotipagem/métodos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Linfócitos/patologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Análise de Sobrevida , Análise Serial de Tecidos , Transcriptoma
9.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 15(3): 631-637, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31169232

RESUMO

Background: According to Darwin's theory of evolution, complex creatures evolve from more simplistic ancestors. Dollo's law of irreversibility states that evolution is irreversible. However, cancer cells tend to follow anti-Dollo's law. Unfavorable conditions such as hypoxia, acidic pH and low nutrients cause the cancer cells to switch their lifestyle atavistically in order to survive. They start behaving like a unicellular organism. There is a switch from normal metabolism to Warburg effect and finally cannibalism. Cannibalism is a cell eating cell phenomenon. It is defined as a large cell enclosing a smaller one within its cytoplasm and is known by odd names such as "bird's eye cells" or "signet ring cells." Smaller tumor cells are found in the cytoplasm of larger tumor cells with crescent-shaped nucleus. Cannibalistic cells (CCs) are a feature of aggressive tumors. These cell types are vulnerable to metastasis. Aim: The aim of this study is to identify CCs in various histological grades of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and to relate them with the pattern of invasion, lymphocytic response (LR), and mitotic figures (Mfs). The purpose of the article is to establish it as a marker of aggressiveness and metastasis and as an evidence of de-evolution and retroversion of multicellularity. Materials and Methods: Sixty-five histologically confirmed cases of OSCC were studied. Pattern of invasion, LR, number of CCs, and Mfs were recorded on 5 µ hematoxylin and eosin-stained tissue sections. ANOVA and t-test were applied; P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: CCs were more in sections with patchy LR, increased Mfs, and grade IV pattern of invasion. Conclusion: With increase in dedifferentiation, tumor cells start behaving like unicellular organisms with cell eating cell characteristics.


Assuntos
Citofagocitose , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise de Variância , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Progressão da Doença , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/metabolismo , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Bucais/etiologia , Neoplasias Bucais/metabolismo , Gradação de Tumores , Invasividade Neoplásica , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Infiltração de Neutrófilos/imunologia
10.
Gastroenterology ; 157(4): 1067-1080.e9, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31229495

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Bile duct tumors are rare and have poor prognoses. Natural killer (NK) cells are frequent in human liver and infiltrate these tumors but do not control their progression. Responses of NK cells are regulated by NK immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs), which interact with HLA class I ligands. We aimed to characterize the features of the KIR gene loci and their ligands in patients with bile duct cancer (BDC). METHODS: We performed combined multidimensional characterization of genes that encode KIRs and their ligands in blood samples from patients with BDC from Sweden, followed for up to 8 years after diagnosis (n = 148), in 2 geographically matched cohorts of healthy individuals from Northern Europe (n = 204 and n = 900), and in healthy individuals from 6 geographically unrelated populations (n = 2917). We used real-time polymerase chain reaction, RNA sequencing, immunohistochemistry, and flow cytometry to evaluate NK-cell presence, as well as KIR and KIR-ligand expression in bile duct tumors and control tissues. RESULTS: Patients with bile duct tumors had multiple alterations at the KIR gene loci. KIR loci are grouped into genotypes that encode more inhibitory (group A) and more activating (group B) receptors, which can be subdivided into centromeric and telomeric fragments. Patients with BDC had a lower prevalence of KIR2DL3, which was linked to disequilibrium in centromeric A/B and B/B genotypes, compared with control individuals. The associations between KIRs and KIR ligands differed between patients with BDC and control individuals; patients had an altered balance between activating and inhibitory KIRs. KIR-positive NK cells infiltrated biliary tumors that expressed matched KIR ligands. CONCLUSIONS: In a multidimensional analysis of DNA from blood samples of patients with BDC in Europe, we found patients to have multiple alterations at the KIR and HLA gene loci compared with control individuals. These alterations might affect NK-cell tumor surveillance. NK cells from bile duct tumors expressed KIRs and were found in tumors that expressed cognate ligands. This should be considered in development of immune-based therapies for BDC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/genética , Antígenos HLA/genética , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Receptores KIR/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ásia , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/sangue , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/imunologia , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Antígenos HLA/sangue , Antígenos HLA/imunologia , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Ligantes , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , América do Norte , Fenótipo , Prognóstico , Receptores KIR/sangue , Receptores KIR/imunologia , Receptores KIR2DL3/genética , Receptores KIR2DL3/imunologia , Fatores de Risco , América do Sul , Fatores de Tempo
11.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 145(7): 1761-1772, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31115672

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study investigated the characteristics of tumor-associated immune cells (TAICs) in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) and their correlation with clinicopathological variables. METHODS: The immune cell infiltrates of 71 specimens of stages I-IV LSCC were examined. The density of TAICs expressing CD3, CD4, CD8, CD68, and CD163 was assessed using immunohistochemical staining and image analysis in peritumoral and intratumoral regions. RESULTS: Higher densities of CD3+ and CD8+ cell and lower densities of CD68+ and CD163+ cell infiltrations were found in early tumor stages than in late tumor stages. A higher percentage of patients with strong CD3+ and CD8+ immune cell infiltration and weak CD68+ cell infiltration in both tumor regions presented with T1 stage tumors compared with T4 stage tumors. Further, strong CD68+ cells infiltration in both regions was observed in a greater number of patients who had a relapse, while a weak CD3+ cells infiltration in both regions was found in a greater number of patients with nodal lymphatic metastasis. The univariate analysis showed that a high density of peritumoral CD3+ and CD8+ immune cells in both regions was significantly associated with a favorable overall survival (OS) (P = 0.004; P = 0.006; P = 0.042). In contrast, a high density of intratumoral CD68+ cells and peritumoral CD163+ cells was significantly associated with poor OS durations (P = 0.026; P = 0.030). The multivariate analysis demonstrated that a high density of peritumoral CD163+ cells correlated with poor OS after adjusting for tumor stage, recurrence, and nodal lymphatic metastasis (P = 0.034). This study found different patterns of TAIC infiltration in LSCC. The density and location of TAICs infiltration correlated with the clinicopathological characteristics of LSCC. CONCLUSION: A combined analysis of the density of TAICs and their location may help predict patient survival and response to checkpoint inhibitors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Laríngeas/imunologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antígenos CD/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Neoplasias Laríngeas/patologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia
12.
EBioMedicine ; 42: 431-442, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30935888

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prior studies showed that tumor glycolysis and tumor immune evasion are interdependent. However, a systematic investigation of the association between tumor glycolysis and tumor immunity in various cancers remains lacking. METHODS: Using the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) datasets, we explored the association between glycolytic activity and immune signatures in 14 cancer types. We also explored the associations between glycolytic activity and tumor immunity associated genetic features, including PD-L1 expression, tumor mutation burden (TMB), and tumor aneuploidy. Moreover, we performed in vitro experiments to verify some findings from bioinformatics analysis. Furthermore, we explored the association between tumor glycolytic activity and immunotherapy response. FINDINGS: Glycolytic activity was likely correlated with active immune signatures in various cancers and highly glycolytic tumors presented an immune-stimulatory tumor microenvironment. Compared to TMB and aneuploidy, glycolytic activity was a stronger and more consistent predictor for immune signatures in diverse cancers. Both computational and experimental analyses showed that glycolysis could increase PD-L1 expression in tumor. Glycolytic activity had a strong correlation with apoptosis which was a strong positive predictor for immune signatures, suggesting that apoptosis could be an important medium connecting glycolytic activity with immune activity in cancer. Finally, highly glycolytic tumors exhibited a better immunotherapy response and a favorable survival in the immunotherapy setting. INTERPRETATION: Tumor glycolysis may increase tumor immunity in diverse cancers. Glycolytic activity enhances PD-L1 expression on tumor cells and thus promotes anti-PD-1/PD-L1 immunotherapy response. Thus, the tumor glycolytic activity could be a predictive biomarker for immunotherapy response in diverse cancers. FUND: This work was supported by the China Pharmaceutical University (grant numbers 3150120001, 2632018YX01 to XW).


Assuntos
Imunidade , Neoplasias/etiologia , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Biomarcadores , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Metabolismo Energético , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Glicólise , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/metabolismo , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/patologia , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Neoplasias/patologia
13.
Virchows Arch ; 475(1): 13-23, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31016433

RESUMO

T lymphocytes are the most numerous immune cells in tumor-associated infiltrates and include several subpopulations of either anticancer or pro-tumorigenic functions. However, the associations between levels of different T cell subsets and breast cancer molecular subtypes as well as other prognostic factors have not been fully established yet. We performed immunohistochemistry for CD8 (cytotoxic T cells (CTL)), FOXP3 (regulatory T cells (Tregs)), and GATA3 (Th2 cells) in 106 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded invasive breast cancer tissue samples and analyzed both the numbers and percentages of investigated cells in tumor-associated infiltrates. We observed that triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and HER2+ non-luminal breast tumors were associated with more numerous CTLs and Tregs and a higher Treg/Th2 cell ratio as compared with luminal A subtype. A higher Treg percentage was related to a decreased hormone receptor expression, an increase in the Ki67 level, a greater tumor size of luminal tumors, and the presence of lymph node metastases. Moreover, differences in the composition of T cell infiltrates were associated with HER2 status and histologic grade and type, and a distinct immune pattern was observed in tumors of different phenotypes regarding pT stage and nodal status. The results of our work show the diversity of T cell infiltrates in primary invasive breast cancers of different phenotypes and suggest that progression of luminal or non-luminal tumors is related to distinct tumor-associated T cell composition.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Neoplasias da Mama/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/análise , Fator de Transcrição GATA3/análise , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Imunofenotipagem/métodos , Antígeno Ki-67/análise , Metástase Linfática , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Invasividade Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Fenótipo , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/patologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Células Th2/imunologia , Carga Tumoral , Microambiente Tumoral
14.
Dis Colon Rectum ; 62(4): 498-508, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30844974

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is increasing literature emerging on the significance of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in colorectal cancer. However, there have been inconsistent findings, secondary to small patient numbers and varied methods for identifying these lymphocytes. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic and predictive power of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in colon, rectal (in neoadjuvant setting), and metastatic colorectal cancer. DATA SOURCES: A comprehensive search of PubMed and Embase was undertaken from January 2006 to December 2016. STUDY SELECTION: The inclusion criteria included a description of the tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte subset(s) assessed with reporting of associated short- and long-term outcomes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The main outcome measures, were disease-free and overall survival. RESULTS: A total of 25 studies were included, 15 for primary colorectal cancer (4719 patients), 7 for locally advanced rectal cancer (727 patients), and 3 studies for metastatic colorectal cancer (418 patients). High CD3, CD8, FoxP3, and CD45RO densities were associated with improved overall survival for primary colorectal cancer, with pooled estimated HRs of 0.88, 0.81, 0.70, and 0.63 (all p < 0.001) respectively. Furthermore, in locally advanced rectal cancer, the levels of CD8 cells were a significant predictor of good tumor regression grade after chemoradiotherapy. LIMITATIONS: The retrospective nature of included studies and the significant interstudy heterogeneity were limitations. CONCLUSIONS: There is increasing evidence that tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes play an important role in predicting prognosis in colorectal cancer and tumor regression after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced rectal cancer. Clinical researchers are now in a unique position to build on this work to identify robust predictive markers to stratify patients not only to currently available therapies but also to immunotherapy, which has demonstrated success in improving patient outcomes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/patologia , Quimiorradioterapia Adjuvante/métodos , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Humanos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico
15.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 81(1): 219-227, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30880064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lymphocyte-activating gene 3 (LAG-3) and T-cell immunoreceptor with immunoglobulin and immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motif (TIGIT) domains are emerging checkpoint proteins. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated LAG-3 and TIGIT protein expression patterns, correlated these patterns with programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) protein expression, and determined their effects on clinicopathologic characteristics and biologic responses in melanoma. METHODS: Diagnostic tissue from 124 patients with melanoma were evaluated for LAG-3, TIGIT, and PD-1 expression by immunohistochemistry. Clinicopathologic features and survival were analyzed according to the expression of LAG-3, TIGIT, and PD-1. RESULTS: LAG-3 and TIGIT expression on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes were significantly correlated with that of PD-1 and was also significantly associated with negative prognostic factors: deeper Breslow thickness, lymph node involvement, and advanced stage of disease. However, PD-1 expression was not associated with clinicopathologic variables of prognostic significance. High expression of either LAG-3 or TIGIT was associated with worse survival. Subgroup analysis on the basis of Breslow thickness showed that both LAG-3 and TIGIT have prognostic significance regardless of tumor thickness. High expression of PD-1 was not predictive of survival. LIMITATIONS: Retrospective study in a single institution and possibility of type 1 error. CONCLUSION: Expression of LAG-3 and TIGIT represents an independent unfavorable prognostic factor in cutaneous melanoma.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD/genética , Morte Celular/genética , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/patologia , Melanoma/genética , Receptores Imunológicos/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Células Cultivadas , Estudos de Coortes , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Melanoma/mortalidade , Melanoma/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/genética , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos
16.
Nature ; 567(7749): 530-534, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30814732

RESUMO

T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CAR T cells) targeting human CD19 (hCD19) have shown clinical efficacy against B cell malignancies1,2. CAR T cells have been less effective against solid tumours3-5, in part because they enter a hyporesponsive ('exhausted' or 'dysfunctional') state6-9 triggered by chronic antigen stimulation and characterized by upregulation of inhibitory receptors and loss of effector function. To investigate the function of CAR T cells in solid tumours, we transferred hCD19-reactive CAR T cells into hCD19+ tumour-bearing mice. CD8+CAR+ tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes and CD8+ endogenous tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes expressing the inhibitory receptors PD-1 and TIM3 exhibited similar profiles of gene expression and chromatin accessibility, associated with secondary activation of nuclear receptor transcription factors NR4A1 (also known as NUR77), NR4A2 (NURR1) and NR4A3 (NOR1) by the initiating transcription factor NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T cells)10-12. CD8+ T cells from humans with cancer or chronic viral infections13-15 expressed high levels of NR4A transcription factors and displayed enrichment of NR4A-binding motifs in accessible chromatin regions. CAR T cells lacking all three NR4A transcription factors (Nr4a triple knockout) promoted tumour regression and prolonged the survival of tumour-bearing mice. Nr4a triple knockout CAR tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes displayed phenotypes and gene expression profiles characteristic of CD8+ effector T cells, and chromatin regions uniquely accessible in Nr4a triple knockout CAR tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes compared to wild type were enriched for binding motifs for NF-κB and AP-1, transcription factors involved in activation of T cells. We identify NR4A transcription factors as having an important role in the cell-intrinsic program of T cell hyporesponsiveness and point to NR4A inhibition as a promising strategy for cancer immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/imunologia , Membro 1 do Grupo A da Subfamília 4 de Receptores Nucleares/metabolismo , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/imunologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Transferência Adotiva , Animais , Antígenos CD19/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cromatina/genética , Cromatina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/deficiência , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/metabolismo , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/patologia , Masculino , Melanoma Experimental/genética , Melanoma Experimental/imunologia , Melanoma Experimental/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Membro 1 do Grupo A da Subfamília 4 de Receptores Nucleares/deficiência , Membro 2 do Grupo A da Subfamília 4 de Receptores Nucleares/deficiência , Membro 2 do Grupo A da Subfamília 4 de Receptores Nucleares/metabolismo , Receptores de Esteroides/deficiência , Receptores de Esteroides/metabolismo , Receptores dos Hormônios Tireóideos/deficiência , Receptores dos Hormônios Tireóideos/metabolismo , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fator de Transcrição AP-1/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/deficiência
17.
Hum Pathol ; 87: 95-102, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30851334

RESUMO

The makeup of the tumor immune microenvironment may be associated with tumor somatic genomic alterations and plays a key role in tumor progression and response to immunotherapy. We examined the association of tumor-infiltrating T-cell density with TP53 status in surgically treated primary prostate cancer using 3 independent tissue microarray sets, including one set of tumors from grade-matched patients of European American or African American ancestry (n = 391), a retrospective case-cohort of intermediate- and high-risk patients enriched for adverse outcomes (n = 267), and a set of tumors with primary Gleason pattern 5 (n = 77). The presence of TP53 missense mutation, indicated by p53 nuclear accumulation using a genetically validated assay, was significantly associated with increased CD3+ T-cell density (median, 341 versus 231 CD3+ T cells/mm2; P = .004) in the matched European American and African American ancestry patient sets. The same association was present in patients of both ancestries when analyzed separately, despite the fact that p53 nuclear accumulation was less frequent among African American compared with European American tumors (7% versus 3%, P = .2). The validation cohorts of intermediate/high-risk and primary Gleason pattern 5 patients corroborated the association of increased CD3+ T-cell density with presence of p53 nuclear accumulation. In a pooled analysis of all sets, adjusting for clinicopathological variables, CD3+ and CD8+, but not FOXP3+, T-cell densities remained significantly higher in tumors with p53 nuclear accumulation compared with those without. TP53 mutation is associated with higher tumor-infiltrating T-cell density, which may be relevant in future clinical trials of immunotherapy in prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Linfócitos T/patologia , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Gradação de Tumores , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1280, 2019 03 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30894532

RESUMO

Understanding the intrinsic mediators that render CD8+ T cells dysfunctional in the tumor microenvironment is a requirement to develop more effective cancer immunotherapies. Here, we report that C/EBP homologous protein (Chop), a downstream sensor of severe endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, is a major negative regulator of the effector function of tumor-reactive CD8+ T cells. Chop expression is increased in tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T cells, which correlates with poor clinical outcome in ovarian cancer patients. Deletion of Chop in T cells improves spontaneous antitumor CD8+ T cell immunity and boosts the efficacy of T cell-based immunotherapy. Mechanistically, Chop in CD8+ T cells is elevated primarily through the ER stress-associated kinase Perk and a subsequent induction of Atf4; and directly represses the expression of T-bet, a master regulator of effector T cell function. These findings demonstrate the primary role of Chop in tumor-induced CD8+ T cell dysfunction and the therapeutic potential of blocking Chop or ER stress to unleash T cell-mediated antitumor immunity.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/genética , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Proteínas com Domínio T/genética , Fator de Transcrição CHOP/genética , Fator 4 Ativador da Transcrição/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator 4 Ativador da Transcrição/genética , Fator 4 Ativador da Transcrição/imunologia , Transferência Adotiva , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/imunologia , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/mortalidade , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/terapia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Celular , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Neoplasias Ovarianas/imunologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/terapia , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Análise de Sobrevida , Proteínas com Domínio T/imunologia , Fator de Transcrição CHOP/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator de Transcrição CHOP/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto , eIF-2 Quinase/antagonistas & inibidores , eIF-2 Quinase/genética , eIF-2 Quinase/imunologia
19.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1953: 241-252, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30912026

RESUMO

A significant obstacle to the study of human cancer biology and the testing of human specific immunotherapeutics is the paucity of translational models that recapitulate both the growth of human tumors and the functionality of human immune systems. Humanized mice engrafted with human hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and patient-derived xenografts (PDX) enable preclinical investigation of the interactions between the human immune system and human cancer. We use immunodeficient non-obese diabetic (NOD, scid, gamma) NSG™ or NSG™-SGM3 mice as hosts for establishment of human immunity following HSC injection and for engraftment of human tumors. Here we describe a refined protocol for the subcutaneous implant of solid PDX tumors into humanized mice. Protocols to recover infiltrating immune cells from growing tumors and to evaluate the immune cell subsets by flow cytometry are also described.


Assuntos
Transplante de Neoplasias/métodos , Neoplasias/imunologia , Transplante Heterólogo/métodos , Animais , Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Humanos , Imunidade , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/patologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Neoplasias/patologia
20.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 38(1): 123, 2019 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30857561

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Though immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) against PD-1 has shown success in the treatment of lung cancer, not all patients respond. We have previously shown that adoptive transfer of double negative T (DNT) cells expanded from healthy donors can target leukemia but their role in treating established lung cancer is not clear. Here we explore the role of human DNT cells in targeting late-stage established lung cancer either alone or in combination with Nivolumab (anti-PD-1 antibody) and describe underlying mechanisms. METHODS: DNT cells from resected lung cancer tissue of patients were analyzed by flow cytometry to determine their infiltration and PD-1 expression. Expansion capacity and anti-tumor function of lung cancer patient and healthy donor DNT cells were compared. Late-stage lung cancer xenograft models were developed to determine the anti-tumor effect of DNT cells alone or in combination with anti-PD-1 antibody, and the level of tumor-infiltrating DNT cells was quantified by histology and characterized by flow cytometry. RESULTS: Patient-derived tumor infiltrating lymphocytes contained a lower frequency of DNT cells with a higher expression of PD-1 relative to normal lung tissue. Ex vivo expanded patient- and healthy donor-derived DNT cells showed similar levels of cytotoxicity against lung cancer cells in vitro. Healthy donor-derived DNT cells significantly inhibited the growth of late-stage lung cancer xenografts, which was further augmented by anti-PD-1 through increased DNT cell tumor infiltration. CONCLUSION: This study supports the use of DNT cells for adoptive cellular therapy against lung cancer either alone or in combination with anti-PD-1.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/terapia , Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos , Imunoterapia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Animais , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/patologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/patologia , Camundongos , Nivolumabe/administração & dosagem , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Linfócitos T/transplante , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
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