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1.
Sarcoidosis Vasc Diffuse Lung Dis ; 37(2): 225-230, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33093787

RESUMO

Objective: Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a recently described systemic disorder. Pleural effusion is considered an uncommon manifestation of the disease. We describe a case series of patients with IgG4-RD and clinically significant pleural effusions. Methods: A retrospective analysis of patients with histologically proven IgG4-RD treated for pleural effusion in our clinic. Results: We identified 4 male patients with pleural effusion caused by IgG4-RD. The effusions were lymphocytic exudates, with especially high protein concentrations. All patients had hyperglobulinemia, elevated serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels and elevated levels subclasses IgG1 and IgG4. In two patients, levels of adenosine deaminase (ADA) were measured in the effusion and were elevated (309 and 108 IU/L). Tuberculosis was excluded in both cases by pleural biopsy. Involvement of other organs by IgG4-RD was the rule, especially thoracic lymphadenopathy which was prominent in all patients. In all cases, effusion responded to corticosteroids therapy. One patient developed radiological findings compatible with rounded atelectasis during remission. Conclusions: IgG4-RD may cause an ADA-positive, lymphocytic exudate with a high protein concentration, characteristics resembling tuberculous effusion. Thoracic lymphadenopathy, hyperglobulinemia, and an increased total IgG, IgG1, IgG4 may suggest the diagnosis. Not previously described, IgG4-RD pleural inflammation may result in rounded atelectasis. (Sarcoidosis Vasc Diffuse Lung Dis 2020; 37 (2): 225-230).


Assuntos
Adenosina Desaminase/metabolismo , Doença Relacionada a Imunoglobulina G4/enzimologia , Linfócitos/enzimologia , Derrame Pleural/enzimologia , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Biópsia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Doença Relacionada a Imunoglobulina G4/diagnóstico , Doença Relacionada a Imunoglobulina G4/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Relacionada a Imunoglobulina G4/imunologia , Contagem de Linfócitos , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos/imunologia , Masculino , Derrame Pleural/diagnóstico , Derrame Pleural/tratamento farmacológico , Derrame Pleural/imunologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031994

RESUMO

As the infected cases of COVID-19 reach more than 20 million with more than 778,000 deaths globally, an increase in psychiatric disorders including anxiety and depression has been reported. Scientists globally have been searching for novel therapies and vaccines to fight against COVID-19. Improving innate immunity has been suggested to block progression of COVID-19 at early stages, while omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) have been shown to have immunomodulation effects. Moreover, n-3 PUFAs have also been shown to improve mood disorders, thus, future research is warranted to test if n-3 PUFAs may have the potential to improve our immunity to counteract both physical and mental impact of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Depressão/prevenção & controle , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Ansiedade/imunologia , Ansiedade/metabolismo , Ansiedade/virologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Citocinas/biossíntese , Citocinas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/virologia , Depressão/imunologia , Depressão/metabolismo , Depressão/virologia , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/imunologia , Células Epiteliais/virologia , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/imunologia , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores Imunológicos/imunologia , Fatores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos/imunologia , Linfócitos/virologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/virologia
3.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(9): e419-e430, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888471

RESUMO

Notable advances have been achieved in the treatment of cancer since the advent of immunotherapy, and immune checkpoint inhibitors have shown clinical benefit across a wide variety of tumour types. Nevertheless, most patients still progress on these treatments, highlighting the importance of unravelling the underlying mechanisms of primary resistance to immunotherapy. A well described biomarker of non-responsiveness to immune checkpoint inhibitors is the absence or low presence of lymphocytes in the tumour microenvironment, so-called cold tumours. There are five mechanisms of action that have the potential to turn cold tumours into so-called hot and inflamed tumours, hence increasing the tumour's responsiveness to immunotherapy-increasing local inflammation, neutralising immunosuppression at the tumour site, modifying the tumour vasculature, targeting the tumour cells themselves, or increasing the frequency of tumour-specific T cells. In this Review, we discuss preclinical data that serves as the basis for ongoing immunotherapy clinical trials for the treatment of non-immunoreactive tumours, as well as reviewing clinical and translational data where available. We explain how improving our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of primary resistance to immunotherapy will help elucidate an increasingly granular view of the tumour microenvironment cellular composition, functional status, and cellular localisation, with the goal of further therapy refinement.


Assuntos
Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/imunologia , Imunoterapia/efeitos adversos , Inflamação/terapia , Neoplasias/terapia , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/imunologia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Quinase 1 do Ponto de Checagem/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinase 1 do Ponto de Checagem/imunologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Humanos , Imunidade Celular/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/patologia , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos/imunologia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4457, 2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901017

RESUMO

Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) and CD4+ T cells produce IL-22, which is critical for intestinal immunity. The microbiota is central to IL-22 production in the intestines; however, the factors that regulate IL-22 production by CD4+ T cells and ILCs are not clear. Here, we show that microbiota-derived short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) promote IL-22 production by CD4+ T cells and ILCs through G-protein receptor 41 (GPR41) and inhibiting histone deacetylase (HDAC). SCFAs upregulate IL-22 production by promoting aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α) expression, which are differentially regulated by mTOR and Stat3. HIF1α binds directly to the Il22 promoter, and SCFAs increase HIF1α binding to the Il22 promoter through histone modification. SCFA supplementation enhances IL-22 production, which protects intestines from inflammation. SCFAs promote human CD4+ T cell IL-22 production. These findings establish the roles of SCFAs in inducing IL-22 production in CD4+ T cells and ILCs to maintain intestinal homeostasis.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/imunologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Imunidade Inata , Interleucinas/biossíntese , Animais , Butiratos/imunologia , Butiratos/metabolismo , Butiratos/farmacologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/microbiologia , Citrobacter rodentium , Colite/imunologia , Colite/microbiologia , Colite/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/imunologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/microbiologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/prevenção & controle , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/farmacologia , Humanos , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Técnicas In Vitro , Interleucinas/deficiência , Interleucinas/genética , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos/imunologia , Linfócitos/microbiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Transgênicos , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo
5.
Mutat Res ; 856-857: 503220, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928367

RESUMO

We assessed the radioprotective and mitigative actions of sodium diclofenac, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug using cultured human peripheral blood as a model. Both pre- and post-irradiation treatments with the drug reduced gamma radiation-induced formation of dicentric chromosome, cytochalasin-blocked micronuclei and γ-H2AX foci in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. This work supports the concept that sodium diclofenac may be a useful radiation countermeasure agent.


Assuntos
Diclofenaco/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Histonas/genética , Protetores contra Radiação/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos da radiação , Aberrações Cromossômicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Aberrações Cromossômicas/efeitos da radiação , Análise Citogenética/métodos , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Raios gama/efeitos adversos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos da radiação , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos/efeitos da radiação
6.
Mutat Res ; 856-857: 503231, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928371

RESUMO

Heavy metals are widely used in many industries in Thailand and found in the environment. Occupational exposure to heavy metals is often chronic and caused by environmental contaminations, potentially leading to mutations and cancer. Although the genotoxic effects of occupational exposure to multiple heavy metals have been extensively studied, the findings regarding their genotoxicity are conflicting. In this study, we focused on investigating the genotoxic effects of certain heavy metals mixtures, including lead (Pb), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and tin (Sn), to which workers are exposed in the manufacturing industry. The cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus (CBMN) assay in peripheral blood lymphocytes was performed, and DNA damage was assessed by measuring tumour-associated protein levels and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) generated by oxidative stress that causes cytotoxicity. The occupational exposure group included 110 workers exposed to heavy metal mixtures and 105 matched control subjects. We found statistically significant differences in the blood Pb, Sn, and Cu levels between the exposed workers and the control subjects (p < 0.001). Analysis of micronuclei (MN) in peripheral blood lymphocytes revealed a significantly increased frequency of MN in exposed workers compared with that in control subjects (p<0.05). Non-smoking exposed workers were selected for 8-OHdG formation and mutant p53 tests, and significant differences in the mean plasma 8-OHdG concentration (p < 0.001) were found between the occupational exposure and the control group, but no differences were found in the levels of mutant p53. Thus, chronic exposure to different heavy metals causes genotoxic effects in humans. Furthermore, the CBMN assay and 8-OHdG formation can be used as surrogate biomarkers to identify and monitor groups with higher carcinogenic risk in the early stages of toxicity. In summary, our results indicate that mixtures of heavy metals (Pb, Sn, and Cu) in manufacturing industries pose an elevated health risk due to DNA damage.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Mutagênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Cobre/farmacologia , Cobre/toxicidade , Citocinese/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Chumbo/farmacologia , Chumbo/toxicidade , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos/patologia , Masculino , Indústria Manufatureira , Metais Pesados/farmacologia , Testes para Micronúcleos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutagênicos/farmacologia , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53
7.
Anticancer Res ; 40(7): 4147-4156, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620664

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: We investigated the efficacy of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), absolute lymphocyte count (ALC), and C-reactive protein (CRP) in predicting overall survival of metastatic breast cancer patients treated with eribulin. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Overall, 74 patients treated with eribulin were enrolled and their baseline levels of NLR, ALC, and CRP retrieved. Cutoff values of NLR, ALC, and CRP were set at 3.0, 1500/µl, and 0.3 mg/dl, respectively. Overall survival (OS) was compared according to marker levels. RESULTS: The OS of NLR-low, ALC-high, and CRP-low groups at baseline was significantly longer than that of NLR-high, ALC-low, and CRP-high groups (p=0.0027, p=0.0013, and p=0.0164, respectively). The combination of ALC and CRP was significantly associated with OS by multivariate analysis (p=0.048). CONCLUSION: Baseline levels of NLR, ALC, and CRP were significantly associated with OS in patients treated with eribulin. The combination of ALC and CRP improved the predictive efficacy compared to individual markers.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Furanos/uso terapêutico , Cetonas/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/imunologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
8.
Nat Rev Immunol ; 20(9): 515-516, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32728221

Assuntos
Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pulmão/imunologia , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Acetilcisteína/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/imunologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Armadilhas Extracelulares/efeitos dos fármacos , Armadilhas Extracelulares/imunologia , Armadilhas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Glicina/uso terapêutico , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos/imunologia , Linfócitos/virologia , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/imunologia , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Neutrófilos/virologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Proteínas Secretadas Inibidoras de Proteinases/uso terapêutico , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/antagonistas & inibidores , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/imunologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/imunologia
9.
Rev Med Virol ; 30(5): e2134, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32618072
10.
Rev Med Virol ; 30(5): e2123, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32648313

RESUMO

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become a major concern globally. As of 14 April 2020, more than 1.9 million COVID-19 cases have been reported in 185 countries. Some patients with COVID-19 develop severe clinical manifestations, while others show mild symptoms, suggesting that dysregulation of the host immune response contributes to disease progression and severity. In this review, we have summarized and discussed recent immunological studies focusing on the response of the host immune system and the immunopathology of SARS-CoV-2 infection as well as immunotherapeutic strategies for COVID-19. Immune evasion by SARS-CoV-2, functional exhaustion of lymphocytes, and cytokine storm have been discussed as part of immunopathology mechanisms in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Some potential immunotherapeutic strategies to control the progression of COVID-19, such as passive antibody therapy and use of interferon αß and IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) inhibitor, have also been discussed. This may help us to understand the immune status of patients with COVID-19, particularly those with severe clinical presentation, and form a basis for further immunotherapeutic investigations.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/prevenção & controle , Evasão da Resposta Imune/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Interferon Tipo I/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/virologia , Progressão da Doença , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Evasão da Resposta Imune/genética , Evasão da Resposta Imune/imunologia , Imunização Passiva/métodos , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos/imunologia , Linfócitos/virologia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Receptores de Interleucina-6/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Interleucina-6/genética , Receptores de Interleucina-6/imunologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Transdução de Sinais
11.
Cardiovasc Pathol ; 49: 107260, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683240

RESUMO

PURPOSE: to study the effect of immunosupressive therapy (IST) in the virus-negative and virus-positive patients with immune-mediated myocarditis. METHODS: in 60 patients (45 male, 46.7 ± 11.8 years, mean LV EDD, 6.7 ± 0.7 cm, EF 26.2 ± 9.1%) active/borderline myocarditis was verified by endomyocardial biopsy (n = 38), intraoperative biopsy (n = 10), examination of explanted heart (n = 3) and autopsy (n = 9). Indications for IST determined based on histological, immune activity. The follow-up was 19.0 [7.25; 40.25] months. RESULTS: The viral genome in the myocardium was detected in 32 patients (V+ group), incl. parvovirus B19 in 23. The anti-heart antibody level was equally high in the V+ and V- patients. Antiviral therapy was administered in 24 patients. IST (in 22 V+ and 24 V- patients) include steroids (n = 40), hydroxychloroquine (n = 20), azathioprine (n = 21). The significant decrease of LV EDD (6.7 ± 0.7 to 6.4 ± 0.8), PAP (48.9 ± 15.5 to 39.4 ± 11.5 mm Hg, р<0,01), increase of EF (26.5 ± 0.9 to 36.0 ± 10.8), and lower lethality (23.9% and 64.3%; RR 0.37, 95% CI 0.19-0.71), p<0.01, were found only in IST group. Significant improvement due to IST were achieved not only in V-, but also in V+ patients. CONCLUSIONS: IST in patients with immune-mediated lymphocytic myocarditis is effective and is associated with lower lethality both in virus-negative and virus-positive patients.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Miocardite/tratamento farmacológico , Miocárdio/imunologia , Viroses/tratamento farmacológico , Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Idoso , Biópsia , Feminino , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Linfócitos/imunologia , Linfócitos/patologia , Linfócitos/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miocardite/imunologia , Miocardite/patologia , Miocardite/virologia , Miocárdio/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Viroses/imunologia , Viroses/patologia , Viroses/virologia , Vírus/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Anticancer Res ; 40(8): 4763-4771, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727803

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Chemoimmunotherapy is a promising treatment for various malignant diseases. In this study, we examined whether first-line chemoimmunotherapy using adoptive immune-cell therapy was effective for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The therapeutic efficacy and safety of the standard first-line chemoimmunotherapy with adoptive αß T cell therapy and bevacizumab were assessed using thirty-two patients with mCRC in our hospital. Immunological status after this chemoimmunotherapy was also evaluated. RESULTS: The response and disease control rates were 68.8% and 87.5%, respectively. Further, median progression-free and overall survival were 14.2 and 35.3 months. Immunotherapy-associated toxicity was minimal. Significant decrease in the change of monocyte number (p=0.006) and increase in the change of rate of lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (p=0.039) were seen in the complete response group. CONCLUSION: First-line chemoimmunotherapy with adoptive αß T cell therapy may be useful for mCRC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/imunologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Bevacizumab/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Fluoruracila/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Monócitos/imunologia , Intervalo Livre de Progressão
13.
Drug Discov Ther ; 14(3): 143-144, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32581194

RESUMO

In the midst of a pandemic, finding effective treatments for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the urgent issue. In "chronic inflammatory diseases", the overexpression of delayed rectifier K+-channels (Kv1.3) in leukocytes is responsible for the overactivation of cellular immunity and the subsequent cytokine storm. In our previous basic studies, drugs including chloroquine and azithromycin strongly suppressed the channel activity and pro-inflammatory cytokine production from lymphocytes. These findings suggest a novel pharmacological mechanism by which chloroquine, with or without azithromycin, is effective for severe cases of COVID-19, in which the overactivation of cellular immunity and the subsequent cytokine storm are responsible for the pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Citocinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Canal de Potássio Kv1.3/antagonistas & inibidores , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Azitromicina/administração & dosagem , Cloroquina/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/tendências , Humanos , Canal de Potássio Kv1.3/metabolismo , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
14.
Drug Discov Ther ; 14(3): 117-121, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32595179

RESUMO

The advent of immune checkpoint inhibitors such as anti-PD-1 antibodies had a striking impact on the treatment for advanced malignant melanoma. However, less than half of the patients benefited from those antibodies, and biomarkers that could sensitively differentiate responders from non-responders are urgently needed. Herein, we explored such biomarkers by retrospectively analyzing clinical data from patients with advanced malignant melanoma treated with nivolumab and pembrolizumab. We found that anti-PD-1 antibody was especially effective for those with metastasis only to soft tissues. Although no significant difference was found in the baseline value of relative neutrophil count (RNC), relative lymphocyte count (RLC), neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and relative eosinophil count (REC) between responders and non-responders, responders after anti-PD-1 therapy revealed the increase of lymphocytes and eosinophils and the decrease of neutrophils within the first 6 weeks of the treatment. We also calculated the change of RNC and RLC 3 weeks and 6 weeks after the initiation of the therapy and designated as NΔ3-LΔ3 and NΔ6-LΔ6 respectively. NΔ3-LΔ3 was significantly decreased in responders, which suggest that the neutrophil decrease and lymphocyte increase after as early as 3 weeks of anti-PD-1 therapy might be a useful clinical indicator. In addition, the difference of NΔ6-LΔ6 between responders and non-responders was even more robust. These data suggest that change of RNC, RLC, and REC together with the combination of NΔ3-LΔ3 and NΔ6-LΔ6 might be a useful tool for early and sensitive biomarkers for anti-PD-1 therapy.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Nivolumabe/administração & dosagem , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Autoanticorpos/efeitos dos fármacos , Eosinófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Eosinófilos/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Masculino , Melanoma/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/métodos , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/sangue , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/sangue , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Nat Chem Biol ; 16(7): 731-739, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393898

RESUMO

Glucose is catabolized by two fundamental pathways, glycolysis to make ATP and the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway to make reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH). The first step of the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway is catalyzed by the enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD). Here we develop metabolite reporter and deuterium tracer assays to monitor cellular G6PD activity. Using these, we show that the most widely cited G6PD antagonist, dehydroepiandosterone, does not robustly inhibit G6PD in cells. We then identify a small molecule (G6PDi-1) that more effectively inhibits G6PD. Across a range of cultured cells, G6PDi-1 depletes NADPH most strongly in lymphocytes. In T cells but not macrophages, G6PDi-1 markedly decreases inflammatory cytokine production. In neutrophils, it suppresses respiratory burst. Thus, we provide a cell-active small molecule tool for oxidative pentose phosphate pathway inhibition, and use it to identify G6PD as a pharmacological target for modulating immune response.


Assuntos
Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Via de Pentose Fosfato/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Desidroepiandrosterona/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios Enzimáticos , Glucose/metabolismo , Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase/imunologia , Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Glicólise/imunologia , Células HCT116 , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos/citologia , Linfócitos/enzimologia , Linfócitos/imunologia , Ativação de Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/enzimologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , NADP/antagonistas & inibidores , NADP/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/citologia , Neutrófilos/enzimologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Via de Pentose Fosfato/imunologia
16.
Chemosphere ; 256: 127062, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434090

RESUMO

Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) is a man-made chemical widely used in industrial products. Due to its high persistence, PFOS has been detected in most animal species including the human population, wild animals, and aquatic organisms. Both cross-sectional studies and laboratory animal studies have shown hepatotoxicity, renal toxicity, and reproductive toxicity caused by PFOS exposure. Recently, a limited number of PFOS studies have raised concerns about its potential immune system effects. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the immunotoxicity of PFOS remains unknown. In this study, we used primary human lymphocytes as a model, together with integrative omics analyses, including the transcriptome and lipidome, and bioinformatics analysis, to resolve the immune toxicity effects of PFOS. Our results demonstrated that PFOS could alter the production of interleukins in human lymphocytes. Additionally, PFOS exposure could dysregulate clusters of genes and lipids that play important roles in immune functions, such as lymphocyte differentiation, inflammatory response, and immune response. The findings of this study offer novel insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the immunotoxicity of PFOS, and open the potential of using the identified PFOS-responsive genes and lipids as biomarkers for risk assessment.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Sistema Imunitário/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcriptoma
17.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 69(9): 1813-1822, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350592

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Selected patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) benefit from immunotherapy, especially immune checkpoint inhibitors such as PD-1 (programmed cell death protein 1) inhibitor. Peripheral blood biomarkers would be most convenient to predict treatment outcome and immune-related adverse events (irAEs) in candidate patients. This study explored associations between inflammation-related peripheral blood markers and onset of irAEs and outcome in patients with advanced NSCLC receiving PD-1 inhibitors. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted of 102 patients with advanced NSCLC receiving PD-1 inhibitors from January 2017 to May 2019. Cox regression models were employed to assess the prognostic effect of low/high neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and prognostic nutrition index (PNI) on overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Logistic regression models were used to analyze the correlation between peripheral blood markers and the onset of irAEs. RESULT: NLR < 5, LDH < 240 U/L, or PNI ≥ 45 was favorably associated with significantly better outcomes compared with higher, higher, or lower values, respectively. The multivariate analysis determined that these parameters were independently associated with both better PFS (p = 0.049, 0.046, 0.014, respectively) and longer OS (p = 0.007, 0.031, < 0.001, respectively). Patients with three favorable factors among NLR, LDH, and PNI had better PFS and OS than did those with two, one, or none. PNI and NLR were associated with the onset of irAEs. CONCLUSION: In patients with advanced NSCLC treated with PD-1 inhibitors, pretreatment NLR, LDH, and PNI may be useful predictive markers of clinical outcome and irAEs.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/sangue , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antineoplásicos/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Contagem de Linfócitos/métodos , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Prognóstico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
J Virol ; 94(12)2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32269118

RESUMO

Adenovirus (HAdV) infection is a common cause of illness among young children, immunocompromised patients, and transplant recipients. The majority of HAdV infections are self-limited, but recurring infection is frequently encountered in young children and may require hospitalization. In this study, we surveyed the presence of HAdV in tonsillectomy samples and investigated epigenetic conditions that contributed to HAdV reactivation. HAdV DNA was detected from 86.7% donors. The lymphocytes isolated from the samples failed to produce infectious HAdV after incubation, suggesting the viruses remained in a latent status. To determine whether epigenetic factors played a role in HAdV reactivation, isolated lymphocytes were treated with a small compound library. Viral DNA replication and infectious HAdV production were assayed by PCR and by a secondary infection assay. We identified several compounds, mainly pan- and selective histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, which showed activity to reactivate HAdV from latency. The viruses were isolated and were determined as species C HAdV. Using a model of HAdV lytic infection, we showed that the compounds promoted histone-3 acetylation and association with viral early gene promoters. In addition to demonstrate the palatine tonsils as a reservoir of latent HAdV, this study uncovers a critical role of histone acetylation in HAdV reactivation, linking HAdV latency to recurrent HAdV infection.IMPORTANCE Respiratory tract infection by adenoviruses is among the most common diseases in children, attributing to approximately 20% of hospitalizations of children with acute respiratory infection (ARI). Adenovirus transmits by direct contact, but recurrent infection is common. Ever since its isolation, adenovirus has been known to have the ability to establish persistent or latent infection. We found 87.7% tonsillectomy specimens contained detectable amounts of adenoviral DNA. Isolated lymphocytes did not produce infectious adenoviruses without stimulation. By screening an epigenetic informer compound library, we identified several histone deacetylase inhibitors that promoted adenovirus reactivation that was evidenced by increased viral DNA replication and production of infectious viruses. The human tonsils are covered with bacterial pathogens that may utilize pathogen-associated pattern molecules or metabolites to cause epigenetic activation and proinflammatory gene transcription, which may lead to viral reactivation from latency. The study shows that recurrent adenovirus infection could arise from reactivation of residing virus from previous infections.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenovirus Humanos/imunologia , Adenovírus Humanos/imunologia , Epigênese Genética , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/farmacologia , Infecções Respiratórias/imunologia , Proteínas Virais/imunologia , Ativação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Adenovirus Humanos/genética , Infecções por Adenovirus Humanos/virologia , Adenovírus Humanos/genética , Adenovírus Humanos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , DNA Viral/genética , DNA Viral/imunologia , Xenoenxertos , Histonas/genética , Histonas/imunologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos/imunologia , Linfócitos/virologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Tonsila Palatina/imunologia , Tonsila Palatina/cirurgia , Tonsila Palatina/virologia , Cultura Primária de Células , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Infecções Respiratórias/genética , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Tonsilectomia , Proteínas Virais/genética , Ativação Viral/genética , Ativação Viral/imunologia , Latência Viral/genética , Latência Viral/imunologia , Replicação Viral
19.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0228350, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32320391

RESUMO

Dosimetry is an important tool for triage and treatment planning following any radiation exposure accident, and biological dosimetry, which estimates exposure dose using a biological parameter, is a practical means of determining the specific dose an individual receives. The cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay (CBMN) is an established biodosimetric tool to measure chromosomal damage in mitogen-stimulated human lymphocytes. The CBMN method is especially valuable for biodosimetry in triage situations thanks to simplicity in scoring and adaptability to high-throughput automated sample processing systems. While this technique produces dose-response data which fit very well to a linear-quadratic model for exposures to low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation and for doses up for 5 Gy, limitations to the accuracy of this method arise at larger doses. Accuracy at higher doses is limited by the number of cells reaching mitosis. Whereas it would be expected that the yield of micronuclei increases with the dose, in many experiments it has been shown to actually decrease when normalized over the total number of cells. This variation from a monotonically increasing dose response poses a limitation for retrospective dose reconstruction. In this study we modified the standard CBMN assay to increase its accuracy following exposures to higher doses of photons or a mixed neutron-photon beam. The assay is modified either through inhibitions of the G2/M and spindle checkpoints with the addition of caffeine and/or ZM447439 (an Aurora kinase inhibitor), respectively to the blood cultures at select times during the assay. Our results showed that caffeine addition improved assay performance for photon up to 10 Gy. This was achieved by extending the assay time from the typical 70 h to just 74 h. Compared to micronuclei yields without inhibitors, addition of caffeine and ZM447439 resulted in improved accuracy in the detection of micronuclei yields up to 10 Gy from photons and 4 Gy of mixed neutrons-photons. When the dose-effect curves were fitted to take into account the turnover phenomenon observed at higher doses, best fitting was achieved when the combination of both inhibitors was used. These techniques permit reliable dose reconstruction after high doses of radiation with a method that can be adapted to high-throughput automated sample processing systems.


Assuntos
Citogenética , Doses de Radiação , Radiometria , Adulto , Benzamidas/farmacologia , Cafeína/farmacologia , Células Cultivadas , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Feminino , Humanos , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos/efeitos da radiação , Masculino , Testes para Micronúcleos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nêutrons , Prótons , Quinazolinas/farmacologia
20.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0225874, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240169

RESUMO

We previously have reported that neonatal Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination improves neurogenesis and behavior in early life through affecting the neuroimmune milieu in the brain, but it is uncertain whether activation phenotypes and functional changes in T lymphocytes shape brain development. Here, we studied the effects of BCG vaccination via the adoptive transfer of T lymphocytes from the BALB/c wild-type mice into naive mice. Our results show that mice adoptive BCG-induced lymphocytes (BCG->naive mice) showed anxiolytic and antidepressant-like performance when completing an elevated plus maze (EPM) test. Meanwhile, BCG->naive mice possess more cell proliferation and newborn neurons than PBS->naive and nude mice in the hippocampus. IFN-γ and IL-4 levels in the serum of BCG->naive mice also increased, while TNF-α and IL-1ß levels were reduced relative to those of PBS->naive and nude mice. We further found that BCG->naive mice showed different repartition of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell to naive (CD62L+CD44low), effector memory (CD62L-CD44hi), central memory (CD62L+CD44hi) and acute/activated effector (CD62L-CD44low) cells in the spleen. Importantly, the adoptive transfer of BCG-induced T lymphocytes infiltrated into the dura mater and brain parenchyma of the nude mice. Activation phenotypes and functional changes in T lymphocytes are very likely to affect the neuroimmune milieu in the brain, and alterations in ratios of splenic CD4+ and CD8+ memory T cells may affect the expression of correlative cytokines in the serum, accounting for our behavioral results. We conclude thus that the adoptive transfer of BCG-induced T lymphocytes contributes to hippocampal cell proliferation and tempers anxiety-like behavior in immune deficient mice. Our work shows that BCG vaccination improves hippocampal cell proliferation outcomes and behaviors, likely as a result of splenic effector/memory T lymphocytes regulating the neuroimmune niche in the brain.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Vacina BCG/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Ansiedade/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Hialuronatos/genética , Interferon gama/genética , Interleucina-4/genética , Selectina L/genética , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus
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