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1.
Anticancer Res ; 39(9): 5115-5122, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519623

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Although various prognostic indices for follicular lymphoma (FL) have been proposed, they are designed specifically for patients requiring immediate therapy. We aimed to develop a new simple prognostic tool applicable for all patients with FL at diagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed various clinical, pathological, and laboratory data, including soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL2R), from 140 patients with FL from two centers for their impact on prognosis. This study analyzed the impact of soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL2R) in order to develop a new simple prognostic tool applicable for all patients with FL at diagnosis. RESULTS: The initial management of these patients was watchful waiting (n=48) or immediate treatment (n=92). Event-free survival at 24 months predicted overall survival. When categorized into three groups according to the sIL2R levels at diagnosis, a very high sIL2R level identified about 20% of patients with a distinctively worse survival compared to the others. CONCLUSION: sIL2R is a very effective biomarker that can be easily applied in routine practice to predict survival for all patients with FL at diagnosis irrespective of initial management approach.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Linfoma Folicular/sangue , Linfoma Folicular/mortalidade , Receptores de Interleucina-2/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Humanos , Linfoma Folicular/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Hematol Oncol ; 37(5): 564-568, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475375

RESUMO

Patients with follicular lymphoma (FL) refractory to front-line immunochemotherapy (ICT) have a poor overall survival (OS). Gene mutation analysis may be more accurate than classical risk factors to pick out these patients before treatment. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of selected genetic mutations in a cohort of patients with high-risk FL. Twenty-five patients with FL refractory to front-line ICT and 10 non-refractory patients matched for age, sex, and FLIPI score were included. We sequenced 18 genes (custom targeted sequencing panel) previously reported to potentially have prognostic impact, including the seven genes necessary to determine m7FLIPI risk. The 35 patients had a median age of 62. The FLIPI and FLIPI2 were high in 27 (84%) and 14 (48%), respectively. Three-year progression-free survival (PFS) and OS probabilities were 25% (95% CI, 13%-41%) and 53% (34%-69%), respectively. There were 73 variants in the 18 genes among the 35 patients. The median number of mutations per patient was 1 (interquartile range, 0-3). The most commonly mutated genes were CREBBP (11 of 35, 31%) and EP300 (10 of 35, 29%). EP300 mutations were associated with refractoriness to treatment (10 of 25 among refractory and 0 of 10 among non-refractory). In conclusion, in this study, patients with high-risk follicular lymphoma were genetically heterogeneous.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Linfoma Folicular/tratamento farmacológico , Linfoma Folicular/genética , Idoso , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Linfoma Folicular/mortalidade , Linfoma Folicular/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Mutação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Lancet Haematol ; 6(8): e429-e437, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lenalidomide plus rituximab is approved to treat patients with relapsed or refractory follicular lymphoma. Obinutuzumab has been shown to enhance antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, phagocytosis, and direct B-cell killing better than rituximab. Our aim was to determine the activity and safety of lenalidomide plus obinutuzumab in previously treated patients with relapsed or refractory follicular lymphoma. METHODS: In this multicentre, single-arm, phase 2 study, patients were enrolled from 24 Lymphoma Academic Research Organisation centres in France. Eligible patients (age ≥18 years) had histologically confirmed CD20-positive relapsed or refractory follicular lymphoma of WHO grade 1, 2, or 3a; an ECOG performance status of 0-2; and received at least one previous rituximab-containing therapy. Patients received oral lenalidomide (20 mg) plus intravenously infused obinutuzumab as induction therapy (1000 mg; six 28-day cycles), 1-year maintenance with lenalidomide (10 mg; 12 28-day cycles; days 2-22) plus obinutuzumab (1000 mg; alternate cycles), and 1-year maintenance with obinutuzumab (1000 mg; six 56-day cycles; day 1). The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients who achieved an overall response at induction end as per investigator assessment using the 1999 international working group criteria. The secondary endpoints were event-free survival, progression-free survival, overall survival, and safety. Analyses were per-protocol; the efficacy population included all patients who received at least one dose of both obinutuzumab and lenalidomide, and the safety population included all patients who received one dose of either investigational drug. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01582776, and is ongoing but closed to accrual. FINDINGS: Between June 11, 2014, and Dec 18, 2015, 89 patients were recruited and 86 patients were evaluable for efficacy and 88 for safety. Median follow-up was 2·6 years (IQR 2·2-2·8). 68 (79%) of 86 evaluable patients (95% CI 69-87) achieved an overall response at induction end, meeting the prespecified primary endpoint. At 2 years, event-free survival was 62% (95% CI 51-72), progression-free survival 65% (95% CI 54-74), duration of response 70% (95% CI 57-79), and overall survival 87% (95% CI 78-93). Complete response was achieved by 33 (38%, 95% CI 28-50) of 86 patients at induction end, and the proportion of patients achieving a best overall response was 70 (81%, 95% CI 72-89) and 72 (84%, 74-91) of 86 patients during induction and treatment, respectively. The most common adverse events were asthenia (n=54, 61%), neutropenia (n=38, 43%), bronchitis (n=36, 41%), diarrhoea (n=35, 40%), and muscle spasms (n=34, 39%). Neutropenia was the most common toxicity of grade 3 or more; four (5%) patients had febrile neutropenia. 57 serious adverse events were reported in 30 (34%) of 88 patients. The most common serious adverse events were basal cell carcinoma (n=5, 6%), febrile neutropenia (n=4, 5%), and infusion-related reaction (n=3, 3%). One patient died due to treatment-related febrile neutropenia. INTERPRETATION: Our data shows that lenalidomide plus obinutuzumab is active in previously treated patients with relapsed or refractory follicular lymphoma, including those with early relapse, and has a manageable safety profile. Randomised trials of new immunomodulatory regimens, such as GALEN or using GALEN as a backbone, versus lenalidomide plus rituximab, are warranted. FUNDING: Lymphoma Academic Research Organisation, and Celgene and Roche.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Lenalidomida/uso terapêutico , Linfoma de Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Linfoma Folicular/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Antígenos CD20/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Esquema de Medicação , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Lenalidomida/efeitos adversos , Linfoma de Células B/mortalidade , Linfoma de Células B/patologia , Linfoma Folicular/mortalidade , Linfoma Folicular/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutropenia/etiologia , Recidiva , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Ann Hematol ; 98(9): 2131-2138, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286196

RESUMO

The optimal dose, schedule, and other aspects of bendamustine plus rituximab treatment remain unclear for patients with relapsed or refractory follicular lymphoma (FL). Herein, we analyzed the efficacy of bendamustine combined with rituximab (RB-120) treatment for Japanese patients with relapsed or refractory FL. This phase II clinical trial included patients with relapsed or refractory FL who received 375 mg/m2 rituximab on day 1 and 120 mg/m2 bendamustine on days 2 and 3 every 28 days for up to 6 cycles. The primary endpoint was the overall response rate (ORR), and the secondary endpoints included the complete response (CR) rate, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and safety. Thirty-seven patients were enrolled in the trial (median age 62 years, range 42-75 years). All patients were previously treated with rituximab-containing chemotherapy, and 83.8% were previously treated with the R-CHOP regimen. A median of 5 cycles (range 1-6) and 48.6% of patients completed 6 cycles. The ORR was 91.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 78.1-98.3%), with a CR rate of 86.5% (95% CI 71.2-95.5%). The 3-year PFS and OS were 70.9% (95% CI 52.3-83.3%) and 88.9% (95% CI 73.1-95.7%), respectively, with the median 39.5 months follow-up duration. The most-frequently observed grade 3/4 adverse events were hematologic: lymphopenia (95%) and neutropenia (70%). No treatment-related deaths were observed. RB-120 showed a good efficacy with equivalent toxicities, compared with the bendamustine 120 mg/m2 monotherapy. However, the problem of high drop-out incidences cannot be ignored.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Linfoma Folicular , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Cloridrato de Bendamustina/administração & dosagem , Cloridrato de Bendamustina/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Linfoma Folicular/tratamento farmacológico , Linfoma Folicular/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutropenia/induzido quimicamente , Neutropenia/mortalidade , Rituximab/administração & dosagem , Rituximab/efeitos adversos , Taxa de Sobrevida
7.
Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book ; 39: 467-476, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31099693

RESUMO

Follicular lymphoma (FL) is the second most common non-Hodgkin lymphoma and the most common indolent B-cell malignancy. The disease often presents in advanced stage and can often be observed before initiation of therapy. Although the incidence is only approximately 15,000 new cases per year, the prevalence is substantially higher owing to the favorable overall survival (OS) of most patients. The most impactful advance responsible for the improvement of OS in FL was the introduction of the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (mAb) rituximab over 20 years ago. Phase III trials demonstrate that rituximab improves the OS in FL when combined with chemotherapy. However, unlike aggressive B-cell lymphomas, advanced stage FL is generally incurable and often displays a pattern of progressively shorter remissions with subsequent lines of therapy. Hence, maintenance strategies have been developed to prolong remissions achieved with frontline therapy. The value of maintenance after frontline therapy has been most extensively studied with extended treatment of anti-CD20 mAb, but recent approaches include chemotherapy-free combinations and targeted therapies given for extended durations. Here, we review relevant data that provide rationale in support of maintenance therapy in FL as well as the risks and limitations of a "one-size-fits-all" approach. Importantly, we note the biologic and clinical heterogeneity across patients with FL that must be considered when making clinical decisions. Finally, we highlight ongoing research that explores response-adapted approaches based on the depth of response as defined by PET scans and assays for minimal residual disease (MRD) that aim to better personalize individual management strategies.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Linfoma Folicular/tratamento farmacológico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Esquema de Medicação , Humanos , Quimioterapia de Indução , Linfoma Folicular/diagnóstico , Linfoma Folicular/mortalidade , Quimioterapia de Manutenção , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Retratamento , Tempo para o Tratamento , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Blood ; 134(4): 353-362, 2019 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101627

RESUMO

The SAKK 35/10 phase 2 trial, developed by the Swiss Group for Clinical Cancer Research and the Nordic Lymphoma Group, compared the activity of rituximab vs rituximab plus lenalidomide in untreated follicular lymphoma patients in need of systemic therapy. Patients were randomized to rituximab (375 mg/m2 IV on day 1 of weeks 1-4 and repeated during weeks 12-15 in responding patients) or rituximab (same schedule) in combination with lenalidomide (15 mg orally daily for 18 weeks). Primary end point was complete response (CR)/unconfirmed CR (CRu) rate at 6 months. In total, 77 patients were allocated to rituximab monotherapy and 77 to the combination (47% poor-risk Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index score in each arm). A significantly higher CR/CRu rate at 6 months was documented in the combination arm by the investigators (36%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 26%-48% vs 25%; 95% CI, 16%-36%) and confirmed by an independent response review of computed tomography scans only (61%; 95% CI, 49%-72% vs 36%; 95% CI, 26%-48%). After a median follow-up of 4 years, significantly higher 30-month CR/CRu rates and longer progression-free survival (PFS) and time to next treatment (TTNT) were observed for the combination. Overall survival (OS) rates were similar in both arms (≥90%). Toxicity grade ≥3 was more common in the combination arm (56% vs 22% of patients), mainly represented by neutropenia (23% vs 7%). Addition of lenalidomide to rituximab significantly improved CR/CRu rates, PFS, and TTNT, with expected higher, but manageable toxicity. The excellent OS in both arms suggests that chemotherapy-free strategies should be further explored. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01307605.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Linfoma Folicular/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Biópsia , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Lenalidomida/administração & dosagem , Linfoma Folicular/diagnóstico , Linfoma Folicular/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/etiologia , Rituximab/administração & dosagem , Avaliação de Sintomas , Fatores de Tempo , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Blood Rev ; 35: 68-80, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30928169

RESUMO

Follicular lymphoma (FL) is the most common indolent lymphoma. Therapeutic advances in the past decade have improved its prognosis, but some questions remain open, particularly over adapting therapy to each individual patient's disease risk. Several trials and large studies dealing with biological and therapeutic aspects of FL have been published in the past few months and may have immediate or near-future practice-changing implications. These studies include risk-assessment by gene expression profiling, the therapeutic strategy in localized FL, use of obinutuzumab or lenalidomide in the front-line setting, stem cell transplant in early treatment failure and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibition and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cells in multiply relapsed disease. This review aims to contextualize these studies, summarize their design and results, assess their impact, highlight related questions that remain unanswered and, finally, provide a personal view as to how they change our approach to non-transformed FL.


Assuntos
Linfoma Folicular/diagnóstico , Linfoma Folicular/etiologia , Linfoma Folicular/terapia , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Terapia Combinada , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Linfoma Folicular/mortalidade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
J Clin Exp Hematop ; 59(1): 1-16, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30918139

RESUMO

The microenvironment influences the behavior of follicular lymphoma (FL) but the specific roles of the immunomodulatory BTLA and TNFRSF14 (HVEM) are unknown. Therefore, we examined their immunohistochemical expression in the intrafollicular, interfollicular and total histological compartments in 106 FL cases (57M/49F; median age 57-years), and in nine relapsed-FL with transformation to DLBCL (tFL). BTLA expression pattern was of follicular T-helper cells (TFH) in the intrafollicular and of T-cells in the interfollicular compartments. The mantle zones were BTLA+ in 35.6% of the cases with similar distribution of IgD. TNFRSF14 expression pattern was of neoplastic B lymphocytes (centroblasts) and "tingible body macrophages". At diagnosis, the averages of total BTLA and TNFRSF14-positive cells were 19.2%±12.4STD (range, 0.6%-58.2%) and 46.7 cells/HPF (1-286.5), respectively. No differences were seen between low-grade vs. high-grade FL but tFL was characterized by low BTLA and high TNFRSF14 expression. High BTLA correlated with good overall survival (OS) (total-BTLA, Hazard Risk=0.479, P=0.022) and with high PD-1 and FOXP3+Tregs. High TNFRSF14 correlated with poor OS and progression-free survival (PFS) (total-TNFRSF14, HR=3.9 and 3.2, respectively, P<0.0001), with unfavorable clinical variables and higher risk of transformation (OR=5.3). Multivariate analysis including BTLA, TNFRSF14 and FLIPI showed that TNFRSF14 and FLIPI maintained prognostic value for OS and TNFRSF14 for PFS. In the GSE16131 FL series, high TNFRSF14 gene expression correlated with worse prognosis and GSEA showed that NFkB pathway was associated with the "High-TNFRSF14/dead-phenotype".In conclusion, the BTLA-TNFRSF14 immune modulation pathway seems to play a role in the pathobiology and prognosis of FL.


Assuntos
Linfoma Folicular/diagnóstico , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/diagnóstico , Receptores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Membro 14 de Receptores do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Linfócitos B/química , Linfócitos B/patologia , Transformação Celular Neoplásica , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos , Linfoma Folicular/mortalidade , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Análise de Sobrevida , Linfócitos T/química
12.
Hematol Oncol ; 37(3): 261-269, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30916804

RESUMO

Survival rates of patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) have improved over the last decade. However, cardiotoxicities remain important adverse consequences of treatment with chemotherapy and radiation, although the burden of cardiovascular mortality (CVM) in such patients remains unknown. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients greater than or equal to 20 years of age diagnosed with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), follicular lymphoma (FL), and chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL) between 2000 and 2013 using data extracted from the United States Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Our primary endpoint was CVM. The association between NHL and CVM was evaluated using multivariable Cox regression analysis after adjusting for other patient characteristics. We calculated standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for CVM, comparing NHL patients with the general population. We identified 153 983 patients who met the inclusion criteria (69 329 with DLBCL, 48 650 with CLL/SLL, and 36 004 with FL). The median follow-up was 37 months (interquartile range, 10-78 months); the mean patient age was 66.24 (±14.69) years; 84 924 (55.2%) were men; 134 720 (87.5%) were White, and 131 912 (85.7%) did not receive radiation therapy. Overall, 9017 patients (5.8%) died from cardiovascular disease, and we found that NHL patients had a higher risk of CVM than the general population, after adjusting for age (SMR 15.2, 95% confidence interval: 14.89-15.52). The rates of CVM were 5.1%, 8%, and 4.4% in patients with DLBCL, CLL/SLL, and FL, respectively. Furthermore, across all NHL subtypes, older age, higher stage at the time of diagnosis (particularly stage 4), male sex, and living in the south were associated with higher risks of CVM. Our data suggest that risk assessment and careful cardiac monitoring are recommended for NHL patients, particularly those with the CLL/SLL subtypes.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Linfoma não Hodgkin/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/complicações , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/epidemiologia , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/mortalidade , Linfoma Folicular/complicações , Linfoma Folicular/epidemiologia , Linfoma Folicular/mortalidade , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/complicações , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/epidemiologia , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/mortalidade , Linfoma não Hodgkin/epidemiologia , Linfoma não Hodgkin/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Programa de SEER , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Hematol Oncol ; 37(2): 143-150, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30840776

RESUMO

Follicular lymphoma (FL) is the second most common non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) subtype. The histological transformation (HT) of FL is an event considered frequent in the natural history of this tumor. We studied the transformation rates, predictive factors, and treatment characteristics that may impact in the survival of patients with FL and HT. A total of 1074 patients diagnosed with FL were prospectively enrolled from 1990 to 2016 in a Spanish registry. Sixty-four HTs were recorded based on clinical criteria (55%) or histological confirmation (45%). The cumulative incidence rate of transformation at 5 years is 7.3%. The 5-year overall survival (OS) without HT was 85% (95% confidence interval [CI], 70%-90%) vs 66% (95% CI, 51%-76%; P = 0.0012) with HT. Factors associated with HT were elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (odds ratio [OR] 1.83), intermediate-high Follicular lymphoma international prognostic index (FLIPI) (OR 2.16-OR 3.21), B symptoms (OR 2.46), or Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) 1 (OR 2.35). Treatment options related to HT were "watch and wait" or no rituximab or anthracyclines initially. A 5-year OS for patients treated with chemotherapy before HT was 55% (95% CI, 38%-69%) versus 81% (95% CI, 53%-93%; P = 0.009) for those who had not received it. The HT rate has decreased after the introduction of rituximab, as has been previously described. The timing of this treatment had an impact on the survival of these patients.


Assuntos
Linfoma Folicular/tratamento farmacológico , Linfoma Folicular/mortalidade , Sistema de Registros , Rituximab/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 59: 236-243, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30844679

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autoimmune inflammatory disease increases the risk of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and marginal zone lymphoma (MZL), but findings for other mature B-cell malignancies are equivocal. Furthermore, it has been suggested that the increase in DLBCL is due to the activated B-cell (ABC) subtype; but data on this, and the impact of inflammatory co-morbidities on survival, are sparse and contradictory. METHODS: Data are from an established UK population-based cohort. Patients (n = 6834) diagnosed between 01/2009 and 08/2015 are included; DLBCL (n = 1771), myeloma (n = 1760), chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL, n = 1580), MZL (n = 936), and follicular lymphoma (FL, n = 787). Information on rheumatological disorders and deaths was obtained by record-linkage to nationally compiled Hospital Episode Statistics, with age-and sex-matched individuals (n = 68,340) from the same catchment population (˜4 million people) providing the comparator. RESULTS: Significantly increased risks for DLBCL (OR = 2.3, 95% CI 1.8-2.8) and MZL (OR = 2.0, 95% CI 1.5-2.7) were found for those with rheumatological disorders; the site distribution of those with/without rheumatological conditions differing for DLBCL (p = 0.007) and MZL (p = 0.002). No increases in risk were observed for the remaining mature B-cell malignancies, and no associations with survival were detected for DLBCL (age-adjusted HR = 1.2, 95% CI 0.9-1.6) or MZL (age-adjusted HR = 1.0, 95% CI 0.6-1.9). Furthermore, whilst our findings provide evidence for an association with rheumatological disease severity for DLBCL, they offer little support for the notion that the association is driven by an increase in the incidence of the ABC subtype. CONCLUSION: Our findings support the hypothesis that the chronic activation and proliferation of specific B-cell populations which characterize autoimmune disease increase the potential for the lymphomagenic events that lead to DLBCL and MZL in both males and females; but have no impact on the development of CLL, FL or MM, or on survival.


Assuntos
Linfoma/epidemiologia , Mieloma Múltiplo/epidemiologia , Doenças Reumáticas/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B , Linfoma/mortalidade , Linfoma/patologia , Linfoma de Zona Marginal Tipo Células B/epidemiologia , Linfoma de Zona Marginal Tipo Células B/mortalidade , Linfoma Folicular/epidemiologia , Linfoma Folicular/mortalidade , Linfoma Folicular/patologia , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/epidemiologia , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/mortalidade , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/mortalidade , Mieloma Múltiplo/patologia , Doenças Reumáticas/mortalidade , Doenças Reumáticas/patologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
15.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 104(3): 522-529, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30858143

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We previously reported that ∼30% of patients with localized follicular lymphoma (FL) staged by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography receiving primary radiation therapy (RT) will relapse within 5 years. We sought to report outcomes for those who relapsed. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We conducted a multicenter, retrospective study of patients aged ≥18 years who received RT ≥ 24 Gy for stage I to II, grade 1 to 3A FL, staged with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography-computed tomography. Observation was defined as >6 months without treatment from relapse. Overall survival (OS) and freedom from progression (FFP) were estimated with Kaplan-Meier analysis and univariable and multivariable analyses with Cox regression. RESULTS: Of 512 patients with median follow-up of 52 months, 149 (29.1%) developed recurrent lymphoma at a median of 23 months (range, 1-143) after primary RT. Median follow-up was 33 months after relapse. Three-year OS was 91.4% after recurrence. OS was significantly worse for those with relapse ≤12 months from date of diagnosis versus all others-88.7% versus 97.6%, respectively (P = .01)-and remained significantly worse on multivariable analyses (follicular lymphoma international prognostic index-adjusted hazard ratio, 3.61; P = .009). Histology at relapse included 93 indolent (grade 1-3A), 3 FL grade 3B/not otherwise specified, and 18 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma; 35 patients did not undergo biopsy. Of those with follow-up ≥3 months who underwent biopsy (n = 74) or had presumed (n = 23) indolent recurrence, 58 patients (59.8%) were observed, 19 (19.6%) had systemic therapy, 16 (16.5%) had RT, and 4 (4.1%) had systemic therapy + RT. For patients with indolent recurrences that were observed, 3-year FFP or freedom from treatment was 56.6% (median, 48 months). For all patients with biopsied/presumed indolent recurrence receiving salvage treatment (n = 59, including 20 initially observed) 3-year FFP was 73.9%. CONCLUSIONS: Prognosis for patients with relapsed FL after primary radiation therapy is excellent, supporting the role of primary radiation in the management of early stage disease. Patients with localized FL treated with primary RT who experience early relapse (<12 months) have inferior survival compared with those with longer disease-free interval.


Assuntos
Linfoma Folicular/mortalidade , Linfoma Folicular/radioterapia , Terapia de Salvação , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Murinos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Ciclofosfamida/administração & dosagem , Doxorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Linfoma Folicular/diagnóstico por imagem , Linfoma Folicular/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Prednisona/administração & dosagem , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Tempo , Vincristina/administração & dosagem , Conduta Expectante , Adulto Jovem
16.
Blood ; 133(14): 1540-1547, 2019 04 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30700421

RESUMO

Follicular lymphoma (FL) is the most frequently occurring indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma, with generally favorable outcomes but a variable clinical course. Recent studies have elucidated the consistent and reproducible frequency of early disease progression in FL, occurring in ∼20% of patients. Relapse of FL within 24 months of chemoimmunotherapy (POD24) is now established as a robust marker of poor survival, leading to increased risk of death. Currently, there is no established method of identifying patients at risk for early disease progression at the time of their FL diagnosis. However, numerous studies worldwide are investigating clinical, pathologic, and radiographic biomarkers to help predict POD24, thereby improving subsequent outcomes and adapting therapy based on individual risk. There is also a paucity of standardized treatments for patients with POD24, but investigations are ongoing testing novel targeted therapies and autologous stem cell transplantation strategies. This review provides an overview of early-relapsing FL and our approach to patient management based on recent available data.


Assuntos
Gerenciamento Clínico , Progressão da Doença , Linfoma Folicular/diagnóstico , Linfoma Folicular/terapia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Humanos , Linfoma Folicular/mortalidade , Linfoma Folicular/patologia , Recidiva , Medição de Risco/métodos , Análise de Sobrevida
18.
Br J Haematol ; 184(5): 753-759, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30515755

RESUMO

Follicular lymphoma (FL) is an indolent disease characterized by long survival but frequent relapses. Before the introduction of rituximab, the clinical course of these patients showed a shorter response duration (RD) after each relapse. In this study, we analysed if this pattern of shortened responses remains in patients treated in the rituximab era. We selected 348 patients newly diagnosed with FL in two institutions between 2001 and 2014 that received chemoimmunotherapy. After a median follow-up of 6·3 years, 10-year progression-free and overall survivals were 53% and 72%, respectively. All patients received first-line, 111 second-line and 41 third-line treatments, with a 5-year RD of 62%, 39% and 24%, respectively (P < 0·0001). Variables predicting longer RD after first-line treatment were normal ß2microglobulin, complete remission achievement and maintenance with rituximab. Patients with longer RD after first-line showed significantly longer RD after second-line therapy. Autologous stem-cell transplantation after second-line therapy did not significantly impact RD. Median survival after first, second and third therapies was not reached, 7·6 and 4·8 years, respectively, whereas relative survival with respect to a sex- and age-matched Spanish population, the decrease in the life expectancy at 10 years was 17%, 45% and 79%, respectively. Thus, RD still shortens after each relapse in patients with FL treated in first line with rituximab combinations.


Assuntos
Linfoma Folicular , Quimioterapia de Manutenção , Rituximab/administração & dosagem , Transplante de Células-Tronco , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Autoenxertos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Linfoma Folicular/mortalidade , Linfoma Folicular/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Espanha , Taxa de Sobrevida
19.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(2): 144-152, 2019 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30481079

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Although the life expectancy of patients with follicular lymphoma (FL) has increased, little is known of their causes of death (CODs) in the rituximab era. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We pooled two cohorts of newly diagnosed patients with FL grade 1-3A. Patients were enrolled between 2001 and 2013 in two French referral institutions (N = 734; median follow-up 89 months) and 2002 and 2012 in the University of Iowa and Mayo Clinic Specialized Program of Research Excellence (SPORE; N = 920; median follow-up 84 months). COD was classified as being a result of lymphoma, other malignancy, treatment related, or all other causes. RESULTS: Ten-year overall survival was comparable in the French (80%) and US (77%) cohorts. We were able to classify COD in 248 (88%) of 283 decedents. In the overall cohort, lymphoma was the most common COD, with a cumulative incidence of 10.3% at 10 years, followed by treatment-related mortality (3.0%), other malignancy (2.9%), other causes (2.2%), and unknown (3.0%). The 10-year cumulative incidence of death as a result of lymphoma or treatment was higher than death as a result of all other causes for each age group (including patients ≥ 70 years of age at diagnosis [25.4% v 16.6%]) Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index score 3 to 5 (27.4% v 5.2%), but not Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index score 0 to 1 (4.0% v 3.7%); for patients who failed to achieve event-free survival within 24 months from diagnosis (36.1% v 7.0%), but not for patients who achieved event-free survival within 24 months of diagnosis (6.7% v 5.7%); and for patients with a history of transformed FL (45.9% v 4.7%), but not among patients without (8.1% v 6.2%). Overall, 77 of 140 deaths as a result of lymphoma occurred in patients whose FL transformed after diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Despite the improvement in overall survival in patients with FL in the rituximab era, their leading COD remains lymphoma, especially after disease transformation. Treatment-related mortality also represents a concern, which supports the need for less-toxic therapies.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Linfoma Folicular/tratamento farmacológico , Linfoma Folicular/mortalidade , Rituximab/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Am J Clin Oncol ; 42(2): 202-207, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30499839

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Previous studies reported that prognostic nutritional index (PNI), a marker of host inflammatory and nutritional status, is associated with prognoses in a number of cancer types. Thus, we investigated PNI at diagnosis as a prognostic factor in FL. METHODS: We reviewed FL patients in Tuen Mun Hospital, Hong Kong from 2000 to 2014 (n=88). PNI was calculated by serum albumin (g/L)+5×absolute lymphocyte count (10/L). We determined the best PNI cut-off value using receiver-operating characteristic curves. The extent to which progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival differed by PNI cut-off was assessed using Kaplan-Meier and log-rank tests. Cox proportional hazards model was utilized to adjust for covariates. RESULTS: The best cut-off value for PNI was determined to be 45. Patients with high PNI (>45) had a higher complete response (CR) rate after primary treatment, 46 of 61 (75.4%) patients with high PNI had CR, compared with 10 of 23 (43.5%) for low PNI (2-sample test of proportions P-value=0.006). Further, higher PNI at relapse as a continuous variable was associated with superior postprogression survival with a hazard ratio (HR) 0.88 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.81-0.96). In multivariate analysis, high PNI at diagnosis had superior PFS (adjusted HR of 0.37; 95% CI, 0.15-0.93). CONCLUSIONS: PNI was shown to be independent prognostic factor of PFS in FL. It is a cheap and widely available biomarker. Future study is needed to validate its prognostic value and clinical utility in a prospective cohort.


Assuntos
Quimiorradioterapia/mortalidade , Linfoma Folicular/mortalidade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/mortalidade , Avaliação Nutricional , Estado Nutricional , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Linfoma Folicular/patologia , Linfoma Folicular/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/terapia , Prognóstico , Indução de Remissão , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
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