Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 3.338
Filtrar
1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33355527

RESUMO

The occurrence of nontuberculous mycobacteria in different hosts and their implication as obligate or opportunistic pathogens remain mainly unclear. Mycobacteriosis in pigs is usually associated with members of the Mycobacterium avium complex and, in particular, with 'Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis'. Here we describe a novel slow-growing mycobacterial species isolated from lymph nodes obtained from two sows housed in different Swiss farms. The animals presented chronic inappetence and mild diarrhoea. Gross pathology revealed focal caseous lymphadenopathy of the mesenteric lymph nodes. Complete genome sequencing of the two isolates from the two sows was performed. The genomes comprised 5.76 Mb and an average nucleotide identity score of 99.97 %. Whole genome sequence, mycolic acid and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry analyses revealed that the two isolates were not related to any previously described Mycobacterium species. The closest related species was Mycobacterium parmense, a slow-growing scotochromogenic mycobacterium first isolated from a cervical lymph node of a 3-year-old child. The name proposed for the new species is Mycobacterium helveticum sp. nov. and 16-83T (=DSM 109965T= LMG 2019-02457T) is the type strain.


Assuntos
Linfonodos/microbiologia , Mycobacterium/classificação , Filogenia , Suínos/microbiologia , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Feminino , Genoma Bacteriano , Mycobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Mycobacterium/microbiologia , Infecções por Mycobacterium/veterinária , Ácidos Micólicos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Suíça
2.
Vaccine ; 38(48): 7629-7637, 2020 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33071000

RESUMO

This work demonstrates the presence of immune regulatory cells in the cervical lymph nodes draining Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccinated site on the dorsum of the ear in guinea pigs. It is shown that whole cervical lymph node cells did not proliferate in vitro in the presence of soluble mycobacterial antigens (PPD or leprosin) despite being responsive to whole mycobacteria. Besides, T cells from these lymph nodes separated as a non-adherent fraction on a nylon wool column, proliferated to PPD in the presence of autologous antigen presenting cells. Interestingly, addition of as low as 20% nylon wool adherent cells to these, sharply decreased the proliferation by 83%. Looking into what cells in the adherent fraction suppressed the proliferation, it was found that neither the T cell nor the macrophage enriched cell fractions of this population individually showed suppressive effect, indicating that their co-presence was necessary for the suppression. Since BCG induced granulomas resolve much faster than granulomas induced by other mycobacteria such as Mycobacterium leprae the present experimental findings add to the existing evidence that intradermal BCG vaccination influences subsequent immune responses in the host and may further stress upon its beneficial role seen in Covid-19 patients.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/farmacologia , Vacina BCG/farmacologia , Granuloma/imunologia , Linfonodos/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Tuberculina/farmacologia , Animais , Células Apresentadoras de Antígenos/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Apresentadoras de Antígenos/imunologia , Células Apresentadoras de Antígenos/microbiologia , Adesão Celular , Proliferação de Células , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Orelha , Feminino , Granuloma/microbiologia , Cobaias , Humanos , Injeções Intradérmicas , Linfonodos/microbiologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/microbiologia , Masculino , Mycobacterium bovis/imunologia , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Remissão Espontânea , Linfócitos T/classificação , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/microbiologia
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4697, 2020 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943639

RESUMO

Unassisted metastasis through the lymphatic system is a mechanism of dissemination thus far ascribed only to cancer cells. Here, we report that Streptococcus pyogenes also hijack lymphatic vessels to escape a local infection site, transiting through sequential lymph nodes and efferent lymphatic vessels to enter the bloodstream. Contrasting with previously reported mechanisms of intracellular pathogen carriage by phagocytes, we show S. pyogenes remain extracellular during transit, first in afferent and then efferent lymphatics that carry the bacteria through successive draining lymph nodes. We identify streptococcal virulence mechanisms important for bacterial lymphatic dissemination and show that metastatic streptococci within infected lymph nodes resist and subvert clearance by phagocytes, enabling replication that can seed intense bloodstream infection. The findings establish the lymphatic system as both a survival niche and conduit to the bloodstream for S. pyogenes, explaining the phenomenon of occult bacteraemia. This work provides new perspectives in streptococcal pathogenesis with implications for immunity.


Assuntos
Linfonodos/microbiologia , Metástase Linfática , Vasos Linfáticos/microbiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/microbiologia , Streptococcus pyogenes/patogenicidade , Animais , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Bacteriemia/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Interleucina-8/metabolismo , Linfonodos/imunologia , Linfonodos/patologia , Metástase Linfática/patologia , Sistema Linfático , Vasos Linfáticos/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neutrófilos/microbiologia , Fagocitose , Infecções Estreptocócicas/imunologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/patologia , Streptococcus pyogenes/genética , Virulência
5.
Acta Vet Scand ; 62(1): 48, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887621

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microbiological examination of lesions found in slaughtered animals during meat inspection is an important part of public health protection as such lesions may be due to zoonotic agents that can be transmitted by meat. Examination of inflamed lymph nodes also plays a particular important role, as lymphadenitis may reflect a more widespread infection. Such lesions in sheep are mainly caused by pyogenic bacteria but also mycobacteria are occasionally found. Meat inspection data from 2017 to 2018 from southern Poland, especially from the Malopolska region, indicate that purulent or caseous lymphadenitis involving the mediastinal and tracheobronchial lymph nodes (MTLNs) is a common finding. The primary aim of the current study was to determine the aetiology of these lesions. Furthermore, it was investigated how presence of lesions was correlated with age and grazing strategy of affected sheep. RESULTS: Post-mortem examination revealed purulent or caseous lymphadenitis in the MTLNs of 49 out of 284 animals (17.3%). Subsequent microbiological examination revealed the presence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis (34.7%), Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (34.7%), Staphylococcus aureus (8.2%), Enterococcus spp. (2.0%), Trueperella pyogenes (2.0%), and ß-haemolytic strains of Escherichia coli (2.0%). Mycobacterium spp. and Rhodococcus equi were not detected. In older sheep, the probability of the presence of purulent or caseous lymphadenitis was higher than in younger, and the risk was increasing by 1.5% with each month of life. Sheep grazing locally had 4.5-times greater risk of having purulent or caseous lymphadenitis than individuals summer grazing in the mountains. CONCLUSION: The most common aetiological agents of purulent or caseous lymphadenitis in the MTLNs of sheep in the Malopolska region were C. pseudotuberculosis and S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis. Particular attention during post-mortem examination should be paid to the carcasses of older sheep and sheep grazing on permanent pastures, as they seem more prone to develop purulent or caseous lymphadenitis.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Inspeção de Alimentos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Linfonodos/patologia , Linfadenite/veterinária , Carne/microbiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Matadouros , Fatores Etários , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/patologia , Linfonodos/microbiologia , Linfadenite/epidemiologia , Linfadenite/microbiologia , Linfadenite/patologia , Polônia , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/patologia , Carneiro Doméstico
6.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(8): e1008632, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790739

RESUMO

Lymph nodes, particularly thoracic lymph nodes, are among the most common sites of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB). However, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection in these organs is understudied. Aside from being sites of initiation of the adaptive immune system, lymph nodes also serve as niches of Mtb growth and persistence. Mtb infection results in granuloma formation that disrupts and-if it becomes large enough-replaces the normal architecture of the lymph node that is vital to its function. In preclinical models, successful TB vaccines appear to prevent spread of Mtb from the lungs to the lymph nodes. Reactivation of latent TB can start in the lymph nodes resulting in dissemination of the bacteria to the lungs and other organs. Involvement of the lymph nodes may improve Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine efficacy. Lastly, drug penetration to the lymph nodes is poor compared to blood, lung tissue, and lung granulomas. Future studies on evaluating the efficacy of vaccines and anti-TB drug treatments should include consideration of the effects on thoracic lymph nodes and not just the lungs.


Assuntos
Pulmão/imunologia , Linfonodos/imunologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/imunologia , Vacinas contra a Tuberculose/imunologia , Tuberculose/imunologia , Tuberculose/patologia , Animais , Humanos , Pulmão/microbiologia , Linfonodos/microbiologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/patogenicidade , Tuberculose/microbiologia , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 495, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650727

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is a disease that may affect any organ of the body. Multifocal tuberculosis involving multiple systems with associated symptoms are rare, which makes the diagnosis challenging. Distinguishing multifocal tuberculosis from lesions metastatic from system malignancy is difficult. Single detection method is difficult to make a diagnosis. A combination of multiple methods is essential. CASE PRESENTATION: A 17-year-old male presented with a 20 days weakness of lower limbs, which aggravated for 6 days. The PET/CT showed increased metabolism of ileocecal intestinal and terminal ileum wall, multiple enlarged lymph node (LNs), multiple osteolytic bone lesions, and soft tissue intensity belong T7 and T8 vertebrae. To confirm the diagnosis of the disease, a biopsy of the mediastinum lymph nodes was carried out. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test of the specimen was positive for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the T-SPOT and Xpert MTB/RIF test were also positive, which suggested the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The final diagnosis was multifocal tuberculosis, the patients received the resection of the mass in the spine. Anti-tuberculosis drugs were given. The myodynamia and muscle tension of the patients recovered following the therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicated that Multifocal tuberculosis should also be taken into consideration when lesions metastatic from system malignancy were suspected from images results even without the clinical symptoms of tuberculosis, and combination of multiple diagnosis methods were essential for the diagnosis of multifocal disease.


Assuntos
Linfonodos/patologia , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Linfonodos/microbiologia , Linfadenopatia/microbiologia , Linfadenopatia/patologia , Masculino , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Neoplasias da Coluna Vertebral/patologia , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico
8.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 331: 108715, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554040

RESUMO

Ground beef contamination with Escherichia coli is usually a result of carcass faecal contamination during the slaughter process. Carcasses are contaminated when they come into contact with soiled hides or intestinal leakage content during dressing and the evisceration processes. A more recent and compelling hypothesis is that, when lymph nodes are present in manufacturing beef trimmings, they can be a potential source of Enterobacteriaceae contamination of ground beef. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of E. coli in lymph nodes from beef carcasses used for ground meat production, in six slaughter plants situated in central Italy A total of 597 subiliac (precrural) lymph nodes were obtained from 597 cattle carcasses and screened for E. coli by culture. Furthermore, E. coli isolates (one per positive carcass) were tested for stx1, stx2 eaeA and hlyA genes that are commonly used to identify and characterise shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). In addition, the E. coli isolates were profiled for antimicrobial susceptibility. A proportion of 34.2% (204/597) carcasses were positive for E. coli. PCR revealed that 29% (59/204) of E. coli possessed stx1 or stx2 which corresponded to 9.9% of the cattle sampled. Moreover, a combination of stx1 or stx2 and eaeA was found in in 4 isolates (2% among E. coli positive samples and 1% among cattle sampled) and a combination of stx1 or stx2 and eaeA and hly in 1 isolate (0.5% and 0.2%). More than 95% of isolates were susceptible to gentamicin, ceftriaxone, cyprofloxacin and cefotaxime while high rates of resistance were recorded for cephalotin, ampicillin, tetracycline, tripe sulfa and streptomycin. The multivariate analysis identified "age" as the factor most closely related to E. coli positivity (either generic E. coli or STEC) in bovine lymph nodes. In conclusion, subiliac lymph nodes represent a source of E. coli for ground beef. These results are of major importance for risk assessment and improving good manufacturing practices during animal slaughter and ground meat production.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli/fisiologia , Linfonodos/microbiologia , Carne/microbiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Escherichia coli/genética , Itália , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
9.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(6): 3614-3624, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32368999

RESUMO

A total of 34 Corynebacterium sp. strains were isolated from caseous lymph node abscesses of wild boar and roe deer in different regions of Germany. They showed slow growth on Columbia sheep blood agar and sparse growth on Hoyle's tellurite agar. Cellular fatty acid analysis allocated them in the C. diphtheriae group of genus Corynebacterium. MALDI-TOF MS using specific database extensions and rpoB sequencing resulted in classification as C. ulcerans. Their quinone system is similar to C. ulcerans, with major menaquinone MK-8(H2). Their complex polar lipid profile includes major lipids phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol-mannoside, diphosphatidylglycerol, but also unidentified glycolipids, distinguishing them clearly from C. ulcerans. They ferment glucose, ribose and maltose (like C. ulcerans), but do not utilise d-xylose, mannitol, lactose, sucrose and glycogen (like C. pseudotuberculosis). They showed activity of catalase, urease and phospholipase D, but variable results for alkaline phosphatase and alpha-glucosidase. All were non-toxigenic, tox gene bearing and susceptible to clindamycin, penicillin and erythromycin. In 16SrRNA gene and RpoB protein phylogenies the strains formed distinct brancheswith C. ulcerans as nearest relative.Whole genome sequencing revealed the unique sequence type 578, a distinctbranch in pangenomic core genome MLST, average nucleotide identities <91%, enhancedgenome sizes (2.55 Mbp) and G/C content (54.4 mol%) compared to related species.These results suggest that the strains represent a novel species, for which wepropose the name Corynebactriumsilvaticum sp. nov., based on their first isolation from forest-dwellinggame animals. The type strain isKL0182T (= CVUAS 4292T = DSM 109166T = LMG 31313T= CIP 111 672T).


Assuntos
Abscesso/microbiologia , Corynebacterium/classificação , Cervos/microbiologia , Linfonodos/microbiologia , Filogenia , Sus scrofa/microbiologia , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Corynebacterium/isolamento & purificação , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Alemanha , Glicolipídeos/química , Linfonodos/patologia , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Suínos , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
10.
Rev Mal Respir ; 37(5): 399-411, 2020 May.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32386802

RESUMO

A paradoxical reaction is the worsening of prior existing, or the appearance of, new tuberculous lesions, following the initiation of treatment with anti-tuberculous drugs, after the exclusion of poor compliance, malabsorption, drug interaction or multiresistant mycobacteria. Well known and well managed in the context of HIV coinfection, it is not well known outside this context. An increasing number of publications have described this syndrome. This review aims to describe the pathogenic, epidemiological, clinical, prognostic and therapeutic elements of non-HIV-associated paradoxical reactions. It involves a reversal of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis-induced immunodepression along with a heightened detrimental pro-inflammatory profile caused by efficient drug treatment. Extra-thoracic locations, especially lymph nodes and neurological, malnutrition and initial lymphopenia are the principal risk factors. The median delay is 40±20 days after the onset of treatment. Corticosteroids are the mainstay of the management. Anti-TNF-α drugs show good results in corticosteroid refractory cases. The prognosis is good overall except in neurological forms. The place of preventive methods remains to be established.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Progressão da Doença , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/patologia , Antituberculosos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Linfonodos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfonodos/microbiologia , Linfonodos/patologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco , Tuberculose/epidemiologia
11.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233426, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470023

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is characterized by elevated levels of acute phase proteins (APPs), but their association with tuberculous lymphadenitis (TBL) is poorly studied. METHODS: We examined the systemic levels of APPs (alpha-2-macroglobulin [⍺-2MG], serum amyloid A [SAA], C-reactive protein [CRP] and haptoglobin [Hp]) in TBL, PTB, latent tuberculosis (LTB) and healthy controls (HC) at baseline and in TBL after the completion of anti-tuberculosis treatment (ATT). We have also examined the association of these proteins with lymph node (LN) size, culture grade and multiple versus single LN involvement. RESULTS: TBL individuals exhibited increased systemic levels of ⍺-2MG, SAA, CRP and Hp in comparison to HCs and increased CRP levels in comparison to LTB individuals. TBL individuals also exhibited decreased systemic levels of Hp compared to PTB individuals. APPs were not significantly associated with LN size, LN involvement and culture grade, indicating a lack of association with disease severity. Following ATT, post-treatment levels of ⍺-2MG, CRP and Hp were significantly diminished compared to pre-treatment levels. CONCLUSION: TBL disease is characterized by altered levels of APPs at baseline and modulated following treatment, indicating the presence of systemic inflammation.


Assuntos
Proteínas da Fase Aguda/metabolismo , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/sangue , Adulto , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Carga Bacteriana , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Feminino , Haptoglobinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Linfonodos/microbiologia , Linfonodos/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , alfa 2-Macroglobulinas Associadas à Gravidez/metabolismo , Proteína Amiloide A Sérica/metabolismo , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/patologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/sangue , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto Jovem
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 258, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234012

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mycobacterial species other than Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae are generally free-living organisms and Mycobacterium simiae is one of the slowest growing Non-tuberculous mycobacteria. This is the first case report of Mycobacterium simiae infection in Sri Lanka and only very few cases with extrapulmonary manifestation reported in the literature. CASE PRESENTATION: A 24-year-old, previously healthy Sri Lankan male presented with generalized lymphadenopathy with discharging sinuses, evening pyrexia, weight loss, poor appetite and splenomegaly. Lymph node biopsies showed sheets of macrophages packed with organisms in the absence of granulomata. Ziehl Neelsen, Wade Fite and Giemsa stains revealed numerous red coloured acid-fast bacilli within foamy histiocytes. Slit skin smear for leprosy was negative and tuberculosis, fungal and bacterial cultures of the lymph node and bone marrow did not reveal any growth. Later he developed watery diarrhea and colonoscopy revealed multiple small polyps and ulcers throughout the colon extending up to the ileum, Which was confirmed to be due to cytomegalovirus confirmed by PCR and successfully treated with ganciclovir. Positron emission tomography scan guided biopsies of the gut and lymph nodes confirmed presence of mycobacterial spindle cell pseudo-tumours and PCR assays revealed positive HSP65. The culture grew Mycobacterium Simiae. Flow cytometry analysis on patient's blood showed extremely low T and B cell counts and immunofixation revealed low immunoglobulin levels. His condition was later diagnosed as adult onset immunodeficiency due to anti- interferon - gamma autoantibodies. He was initially commenced on empirical anti-TB treatment with atypical mycobacterial coverage. He is currently on a combination of daily clarithromycin, ciprofloxacin, linezolid with monthly 2 g/kg/intravenous immunoglobulin to which, he had a remarkable clinical response with complete resolution of lymphadenopathy and healing of sinuses. CONCLUSIONS: This infection is considered to be restricted to certain geographic areas such as mainly Iran, Cuba, Israel and Arizona and this is the first case report from Sri lanka. Even though the infection is mostly seen in the elderly patients, our patient was only 24 years old. In the literature pulmonary involvement was common presentation, but in this case the patient had generalized lymphadenopathy and colonic involvement without pulmonary involvement.


Assuntos
Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/microbiologia , Mycobacterium/patogenicidade , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Ciprofloxacino/uso terapêutico , Claritromicina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem , Interferon gama/sangue , Linfonodos/microbiologia , Linfadenopatia/etiologia , Masculino , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/patologia , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Sri Lanka , Adulto Jovem
13.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(4)2020 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757823

RESUMO

The gut-lymph node axis is a critical player in the symbiotic relationship between gut microbiota and the host. However, little is known about the impact of diet-related bacterial shifts in the gut lumen on bacterial translocation into lymph nodes. Here, we (i) characterized changes in the viable microbiota composition along the ileal digesta-mucosa-lymph node axis and (ii) examined the effect of dietary phytase supplementation and lactic acid (LA) soaking of cereals on the bacterial taxonomy along this axis, together with their effect on the mucosal expression of innate immune and barrier function genes in pigs (n = 8/diet). After 18 days on diets, ileal digesta, mucosa, and ileocecal lymph nodes (ICLNs) were collected for RNA isolation and 16S rRNA-based high-resolution community profiling. Bacterial communities were dominated by Lactobacillaceae and Clostridiaceae, with clearly distinguishable profiles at the three sampling sites. Specific bacterial subsampling was indicated by enrichment of the ICLNs with Lactobacillaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Veillonellaceae, and Methanobacteriaceae and less Clostridiaceae, Pasteurellaceae, Helicobacteraceae, and Enterobacteriaceae compared to that of the mucosa. LA treatment of cereals reduced proteolytic taxa in the lumen, including pathobionts like Helicobacteraceae, Campylobacteraceae, and Fusobacteriaceae When combined, phytase- and LA-treated cereals largely increased species richness, while the single treatments reduced Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes in ICLNs and increased mucosal MUC2 expression. In contrast, phytase reduced mucosal CDH1 expression, indicating altered barrier function with potential effects on bacterial translocation. Overall, both treatments, although often differently, changed the viable microbiome along the digesta-mucosa-lymph node axis in the ileum, probably due to altered substrate availability and microbial-host interactions.IMPORTANCE A host's diet largely determines the gut microbial composition and therefore may influence bacterial translocation into ICLNs. Due to its importance for cell metabolism, the intestinal phosphorus availability, which was modified here by phytase and LA treatment of cereals, affects the intestinal microbiota. Previous studies mainly focused on bacteria in the lumen. The novelty of this work resides mainly in that we report diet-microbe effects along the digesta-mucosa-ICLN axis and linked those effects to mucosal expression of barrier function genes as crucial components for host health. Lymph nodes can serve as reservoir of pathobionts; therefore, present diet-microbiome-host interactions have implications for food safety.


Assuntos
6-Fitase/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Íleo/microbiologia , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Sus scrofa/microbiologia , 6-Fitase/administração & dosagem , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Grão Comestível/química , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Ácido Láctico/administração & dosagem , Linfonodos/microbiologia , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Sus scrofa/metabolismo
14.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 39(3): 258-259, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31876612

RESUMO

We are reporting a case of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine-disseminated infection in a 19-month-old HIV-negative girl diagnosed with severe combined immunodeficiency. While standard culture protocols failed to isolate and culture the Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin strain, it was isolated from skin and mesenteric lymph node biopsies using the shell-vial assay, allowing whole-genome sequencing and in silico drug susceptibility testing.


Assuntos
Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Mycobacterium bovis , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/complicações , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/etiologia , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Biópsia , Transplante de Medula Óssea/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Medula Óssea/métodos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Linfonodos/microbiologia , Linfonodos/patologia , Mycobacterium bovis/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium bovis/genética , Mycobacterium bovis/imunologia , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/terapia , Úlcera Cutânea/etiologia , Úlcera Cutânea/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico
15.
J Food Prot ; 83(1): 28-36, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31809195

RESUMO

Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the feeding of direct fed microbials (DFMs) on fecal shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in naturally infected cattle (experiment I) and on Salmonella in the feces and peripheral lymph nodes (PLNs) of experimentally infected cattle (experiment II). Thirty cattle, 10 per treatment, were used in each experiment. Treatments in experiment I consisted of a control (lactose carrier only); DFM1, a 1:1 ratio of Enterococcus faecium and Lactobacillus animalis; and DFM2, a 1:1 ratio of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Pediococcus acidilactici. In Experiment II, DFM1 was replaced with DFM3, a 1:2 ratio of Lactobacillus reuteri and other Lactobacillus strains. Additives were mixed in water and applied as a top-dressing to each pen's daily ration for 50 days. Approximately half-way through each experiment, the DFM concentration was doubled for the remainder of the study. Fecal samples were collected throughout experiment I and cultured for E. coli O157:H7. Cattle in experiment II were inoculated intradermally with Salmonella Montevideo on days 32, 37, and 42 and then necropsied on days 49 and 50 (five cattle per treatment on each day). Innate immune function was assessed on days 29, 49, and 50. In experiment I, fecal concentration and prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 were not different (P > 0.10) nor was there an effect (P = 0.95) on the percentage of super shedders (cattle shedding ≥3.0 log CFU/g of feces). In experiment II, no treatment differences (P > 0.05) were observed for Salmonella in the PLNs except for the inguinal nodes, which had a significantly lower Salmonella prevalence in DFM-supplemented cattle than in the controls. Immune function, as measured by monocyte nitric oxide production and neutrophil oxidative burst, was decreased (P < 0.05) in the DFM treatment groups. Although results of this research indicate little to no effect of these DFMs on E. coli O157:H7 or Salmonella in cattle, an increase in the duration of administration to that similar to what is used for commercial cattle might elicit treatment differences.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Derrame de Bactérias , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Escherichia coli O157 , Salmonelose Animal/tratamento farmacológico , Salmonella , Ração Animal , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Infecções por Escherichia coli/tratamento farmacológico , Fezes/microbiologia , Linfonodos/microbiologia
16.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 67(1): 308-317, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512795

RESUMO

The number of natural infections with Mycobacterium caprae in wildlife and in cattle in the Bavarian and Austrian alpine regions has increased over the last decade. Red deer (Cervus elaphus) have been recognized as maintenance reservoir; however, the transmission routes of M. caprae among and from naturally infected red deer are unknown. The unexpected high prevalence in some hot spot regions might suggest an effective indirect transmission of infection. Therefore, this study was undertaken to diagnose the occurrence of M. caprae in faeces and secretions of red deer in their natural habitat. A total of 2,806 red deer hunted in this region during 2014-2016 were included in this study. After pathological examination, organs (lymph nodes, lung, heart), excretions and secretions (faeces, urine, saliva and tonsil swabs) were further investigated by qPCR specific for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC), M. bovis and M. caprae. Samples tested positive by qPCR were processed for culturing of mycobacteria. In total, 55 (2.0%) animals were confirmed positive for M. caprae by pathological examination, PCR and culturing of the affected organ material. With the exception of one sample, all of the secretion and excretion samples were negative for mycobacteria of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC). From one red deer, M. caprae could be isolated from the heart sac as well as from the faeces. Whole-genome sequencing confirmed that both strains were clonally related. This is the first confirmation that M. caprae can be shed with the faeces of a naturally infected red deer. However, further studies focusing on a higher number of infected animals, sample standardization and coordinated multiple sampling are necessary to improve the understanding of transmission routes under natural conditions.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Cervos/microbiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Mycobacterium bovis/fisiologia , Tuberculose Bovina/microbiologia , Animais , Derrame de Bactérias , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Fezes/microbiologia , Geografia , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Linfonodos/microbiologia , Mycobacterium bovis/classificação , Mycobacterium bovis/genética , Tonsila Palatina/microbiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Saliva/microbiologia , Tuberculose Bovina/epidemiologia
17.
J Infect Public Health ; 13(1): 151-153, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383566

RESUMO

Latent tuberculosis infection may become a source of tuberculosis dissemination, even in a subclinical case, which have no abnormalities in the pulmonary parenchyma based on imaging studies. In this case, we presented tiny granulomas beside squamous cell carcinoma in a woman positive for interferon-γ release assay (IGRA). She had no symptoms or abnormalities in the parenchyma, except for the primary lesion. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was cultured from the mediastinal lymph nodes in concurrence with [18F] fluoro-deoxy glucose uptake. The findings of the present study stress the need for careful attention to the development of tuberculosis in case of a positive IGRA.


Assuntos
Granuloma/microbiologia , Tuberculose Latente/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/complicações , Linfonodos/microbiologia , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Liberação de Interferon-gama , Tuberculose Latente/microbiologia , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/microbiologia , Linfonodos/patologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
18.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0227005, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887178

RESUMO

Human tuberculosis is a life-threatening infection following the inhalation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, while the closely related bacteria Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium canettii are thought to be transmitted by ingestion. To explore whether M. tuberculosis could also infect individuals by ingestion, male BALBc mice were fed 2 x 106 CFUs of M. tuberculosis Beijing or phosphate-buffered saline as a negative control, over a 28-day experiment. While eight negative control mice remained disease-free, M. tuberculosis was identified in the lymph nodes and lungs of 8/14 mice and in the spleens of 4/14 mice by microscopy, PCR-based detection and culture. Whole-genome sequencing confirmed the identity of the inoculum and the tissue isolates. In these genetically identical mice, the dissemination of M. tuberculosis correlated with the results of the culture detection of four intestinal bacteria. These observations indicate that ingested M. tuberculosis mycobacteria can translocate, notably provoking lymphatic tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Translocação Bacteriana , Ingestão de Alimentos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Tuberculose/transmissão , Animais , Pulmão/microbiologia , Linfonodos/microbiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/fisiologia , Baço/microbiologia , Tuberculose/virologia
19.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 445, 2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810466

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oral vaccination with Mycobacterium bovis Bacille of Calmette and Guerin (BCG) has provided protection against M. bovis to badgers both experimentally and in the field. There is also evidence suggesting that the persistence of live BCG within the host is important for maintaining protection against TB. Here we investigated the capacity of badger inductive mucosal sites to absorb and maintain live BCG. The targeted mucosae were the oropharyngeal cavity (tonsils and sublingual area) and the small intestine (ileum). RESULTS: We showed that significant quantities of live BCG persisted within badger in tissues of vaccinated badgers for at least 8 weeks following oral vaccination with only very mild pathological features and induced the circulation of IFNγ-producing mononuclear cells. The uptake of live BCG by tonsils and drainage to retro-pharyngeal lymph nodes was repeatable in the animal group vaccinated by oropharyngeal instillation whereas those vaccinated directly in the ileum displayed a lower frequency of BCG detection in the enteric wall or draining mesenteric lymph nodes. No faecal excretion of live BCG was observed, including when BCG was delivered directly in the ileum. CONCLUSIONS: The apparent local loss of BCG viability suggests an unfavorable gastro-enteric environment for BCG in badgers, which should be taken in consideration when developing an oral vaccine for use in this species.


Assuntos
Administração Oral , Vacina BCG/administração & dosagem , Mustelidae/microbiologia , Mycobacterium bovis/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Vacina BCG/imunologia , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Íleo/microbiologia , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Linfonodos/microbiologia , Mycobacterium bovis/imunologia , Tuberculose/microbiologia , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Tuberculose/veterinária , Vacinação/veterinária
20.
J Comp Pathol ; 172: 1-4, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690406

RESUMO

Mycobacterium bovis is the main agent of bovine tuberculosis, but has also zoonotic potential. An 8-month-old female domestic shorthaired cat imported from Ukraine developed wound complications after abdominal surgery. A second surgery performed in Germany showed a focal, partly cystic mass within the mesentery. Despite antimicrobial treatment, the cat did not recover and was humanely destroyed. Grossly, several abdominal lymph nodes were enlarged. Histopathology revealed a mild to moderate, multifocal, granulomatous to pyogranulomatous, partially necrotizing inflammation, most prominent in the abdominal cavity. Within the lesions there were acid-fast bacilli within the cytoplasm of macrophages demonstrated by Ziehl-Neelsen staining. Further investigations revealed M. bovis SB0950 in the affected tissues.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium bovis/isolamento & purificação , Ferida Cirúrgica/microbiologia , Tuberculose Bovina/microbiologia , Animais , Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Gatos , Bovinos , Feminino , Linfonodos/microbiologia , Linfonodos/patologia , Macrófagos/microbiologia , Macrófagos/patologia , Ferida Cirúrgica/complicações , Zoonoses/microbiologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...