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1.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0227005, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887178

RESUMO

Human tuberculosis is a life-threatening infection following the inhalation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, while the closely related bacteria Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium canettii are thought to be transmitted by ingestion. To explore whether M. tuberculosis could also infect individuals by ingestion, male BALBc mice were fed 2 x 106 CFUs of M. tuberculosis Beijing or phosphate-buffered saline as a negative control, over a 28-day experiment. While eight negative control mice remained disease-free, M. tuberculosis was identified in the lymph nodes and lungs of 8/14 mice and in the spleens of 4/14 mice by microscopy, PCR-based detection and culture. Whole-genome sequencing confirmed the identity of the inoculum and the tissue isolates. In these genetically identical mice, the dissemination of M. tuberculosis correlated with the results of the culture detection of four intestinal bacteria. These observations indicate that ingested M. tuberculosis mycobacteria can translocate, notably provoking lymphatic tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Translocação Bacteriana , Ingestão de Alimentos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Tuberculose/transmissão , Animais , Pulmão/microbiologia , Linfonodos/microbiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/fisiologia , Baço/microbiologia , Tuberculose/virologia
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(39): e17221, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574832

RESUMO

To investigate the clinicopathological features and prognostic impact of Fusobacterium nucleatum (F nucleatum) status in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) and its relationships with microsatellite instability (MSI) status.Retrospective analysis of consecutive 91 CRC tissues from surgically resected specimens of stage III or high-risk stage II CRC patients who had received curative surgery in Wuhan Union Hospital from January, 2017 to January, 2019 was conducted. F nucleatum DNA was quantitatively measured and classified into 1 of the 2 categories: F nucleatum-high, or F nucleatum-low/negative. The Cox risk ratio model analysis was performed to identify independent risk factors of F nucleatum. F nucleatum-high group was compared with the F nucleatum-low/negative group with respect to clinicopathological features and their relationships with MSI status. Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test were used for univariate analysis of prognostic factors in patients with CRC.The number of total lymph node acquisition and positive lymph nodes, neurological invasion, vascular tumor thrombus were higher in F nucleatum-high group (27.44 ±â€Š25.213 vs 20.70 ±â€Š10.141; P = .018; 3.80 ±â€Š7.974 vs 1.74 ±â€Š3.531; P = .001; 68.0% vs 33.3%; P = .003; 60.0% vs 25.8%; P = .002). Moreover, microsatellite mutations were more frequent in patients with F nucleatum-high (84.0% vs 60.6%; P = .034). A higher abundance of F nucleatum in CRC is associated with a shorter survival time. The F nucleatum status, peripheral nerve invasion, vascular tumor thrombus, lymph node metastasis, and TNM staging were related factors affecting the prognosis of patients with CRC. The Cox risk ratio model analysis showed that the F nucleatum (odds ratio [OR] 2.094, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.178-8.122, P = .032) and MSI status (OR 2.243, 95% CI 1.136-5.865, P = 0.039) were independent prognostic factors.Intratumoral F nucleatum load has a poor prognostic effect of CRC by increasing nerve invasion, vascular tumor thrombus, and microsatellite mutation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/microbiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Fusobacterium nucleatum , Idoso , Carga Bacteriana , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Linfonodos/microbiologia , Linfonodos/patologia , Masculino , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
3.
J Microbiol ; 57(11): 1012-1018, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31555991

RESUMO

Although phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is typically considered a tumor-suppressor gene, it was recently suggested that PTEN regulates TLR5-induced immune and inflammatory responses in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), suggesting an immunomodulatory function of PTEN in the gut. However, this alternative function of PTEN has not yet been evaluated in an in vivo context of protection against enteropathogenic bacteria. To address this, we utilized IEC-restricted Pten knockout (PtenΔIEC/ΔIEC) and littermate Pten+/+ mice. These mice were subjected to the streptomycin-pre-treated mouse model of Salmonella infection, and subsequently given an oral gavage of a low inoculum (2 × 104 CFU) of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium). This bacterial infection not only increased the mortality of PtenΔIEC/ΔIEC mice compared to Pten+/+ mice, but also induced deleterious gastrointestinal inflammation in PtenΔIEC/ΔIEC mice manifested by massive histological damage to the intestinal mucosa. S. Typhimurium infection up-regulated pro-inflammatory cytokine production in the intestine of PtenΔIEC/ΔIEC mice compared to controls. Furthermore, bacterial loads were greatly increased in the liver, mesenteric lymph node, and spleen of PtenΔIEC/ΔIEC mice compared to controls. Together, these results suggest that IEC-restricted Pten deficiency renders the host greatly susceptible to Salmonella infection and support an immune-regulatory role of PTEN in the gut.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais/imunologia , Deleção de Genes , Intestinos/imunologia , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Infecções por Salmonella/imunologia , Salmonella typhimurium/imunologia , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Epiteliais/microbiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Fígado/microbiologia , Fígado/patologia , Linfonodos/microbiologia , Linfonodos/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/metabolismo , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/patologia , Baço/microbiologia , Baço/patologia , Receptores Toll-Like
4.
Indian J Tuberc ; 66(3): 402-406, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31439187

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of Cartridge based Nucleic Acid Amplification test (CBNAAT) in the diagnosis of lymphnode TB which helps in reducing the mortality and morbidity by early identification and initiating treatment at the earliest. Also helps in identify the drug resistance among tubercular lymphnodes cases. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective clinical study was performed in 101 suspected lymph node tuberculosis patients. The results of FNAC and/or excision biopsy of lymphnode samples obtained by CBNAAT were compared with direct smear microscopy for AFB bacilli, cytology and their combination considering AFB culture as gold standard. RESULTS: A total of 101 patients were evaluated of which 74 subjects (73.3%) were CBNAAT positive for TB. Among the CBNAAT positive cases, 57 were aged above 16 years, 38 were females, equal number (37) had single and multiple lymphnodes, 46 had less than 1cm size lymphnodes, 69 had lymphnode in neck region, 65 had chest X-ray normal. Among CBNAAT positive 74 subjects, 53 subjects (71.6%) were positive for AFB direct smear, 64 subjects (86.48%) were cytology consistent with TB and their combination were positive for TB in 71 subjects (95.94%) and 71 subjects (95.94%) were positive by AFB culture and 3 cases (0.04%) showed Rifampicin resistance. CONCLUSION: CBNAAT is a rapid diagnostic tool having sensitivity of 93.42% with specificity of 86.96% and positive predictive value of 95.95% and having comparable results with AFB culture and more sensitive than other investigation procedures. Thus it can be a rule in test for lymphnode TB.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Biópsia , Feminino , Humanos , Linfonodos/microbiologia , Masculino , Pescoço , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Tórax , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/microbiologia , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/patologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0218547, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306432

RESUMO

Bovine tuberculosis is a chronic inflammatory disease that causes granuloma formation. Characterization of granulomatous lesions of Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) experimentally infected cattle has helped to better understand the pathogenesis of this disease. However, few studies have described granulomas found in M. bovis naturally infected cattle. The aim of this work was to examine granulomas from Holstein-Friesian cattle naturally infected with M. bovis from a dairy basin located in the central region of Mexico. Tissue samples from thirty-two cattle with lesions suggestive of tuberculosis were collected post-mortem. Fifteen of the 32 sampled animals (46.8%) were 4 months of age or younger (calves), whereas the rest (53.2%, 17/32) were over one year old (adults). Macroscopic lesions suggestive of tuberculosis were found in the mediastinal lymph node chain of all animals (32/32). From the 1,143 granulomatous lesions that were microscopically analyzed, 34.6% (396/1143) were collected from adult animals and subsequently classified according to the nomenclature suggested by Wangoo et al., 2005. Surprisingly, lesions from calf tissues showed an atypical pattern which could not be fitted into the established developmental stages of this classification. Granulomatous lesions found in calves covered most of the affected organ, histologically showed large necrotic areas with central calcification, absence of a connective tissue capsule, and few giant cells. Also, there was a higher percentage of lesions with acid-fast bacilli (AFB) when compared to studied granulomas in adults. Growth of Mycobacterium spp was detected in 11 bacteriological tissue cultures. Genotypic identification of M. bovis was performed by DNA extraction from bacterial isolates, formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues and samples without bacterial isolation. M. bovis was detected by PCR in 84.3% (27/32) of the studied cases; whereas other AFB were observed in tissues of the remaining sampled animals (5/32). Our results describe atypical granuloma formation in calves 4 months of age or younger, naturally infected with M. bovis. These findings contribute to better understanding the physiopathology of M. bovis infection in cattle.


Assuntos
Granuloma , Mycobacterium bovis , Tuberculose Bovina , Animais , Bovinos , Granuloma/genética , Granuloma/metabolismo , Granuloma/microbiologia , Granuloma/veterinária , Linfonodos/microbiologia , Linfonodos/patologia , México , Mycobacterium bovis/genética , Mycobacterium bovis/metabolismo , Especificidade de Órgãos , Tuberculose Bovina/genética , Tuberculose Bovina/metabolismo , Tuberculose Bovina/patologia
7.
Curr Pharm Biotechnol ; 20(12): 1044-1054, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31333119

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of conventional methods for superficial lymph node tuberculosis (LNTB) are not ideal. We evaluated several novel methods including Xpert Mycobacterium tuberculosis/rifampicin (Xpert MTB/RIF) technology, quantitative fluorescence Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) and High-Resolution Melting Curve (HRMC) in the diagnosis of superficial lymph node TB. METHODS: Specimens from eighty-one consecutive patients with suspected LNTB and thirteen cases with other lymph node disease were analyzed by Xpert MTB/RIF, qPCR, and HRMC. RESULTS: Among 81 patients with clinical suspicion of LNTB, there were 74 (91.4%) cases positive Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex (MTBC) of Xpert MTB/RIF, 60 (74%) positive of qPCR, 24 (29.6%) of positive of BACTEC MGIT960 culture, and 13 (16%) cases positive of Roche culture. 38 cases (46.9%) were diagnosed with LNTB. All test methods showed a diagnostic specificity of 100% for LNTB. The sensitivity of molecular biology techniques was significantly higher than that of the traditional diagnostic methods, and Xpert MTB/RIF was the most sensitive diagnostic assay. On Rifampinresistant detection, Xpert MTB/RIF detected three cases (3.7%) with rpoB gene mutation, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis susceptibility testing detected 2 rifampicin-resistant cases (2.4%) which were consistent with Xpert MTB/RIF results. In the Isoniazid-resistant, 7 cases (8.1) of isoniazid resistance mutations (8.1%) were detected by HNC and 1 case was confirmed by Isoniazid susceptibility test. CONCLUSION: Molecular detection increased the diagnostic sensitivity of LNTB and improved the detection sensitivity for rifampin and isoniazid resistance strain.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfonodos/microbiologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Rifampina/farmacologia , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/microbiologia , Antibióticos Antituberculose , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , RNA Polimerases Dirigidas por DNA/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Humanos , Mutação , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/diagnóstico
8.
Microb Pathog ; 135: 103628, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31325572

RESUMO

Caseous lymphadenitis is an infectious disease of almost all animals, particularly small ruminants that are caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. The organism causes the formation of suppurative abscesses in superficial and visceral lymph nodes and in visceral organs. This current study was designed to elucidate the clinicopathological responses and PCR detection of the aetiological agent in the vital organs of goats challenged with C. pseudotuberculosis and its immunogenic mycolic acid extract. A total of twelve clinically healthy crossbred Boer female goats were divided into three groups: A, B, and C (four goats per group). Group A was inoculated intradermally with 2 ml of sterile phosphate buffered saline (PBS) pH 7 as a control group. Group B was inoculated intradermally with 2 ml of mycolic acid extract (1 g/ml), while group C was inoculated intradermally with 2 ml of 109 colony-forming unit (cfu) of live C. pseudotuberculosis. The experimental animals were observed for clinical responses for 90 days post-inoculation and the clinical signs were scored according to the severity. The clinical signs observed in this study were temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, rumen motility, enlargement of lymph nodes, and body condition score. The experimental animals were euthanised and tissue samples from different anatomical regions of the vital organs were collected in 10% buffered formalin, processed, sectioned, and stained with H&E. Results of both C. pseudotuberculosis and mycolic acid treated groups indicated a significant difference (p < 0.05) in body temperature. Group C showed a significant increase in temperature (p < 0.05) at week 1 (39.59 ±â€¯0.29 °C), week 2 (39.67 ±â€¯0.27 °C) and week 3 (40.22 ±â€¯0.15 °C). Whereas group B showed a significant increase in temperature (p < 0.05) only at week 1 (39.36 ±â€¯0.14 °C). Heart rate in group C showed a significant increase between week 1 (93.35 ±â€¯0.42 bpm) and week 11 (86.52 ±â€¯1.32 bpm), and the mean heart rate of group B showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) between week 1 (89.90 ±â€¯0.60 bpm) and week 9 (86.90 ±â€¯0.99 bpm). Group C showed a significant increase of respiratory rate (p < 0.05) at week 1 (36.85 ±â€¯0.14 bpm), week 2 (36.90 ±â€¯0.62), week 3 (30.80 ±â€¯1.97 bpm), and week 4 (34.85 ±â€¯1.19 bpm). The mean of the respiratory rate of group B only increased at week 1 (32.98 ±â€¯1.30 bpm) and week 2 (31.87 ±â€¯0.48 bpm). Both groups C & B showed significant decreases in rumen motility and body condition score as compared to the control. The histopathological changes were significant in group C, this was shown by mild to severe haemorrhage, congestion, degeneration and necrosis, oedema, infiltration with inflammatory cells mainly lymphocytes and macrophages, while group B was less affected and showed mild to moderate haemorrhage, congestion, degeneration and necrosis, infiltration of inflammatory cells and oedema as compared to the control group. This study concluded that C. pseudotuberculosis caused typical CLA disease with a short incubation period in the experiment. While the mycolic acid extracted from C. pseudotuberculosis caused mild clinical signs, no abscess formation, and negative PCR result. Moreover, evidence of mild to moderate histopathological changes in vital organs was also observed.


Assuntos
Infecções por Corynebacterium/diagnóstico , Infecções por Corynebacterium/microbiologia , Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis/metabolismo , Doenças das Cabras/diagnóstico , Doenças das Cabras/microbiologia , Ácidos Micólicos/imunologia , Ácidos Micólicos/metabolismo , Abscesso/microbiologia , Animais , Temperatura Corporal , Infecções por Corynebacterium/patologia , Infecções por Corynebacterium/fisiopatologia , Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis/genética , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/patologia , Doenças das Cabras/fisiopatologia , Cabras , Coração , Frequência Cardíaca , Rim/patologia , Contagem de Leucócitos , Fígado/patologia , Pulmão/patologia , Linfonodos/microbiologia , Linfadenite/diagnóstico , Linfadenite/imunologia , Linfadenite/microbiologia , Linfadenite/fisiopatologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Taxa Respiratória , Baço/patologia
9.
Immunol Res ; 67(2-3): 182-193, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187451

RESUMO

Bacterial catalase is important for intracellular survival of the bacteria. This protein of Propionibacterium acnes, one of possible causes of sarcoidosis, induces hypersensitive Th1 immune responses in sarcoidosis patients. We examined catalase expression in cultured P. acnes isolated from 19 sarcoid and 18 control lymph nodes and immunohistochemical localization of the protein in lymph nodes from 43 sarcoidosis and 102 control patients using a novel P. acnes-specific antibody (PAC) that reacts with the catalase protein, together with the previously reported P. acnes-specific PAB and TIG antibodies. High catalase expression of P. acnes cells was found during stationary phase in more isolates from sarcoid than from non-sarcoid lymph nodes and was associated with bacterial survival under H2O2-induced oxidative stress. In many sarcoid and some control lymph nodes, catalase expression was detected at the outer margins of PAB-reactive Hamazaki-Wesenberg (HW) bodies in sinus macrophages, the same location as catalase expression on the surface of cultured P. acnes and the same distribution as bacterial cell membrane-bound lipoteichoic acid in HW bodies. Some or no catalase expression was detected in sarcoid granulomas with PAB reactivity or in clustered paracortical macrophages packed with many PAB-reactive small-round bodies. HW bodies expressing catalase may be persistent P. acnes in sinus macrophages whereas PAB-reactive small-round bodies with undetectable catalase may be activated P. acnes proliferating in paracortical macrophages. Intracellular proliferation of P. acnes in paracortical macrophages may lead to granuloma formation by this commensal bacterium in sarcoidosis patients with Th1 hypersensitivity to certain P. acnes antigens, including catalase.


Assuntos
Catalase/genética , Expressão Gênica , Linfonodos/imunologia , Linfonodos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Propionibacterium acnes/genética , Propionibacterium acnes/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Especificidade de Anticorpos , Bactérias , Biópsia , Catalase/imunologia , Catalase/metabolismo , Feminino , Imunofluorescência , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Linfonodos/microbiologia , Linfonodos/patologia , Macrófagos/microbiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Oxidativo , Propionibacterium acnes/enzimologia , Sarcoidose/etiologia , Sarcoidose/metabolismo , Sarcoidose/patologia
10.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 4878240, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31236407

RESUMO

Objectives: To evaluate the performance of Xpert MTB/RIF for lymph node tuberculosis (LNTB). Methods: We searched databases for published reports. We reviewed the studies and identified the performance of Xpert MTB/RIF with respect to a composite reference standard (CRS) and culture. We used a bivariate random-effects model to perform meta-analyses and used metaregression to analyze sources of heterogeneity. Results: 15 independent studies compared Xpert MTB/RIF with CRS while 21 comparing it with culture were included. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of Xpert MTB/RIF were 79% and 98% compared to that of CRS, respectively, and 84% and 91% compared to that of culture, respectively. The pooled sensitivity and specificity using fine needle aspiration (FNA) samples versus CRS were 80% and 96%, whereas those against culture were 90% and 89%, respectively. The percentages while working with tissue samples versus CRS were 76% and 100%, respectively, whereas those against culture were 76% and 92%, respectively. There was no significant difference in diagnostic efficiency among the types of specimen. Conclusions: Xpert MTB/RIF demonstrates good diagnostic efficiency for LNTB and is not related to the type of specimen, obtained via different routes.


Assuntos
Linfonodos/microbiologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Bioensaio/métodos , Humanos , Linfonodos/patologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/patogenicidade , Padrões de Referência , Rifampina/química , Tuberculose/microbiologia
11.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 199, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196135

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of the present study was to assess if the exposure to glutamine (Gln), arginine (Arg) or their combination from pregnancy, through the maternal diet, to a post weaning supplemented diet, can stimulate litter performance, gut development and immune function. To this end does and their litters were fed the same basal diet no supplemented (control C), or supplemented with 0.4% Gln, 0.4% Arg, or 0.4 Gln + 0.4 Arg. Rabbits were weaned at 25 d of age and fed the same experimental diet as their mothers for 10 additional days (35 d of age). Bacterial translocation to mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) at 6 d of age and intestinal histology, enzymatic activity, phenotypical and functional analysis of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) from the appendix were determined at 6, 25 and 35 d of age. RESULTS: No significant differences on animal performance or mortality rates were observed among dietary treatments. However, kits from rabbit does supplemented with Gln tended (P ≤ 0.10) to reduce the translocation of total number of both aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria to the MLN. Also, rabbits fed the Gln supplemented diets maintained intestinal villous height at weaning compared to the non-supplemented diets (P < 0.05). The proportions of CD45+CD4+ and CD45+CD8+ IEL in the appendix were not affected by dietary means. However, in rabbits IEL at weaning dietary Gln significantly upregulated IL-2 and downregulated IL-6 expression. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a lack of effect on performance and mortality the inclusion of 0.4% Gln has a positive effect by maintaining intestinal villous height and modulating the cytokine profile at weaning. The supplementation with Arg or Arg + Gln at the selected doses in this study did not exert positive effects on rabbit intestinal health.


Assuntos
Arginina/farmacologia , Dieta/veterinária , Glutamina/farmacologia , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Arginina/administração & dosagem , Bactérias , Feminino , Glutamina/administração & dosagem , Intestinos/anatomia & histologia , Intestinos/enzimologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Linfócitos Intraepiteliais/fisiologia , Linfonodos/microbiologia , Masculino , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Coelhos , Desmame
12.
Future Microbiol ; 14: 705-716, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31161794

RESUMO

Aim: Aspergillus fumigatus is one of the most common opportunistic fungi that can cause invasive infection. To profile the kinetic variation of immune cells and cytokines after exposure to A. fumigatus thoroughly, we established a pulmonary A. fumigatus infection model in temporarily immunosuppressed mice. Materials & methods: Systematic and kinetic studies of different immune cells and cytokines were performed. Results: We observed that the granulocytes and macrophages recruited to the site of infection played an important role in the infectious phase. There was a significant increase in the cytokines IFN-γ, IL-6, TNF-α as well as the chemokines CXCL1, MIP-1α, MIP-2 and CCL5 after infection. IL-10 was found to participate in balancing the anti-inflammatory response in the recovery phases. The immune response mediated by T cells was mainly presented by the Th1-type on day 7 after exposure with a high proportion of IFN-γ+ CD4+ T cells and CD4+CD44highCD62Llow effector T cells. Conclusion: These kinetic parameters of the immune response might provide diagnostic clues for A. fumigatus infection.


Assuntos
Aspergilose/imunologia , Aspergillus fumigatus/patogenicidade , Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Animais , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos , Quimiocina CCL3/metabolismo , Quimiocina CCL5/metabolismo , Quimiocina CXCL1/metabolismo , Quimiocina CXCL2/metabolismo , Quimiocinas/sangue , Citocinas/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Cinética , Pulmão/microbiologia , Pulmão/patologia , Linfonodos/microbiologia , Linfonodos/patologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Células Th1/imunologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
13.
Int J Mycobacteriol ; 8(2): 132-137, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31210154

RESUMO

Background: The objective of this study is to assess the performance of Xpert Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)/rifampin (RIF), an automated molecular test for MTB and resistance to RIF, against smear microscopy and culture method for the diagnosis of MTB infection. Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of 168 nonrespiratory patient specimens suspected of tuberculosis (TB) at TB Laboratory of Dubai Health Authority in the United Arab Emirates between September 2016 and November 2018. Each sample underwent smear microscopy, mycobacterial culture, and GeneXpert MTB/RIF test. Results: Of 168 nonrespiratory samples, 52 samples were positive by both culture and Xpert MTB/RIF, 9 samples were detected positive only by culture. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative value of the Xpert MTB/RIF test were 82.69%, 100%, 100%, and 92.80%, respectively. No false positive was yielded by the Xpert MTB/RIF, and all 116 samples were true negative by Xpert MTB/RIF. The sensitivity of the Xpert MTB/RIF was 76.92% in lymph node tissue and aspirates, 66.67% in cerebrospinal fluid, 100% in gastric lavage and aspirate, 81.25% in other body fluids, 100% in pus, 85.71% in urine, and 66.67% in other tissue samples. Of 168 strains, five strains were rifampicin resistant by phenotypic and Xpert MTB/RIF and 163 were susceptible to rifampicin with culture and Xpert MTB/RIF. Conclusion: The performance of Xpert MTB/RIF assay was comparable to the gold standard culture method for identification of MTB in nonrespiratory clinical specimens. It does not replace the gold standard culture method, but it helps to achieve better sensitivity and obtain rapid results within 2 h.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/normas , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Rifampina/farmacologia , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Antibióticos Antituberculose/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Linfonodos/microbiologia , Masculino , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico/normas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tuberculose/microbiologia
14.
Vet Res ; 50(1): 45, 2019 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215485

RESUMO

Field studies on Salmonella infection in suckling piglets are scarce due to the intrinsic difficulties of collecting proper samples (i.e. tonsils or mesenteric lymph nodes), and most of them rely on the analysis of rectal swabs that limit their accuracy. We used 495 slaughtered 4-weeks-old male piglets intended for human consumption from 5 Salmonella-seropositive breeding farms to collect gastrointestinal packages and perform a thorough detection of Salmonella on mesenteric lymph nodes and intestinal content. The overall prevalence of both infection and shedding was high (≈ 36%) indicating that piglets played an active role in Salmonella maintenance in the farms. Major serotypes found in piglets included 4,[5],12:i: (35.4%), Rissen (17.1%), Derby (10.9%) and Bovismorbificans (10.3%). In most of the infected animals (72.8%) the same serotype was found in mesenteric lymph nodes and feces. Significant higher ELISA OD% values were found in meat juice samples from non-infected piglets compared to infected ones (median OD% of 12.0 and 17.3, respectively; P = 0.002) suggesting some protective effect of sow's colostrum. Salmonella was also isolated from feces from weaned sows contemporary of the slaughtered piglets, and 89% of the serotypes identified in sows were also detected in piglets. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis analyses showed that 75% of the piglet isolates that were compared to those of sows were related to them, suggesting the circulation of Salmonella strains between sows and piglets. It appears that improving piglet colostrum intake along with the reduction of the shedding in sows may favor the control of Salmonella infection in breeding farms.


Assuntos
Derrame de Bactérias , Salmonelose Animal/epidemiologia , Salmonella/fisiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Desmame , Animais , Intestinos/microbiologia , Linfonodos/microbiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Salmonelose Animal/prevenção & controle , Salmonelose Animal/transmissão , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Suínos/transmissão
15.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 132(10): 1179-1187, 2019 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31140989

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antibiotics are frequently used to treat critically ill patients, and its use is often accompanied by intestinal dysbiosis that might further lead to bacterial translocation (BT). Nevertheless, studies on the relationship between antibiotic therapy and BT are rare. In the present study, we investigated the effect of broad-spectrum antibiotics on BT in an experimental rat model of burn or sepsis injury. METHODS: The septic rat model was simulated by a second insult with lipopolysaccharides after burn injury. Ninety-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control, burn, and sepsis groups (n = 8 or 9, each group), and the latter two groups were then treated with imipenem or ceftriaxone for 3 or 9 days. The mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and blood were collected at each time point under sterile conditions for quantitative bacterial culture and strain identification. The differences between the groups were compared by Fisher exact test or Mann-Whitney U test. RESULTS: Only minimal Escherichia coli translocation to the mesenteric lymph nodes was observed in the normal control group, in which the BT rate was 12.5%. Burn injury did not affect the BT rate (Burn group vs. Control group, 12.5% vs. 12.5%, P = 1.000), whereas the BT rate showed an increased trend after the second insult with lipopolysaccharide (Sepsis group vs. Control group, 44.4% vs. 12.5%, P = 0.294), and many strains of Enterobacteria spp. were detected in distant organs (liver, lung, and blood) [Sepsis group vs. Control group, 0 (0,3) vs. 0 (0,0), U = 20, P = 0.045]. After the antibiotic treatment, BT to the distant organs was increased in burned rats [Burn IT3 group vs. Burn group, 0 (0,2) vs. 0 (0,0); Burn IT9 group vs. Burn group, 0 (0,1) vs. 0 (0,0); Burn CT9 group vs. Burn group, 0 (0,2) vs. 0 (0,0); all U = 20 and P = 0.076] but decreased in septic rats [Sepsis CT3 group vs. Sepsis group, 0 (0,0) vs. 0 (0,3), U = 20, P = 0.045]. The total amount of translocated bacteria, regardless of which antibiotic was used, was increased in burned rats [Burn IT9 group vs. Burn group, 2.389 (0,2.845) vs. 0 (0,2.301) Log10 colony-forming units (CFU)/g, U = 14, P = 0.034; Burn CT3 group vs. Burn group, 2.602 (0,3.633) vs. 0 (0,2.301) Log10 CFU/g, U = 10.5, P = 0.009], but there was a slightly decreased trend in septic rats [Sepsis IT9 group vs. Sepsis group, 2.301 (2,3.146) vs. 0 (0,4.185) Log10 CFU/g, U = 36, P = 0.721; Sepsis CT9 group vs. Sepsis group, 2 (0,3.279) vs. 0 (0,4.185) Log10 CFU/g, U = 32.5, P = 0.760]. Remarkably, the quantity of Enterococci spp. dramatically increased after broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment in both the burned and septic groups [Burn IT3 group vs. Burn group, 1 (0,5.164) vs. 0 (0,0) Log10 CFU/g, U = 16; Burn IT9 group vs. Burn group, 1 (0,2.845) vs. 0 (0,0) Log10 CFU/g, U = 16; Burn CT3 group vs. Burn group, 2.602 (0,3.633) vs. 0 (0,0) Log10 CFU/g, U = 8; Burn CT9 group vs. Burn group, 1 (0,4.326) vs. 0 (0,0) Log10 CFU/g, U = 16; Sepsis IT3 group vs. Sepsis group, 2.477 (0,2.903) vs. 0 (0,0) Log10 CFU/g, U = 4.5; Sepsis IT9 group vs. Sepsis group, 2 (0,3.146) vs. 0 (0,0) Log10 CFU/g, U = 9; Sepsis CT3 group vs. Sepsis group, 1.151 (0,2.477) vs. 0 (0,0) Log10 CFU/g, U = 18; Sepsis CT9 group vs. Sepsis group, 2 (0,3) vs. 0 (0,0) Log10 CFU/g, U = 13.5; all P < 0.05]. CONCLUSIONS: Broad-spectrum antibiotics promote BT in burned rats but prevent BT in septic rats, especially preventing BT to distant organs, such as the liver and lung. Moreover, Enterococci spp. with high drug resistance and high pathogenicity translocated most after antibiotic treatment.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Translocação Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Queimaduras/tratamento farmacológico , Queimaduras/microbiologia , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Sepse/microbiologia , Animais , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/patogenicidade , Fígado/microbiologia , Pulmão/microbiologia , Linfonodos/microbiologia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
17.
Vet Microbiol ; 231: 147-153, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30955802

RESUMO

Salmonella serovars Derby, Typhimurium and the monophasic variant of Salmonella Typhimurium are the most frequently isolated serovars in pigs in France. To compare the excretion patterns, seroconversion to Salmonella and contamination of the organs of pigs inoculated with strains of all three serovars, we conducted an experimental trial with 28 SPF piglets. Four were used as a negative control, while the other 24 were divided equally into three groups. Each group was inoculated at 7 weeks of age with a different strain: S. Derby (SDb), S. Typhimurium (ST), and the monophasic variant of S. Typhimurium (mST). Fecal and blood samples were collected twice a week up until necropsy, on 21 days post-inoculation (DPI) for half of each group and 49 DPI for the remaining piglets. During necropsy, the tonsils, mesenteric lymph nodes and various intestinal contents were collected from each pig. Salmonella bacteria were quantified in CFU/g by a bacteriological method, and levels of Salmonella antibodies were measured using an ELISA Kit. Piglets inoculated with mST continuously excreted Salmonella in their feces throughout the trial. For each of the other serovars, one piglet was Salmonella-negative on one DPI. The quantity of Salmonella excreted was statistically different between the group inoculated with ST and mST (p < 0.05), but no differences were found between the other serovars. The tonsils, cecum and jejunum were the most contaminated organs in all groups. Seroconversion for all the piglets was completed by different DPI: 28 for ST, 31 for mST and 38 for SDb. No major differences were found in terms of excretion and colonization among the studied serovars.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Salmonelose Animal/imunologia , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Salmonella typhimurium/classificação , Salmonella/classificação , Animais , Derrame de Bactérias , Ceco/microbiologia , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Fezes/microbiologia , Linfonodos/microbiologia , Sorogrupo , Testes Sorológicos , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/imunologia , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia
18.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0215647, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31002716

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Tuberculous lymphadenitis is the most frequent form of extra-pulmonary TB (EPTB) and accounts for a considerable proportion of all EPTB cases. We conducted a systematic review of articles that described the epidemiological features of TBLN in Africa. METHODS: Any article that characterized TBLN cases with respect to demographic, exposure and clinical features were included. Article search was restricted to African countries and those published in English language irrespective of publication year. The articles were retrieved from the electronic database of PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane library and Lens.org. Random effect pooled prevalence with 95% CI was computed based on Dersimonian and Laird method. To stabilize the variance, Freeman-Tukey double arcsine root transformation was done. The data were analyzed using Stata 14. RESULTS: Of the total 833 articles retrieved, twenty-eight articles from 12 African countries fulfilled the eligibility criteria. A total of 6746 TBLN cases were identified. The majority of the cases, 4762 (70.6%) were from Ethiopia. Over 77% and 88% of identified TBLN were cervical in type and naïve to TB drugs. Among the total number of TBLN cases, 53% were female, 68% were in the age range of 15-44 years, 52% had a history of livestock exposure, 46% had a history of consuming raw milk/meat and 24% had history of BCG vaccination. The proportion of TBLN/HIV co-infection was much lower in Ethiopia (21%) than in other African countries (73%) and the overall African estimate (52%). Fever was recorded in 45%, night sweating in 55%, weight loss in 62% and cough for longer than two weeks in 32% of the TBLN cases. CONCLUSIONS: TBLN was more common in females than in males. The high prevalence of TBLN in Ethiopia did not show directional correlation with HIV. Population based prospective studies are warranted to better define the risk factors of TBLN in Africa.


Assuntos
Linfonodos/patologia , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , África/epidemiologia , Animais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Linfonodos/microbiologia , Masculino , Mycobacterium bovis/isolamento & purificação , Mycobacterium bovis/fisiologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/fisiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/diagnóstico , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 69(5): 1443-1451, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30882297

RESUMO

A Gram-stain-positive, non-spore-forming, catalase-positive and facultatively anaerobic coccus, designated ZY16052T, was isolated from mesenteric lymph nodes of a sick piglet in Kunming, Yunnan Province, PR China and its taxonomic position was studied by following a polyphasic approach. Optimal growth was observed at 37 °C, pH 8.0 and 2 % NaCl (w/v) on Columbia agar. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain ZY16052T formed a separated evolutionary lineage from recognized genera of the family Aerococcaceae and shared low similarity to its closest related species Facklamiasourekii (93.8 %) and Ignavigranum ruoffiae (93.4 %). Phylogenetic analysis based on the housekeeping gene recA indicated that strain ZY16052T represented a deep and distinct evolutionary lineage, and was well separated from all genera in the family Aerococcaceae, with very low sequence similarity(≤73.2 %). Sequence analysis based on the housekeeping gene rpoA indicated that strain ZY16052T shared very low similarity ≤77.0 % to related genera. The genomic OrthoANI values between strain ZY16052T and type species of related genera in the family Aerococcaceae and species in the genus Facklamia were ≤67.77 and ≤68.11 %, respectively. The genomic G+C content was 42.3 mol%. The predominant fatty acids (>5 %) were C16 : 0, C18 : 1ω9c, C14 : 0 and summed feature 5 (C18 : 2ω6,9c and/or C18 : 0 ante). The major polar lipids were digalactosyldiacylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, diacylglycerols, triacylglycerol and phosphatidic acid. The peptidoglycan contained the amino acids lysine, glycine, alanine and glutamic acid, which is characteristic of peptidoglycan type A1a. Based on the phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence, we propose that the unknown bacterium be classified as Suicoccus acidiformans gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain of Suicoccus acidiformans is ZY16052T (=CCTCC AB 2017017T=DSM 105755T).


Assuntos
Aerococcaceae/classificação , Linfonodos/microbiologia , Filogenia , Suínos/microbiologia , Aerococcaceae/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , China , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Genes Bacterianos , Peptidoglicano/química , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
20.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0213846, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30917151

RESUMO

Despite low infectious potential of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB), it poses significant clinical challenges in terms of diagnosis and treatment monitoring. Understanding the main demographical risk factors for disease characteristics of EPTB plays a crucial role in speeding up diagnosis process and improving overall clinical experience. The aim of this study was to investigate the main demographical and clinical risk factors for EPTB among adults and adolescents for the first time in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional multicenter study was carried out on a collection of 902 extrapulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) isolates with demographical and clinical data. All isolates were subjected to spoligotyping and 24-loci based MIRU-VNTR typing. The association between two potential variables was assessed using odd ratios (OR) calculations. Independent risk factors for EPTB and diseases characteristics of EPTB were identified using multivariate regression model analyses. Gender was found to be significantly associated with lymph node, gastrointestinal, central nervous system and urogenital TB. Lymph node TB showed statistical association to age group below 25 years, non-Saudis and South East Asian ethnicity. While gastrointestinal TB demonstrated an association with patients above 60 years old, and Saudis. Multivariate analysis showed that gender is an independent risk factor to urogenital TB (p 0.03) and lymph node TB (p 0.005). On the other hands, South Asian (p 0.01) and South East Asian (p 0.03) ethnicities were both identified as independent risk factors significantly associated with EPTB. MTBC lineages, site of infections, gender, HIV and smear positivity showed no significant association. Nationwide qualitative-studies are highly warranted in the future to further understand the main demographic risk factors for disease characteristics of EPTB.


Assuntos
Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Sistema Nervoso Central/microbiologia , Estudos Transversais , Demografia , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Humanos , Linfonodos/microbiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
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