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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19458, 2021 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593911

RESUMO

Efficacious therapeutics for Ebola virus disease are in great demand. Ebola virus infections mediated by mucosal exposure, and aerosolization in particular, present a novel challenge due to nontypical massive early infection of respiratory lymphoid tissues. We performed a randomized and blinded study to compare outcomes from vehicle-treated and remdesivir-treated rhesus monkeys in a lethal model of infection resulting from aerosolized Ebola virus exposure. Remdesivir treatment initiated 4 days after exposure was associated with a significant survival benefit, significant reduction in serum viral titer, and improvements in clinical pathology biomarker levels and lung histology compared to vehicle treatment. These observations indicate that remdesivir may have value in countering aerosol-induced Ebola virus disease.


Assuntos
Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Antivirais/farmacologia , Ebolavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/tratamento farmacológico , Monofosfato de Adenosina/administração & dosagem , Monofosfato de Adenosina/farmacologia , Administração Intravenosa , Aerossóis , Alanina/administração & dosagem , Alanina/farmacologia , Animais , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/sangue , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/virologia , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Linfonodos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfonodos/patologia , Linfonodos/virologia , Macaca mulatta , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/virologia , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Viremia/tratamento farmacológico
2.
Arch Virol ; 166(11): 3127-3141, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34529151

RESUMO

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), which inflicts major economic losses on the global pig farming industry. Based on its similarity to highly pathogenic strains, the GDzj strain isolated in this study was predicted to be highly pathogenic. We therefore analyzed the pathogenicity of this strain experimentally in piglets. All piglets challenged with this virus experienced fever or high fever, loss of appetite, decreased food intake, daily weight loss, shortness of breath, and listlessness, and the necropsy results showed that they had experienced severe interstitial pneumonia. We then used the BAC system to construct a full-length cDNA infectious clone of GDzj, and the rescued virus displayed in vitro proliferation characteristics similar to those of the parental PRRSV strain. In summary, we successfully isolated a highly pathogenic PRRSV strain and constructed a full-length infectious cDNA clone from it, thereby providing an effective reverse genetics platform for further study of viral pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/etiologia , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/genética , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/patogenicidade , Animais , Cromossomos Artificiais Bacterianos , DNA Complementar/genética , Genoma Viral , Pulmão/virologia , Linfonodos/patologia , Linfonodos/virologia , Filogenia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/virologia , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/isolamento & purificação , Suínos
3.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372615

RESUMO

Lymphopenia is a frequent hematological manifestation, associated with a severe course of COVID-19, with an insufficiently understood pathogenesis. We present molecular genetic immunohistochemical, and electron microscopic data on SARS-CoV-2 dissemination and viral load (VL) in lungs, mediastinum lymph nodes, and the spleen of 36 patients who died from COVID-19. Lymphopenia <1 × 109/L was observed in 23 of 36 (63.8%) patients. In 12 of 36 cases (33%) SARS-CoV-2 was found in lung tissues only with a median VL of 239 copies (range 18-1952) SARS-CoV-2 cDNA per 100 copies of ABL1. Histomorphological changes corresponding to bronchopneumonia and the proliferative phase of DAD were observed in these cases. SARS-CoV-2 dissemination into the lungs, lymph nodes, and spleen was detected in 23 of 36 patients (58.4%) and was associated with the exudative phase of DAD in most of these cases. The median VL in the lungs was 12,116 copies (range 810-250281), lymph nodes-832 copies (range 96-11586), and spleen-71.5 copies (range 0-2899). SARS-CoV-2 in all cases belonged to the 19A strain. A immunohistochemical study revealed SARS-CoV-2 proteins in pneumocytes, alveolar macrophages, and bronchiolar epithelial cells in lung tissue, sinus histiocytes of lymph nodes, as well as cells of the Billroth pulp cords and spleen capsule. SARS-CoV-2 particles were detected by transmission electron microscopy in the cytoplasm of the endothelial cell, macrophages, and lymphocytes. The infection of lymphocytes with SARS-CoV-2 that we discovered for the first time may indicate a possible link between lymphopenia and SARS-CoV-2-mediated cytotoxic effect.


Assuntos
COVID-19/virologia , Pulmão/virologia , Linfonodos/virologia , Linfopenia/virologia , Mediastino/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Baço/virologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Teste para COVID-19 , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Pulmão/patologia , Linfopenia/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Carga Viral
4.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452415

RESUMO

The emergence and ensuing dominance of COVID-19 on the world stage has emphasized the urgency of efficient animal models for the development of therapeutics for and assessment of immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Shortcomings of current animal models for SARS-CoV-2 include limited lower respiratory disease, divergence from clinical COVID-19 disease, and requirements for host genetic modifications to permit infection. In this study, n = 12 specific-pathogen-free domestic cats were infected intratracheally with SARS-CoV-2 to evaluate clinical disease, histopathologic lesions, and viral infection kinetics at 4 and 8 days post-inoculation; n = 6 sham-inoculated cats served as controls. Intratracheal inoculation of SARS-CoV-2 produced a significant degree of clinical disease (lethargy, fever, dyspnea, and dry cough) consistent with that observed in the early exudative phase of COVID-19. Pulmonary lesions such as diffuse alveolar damage, hyaline membrane formation, fibrin deposition, and proteinaceous exudates were also observed with SARS-CoV-2 infection, replicating lesions identified in people hospitalized with ARDS from COVID-19. A significant correlation was observed between the degree of clinical disease identified in infected cats and pulmonary lesions. Viral loads and ACE2 expression were also quantified in nasal turbinates, distal trachea, lungs, and other organs. Results of this study validate a feline model for SARS-CoV-2 infection that results in clinical disease and histopathologic lesions consistent with acute COVID-19 in humans, thus encouraging its use for future translational studies.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Gatos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Animais , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , COVID-19/virologia , Feminino , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Pulmão/enzimologia , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Linfonodos/virologia , Masculino , RNA Viral/análise , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos , Traqueia/enzimologia , Traqueia/virologia , Conchas Nasais/enzimologia , Conchas Nasais/virologia
5.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254872, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280238

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is only partly understood, and the level of evidence available in terms of pathophysiology, epidemiology, therapy, and long-term outcome remains limited. During the early phase of the pandemic, it was necessary to effectively investigate all aspects of this new disease. Autopsy can be a valuable procedure to investigate the internal organs with special techniques to obtain information on the disease, especially the distribution and type of organ involvement. METHODS: During the first wave of COVID-19 in Germany, autopsies of 19 deceased patients were performed. Besides gross examination, the organs were analyzed with standard histology and polymerase-chain-reaction for SARS-CoV-2. Polymerase chain reaction positive localizations were further analyzed with immunohistochemistry and RNA-in situ hybridization for SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: Eighteen of 19 patients were found to have died due to COVID-19. Clinically relevant histological changes were only observed in the lungs. Diffuse alveolar damage in considerably different degrees was noted in 18 cases. Other organs, including the central nervous system, did not show specific micromorphological alterations. In terms of SARS-CoV-2 detection, the focus remains on the upper airways and lungs. This is true for both the number of positive samples and the viral load. A highly significant inverse correlation between the stage of diffuse alveolar damage and viral load was found on a case and a sample basis. Mediastinal lymph nodes and fat were also affected by the virus at high frequencies. By contrast, other organs rarely exhibited a viral infection. Moderate to strong correlations between the methods for detecting SARS-CoV-2 were observed for the lungs and for other organs. CONCLUSIONS: The lung is the most affected organ in gross examination, histology and polymerase chain reaction. SARS-CoV-2 detection in other organs did not reveal relevant or specific histological changes. Moreover, we did not find CNS involvement.


Assuntos
COVID-19/virologia , Sistema Nervoso Central/virologia , Pulmão/virologia , Linfonodos/virologia , Carga Viral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Autopsia/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/patologia , Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/patologia , Linfonodos/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
6.
J Adv Res ; 31: 137-153, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34194838

RESUMO

Introduction: Wild-type adult mice with intact interferon (IFN) system were neither susceptible to bluetongue virus (BTV) infection nor showed signs of morbidity/mortality. Establishment of immunologically competent wild-type adult mouse model with type I IFNs blockade is necessary to assess the pathogenesis, immune responses and testing of BTV vaccines. Objectives: Present study aimed to establish and characterize BTV serotype 1 infection in immunocompetent adult mice with type I IFNs blockade at the time of infection by studying immune responses and sequential pathology. Methods: Adult mice were administered with anti-mouse IFN-α/ß receptor subunit-1 (IFNAR1) blocking antibody (Clone: MAR1-5A3) 24 h before and after BTV serotype 1 infection, and sacrificed at various time points. Sequential pathology, BTV localization by immunohistochemistry and quantification by qRT-PCR, immune cell kinetics and apoptosis by flow cytometry, and cytokines estimation by c-ELISA and qRT-PCR were studied. Results: IFNAR blocked-infected mice developed clinical signs and typical lesions of BT; whereas, isotype-infected control mice did not develop any disease. The IFNAR blocked-infected mice showed enlarged, edematous, and congested lymph nodes (LNs) and spleen, and vascular (congestion and hemorrhage) and pneumonic lesions in lungs. Histopathologically, marked lymphoid depletion with "starry-sky pattern" due to lymphocytes apoptosis was noticed in the LNs and spleen. BTV antigen was detected and quantified in lymphoid organs, lungs, and other organs at various time points. Initial leukopenia (increased CD4+/CD8+ T cells ratio) followed by leukocytosis (decreased CD4+/CD8+ T cells ratio) and significantly increased biochemical values were noticed in IFNAR blocked-infected mice. Increased apoptotic cells in PBMCs and tissues coincided with viral load and levels of different cytokines in blood, spleen and draining LNs and notably varied between time points in IFNAR blocked-infected mice. Conclusion: Present study is first to characterize BTV serotype 1 infection in immunocompetent adult mouse with type I IFNs blockade. The findings will be useful for studying pathogenesis and testing the efficacy of BTV vaccines.


Assuntos
Vírus Bluetongue/genética , Bluetongue/imunologia , Bluetongue/patologia , Interferon Tipo I/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Bloqueadores/imunologia , Apoptose , Vírus Bluetongue/imunologia , Feminino , Leucócitos/imunologia , Leucocitose/imunologia , Leucopenia/imunologia , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Linfonodos/patologia , Linfonodos/virologia , Camundongos , Modelos Imunológicos , Receptor de Interferon alfa e beta/imunologia , Sorogrupo , Ovinos , Baço/patologia , Baço/virologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
7.
Front Immunol ; 12: 683396, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34177929

RESUMO

CD4 T cells are key mediators of adaptive immune responses during infection and vaccination. Within secondary lymphoid organs, helper CD4 T cells, particularly those residing in germinal centers known as follicular helper T cells (Tfh), provide critical help to B-cells to promote their survival, isotype switching and selection of high affinity memory B-cells. On the other hand, the important role of Tfh cells for the maintenance of HIV reservoir is well documented. Thus, interrogating and better understanding the tissue specific micro-environment and immune subsets that contribute to optimal Tfh cell differentiation and function is important for designing successful prevention and cure strategies. Here, we describe the development and optimization of eight multispectral confocal microscopy immunofluorescence panels designed for in depth characterization and immune-profiling of relevant immune cells in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded human lymphoid tissue samples. We provide a comprehensive library of antibodies to use for the characterization of CD4+ T-cells -including Tfh and regulatory T-cells- as well as CD8 T-cells, B-cells, macrophages and dendritic cells and discuss how the resulting multispectral confocal datasets can be quantitatively dissected using the HistoCytometry pipeline to collect information about relative frequencies and immune cell spatial distributions. Cells harboring actively transcribed virus are analyzed using an in-situ hybridization assay for the characterization of HIV mRNA positive cells in combination with additional protein markers (multispectral RNAscope). The application of this methodology to lymphoid tissues offers a means to interrogate multiple relevant immune cell targets simultaneously at increased resolution in a reproducible manner to guide CD4 T-cell studies in infection and vaccination.


Assuntos
Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Tecido Linfoide/citologia , Tecido Linfoide/metabolismo , Microscopia Confocal , Imagem Molecular , Biomarcadores , Imunofluorescência , Centro Germinativo/imunologia , Centro Germinativo/metabolismo , Centro Germinativo/virologia , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Linfonodos/imunologia , Linfonodos/virologia , Tecido Linfoide/virologia , Microscopia Confocal/métodos , Imagem Molecular/métodos
8.
Am J Surg Pathol ; 45(11): 1561-1572, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34010154

RESUMO

Adult-onset immunodeficiency syndrome (AOIS) caused by anti-interferon-γ autoantibodies is an emerging disease. Affected patients present typically with systemic lymphadenopathy, fatigue, and fever. We studied 36 biopsy specimens, 31 lymph nodes, and 5 extranodal sites, of AOIS confirmed by serum autoantibody or QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube assay. We describe the morphologic features and the results of ancillary studies, including special stains, immunohistochemistry, and molecular testing. The overall median age of these patients was 60.5 years (range, 41 to 83 y) with a male-to-female ratio of 20:16. All biopsy specimens showed nontuberculous mycobacterial infection, and most cases showed the following histologic features: capsular thickening with intranodal sclerosing fibrosis, irregularly distributed ill-formed granulomas or histiocytic aggregates with neutrophilic infiltration, interfollicular expansion by a polymorphic infiltrate with some Hodgkin-like cells that commonly effaces most of the nodal architecture and proliferation of high endothelial venules. In situ hybridization analysis for Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA showed scattered (<1%) to relatively more common (4% to 5%) positive cells in 29 of 30 (97%) tested specimens, reflecting immune dysregulation due to an interferon-γ defect. In the 31 lymph node specimens, 23 (74%) cases showed increased immunoglobulin G4-positive plasma cells (4 to 145/HPF; mean, 49.7/HPF) with focal areas of sclerosis reminiscent of immunoglobulin G4-related lymphadenopathy, 4 (13%) cases resembled, in part, nodular sclerosis Hodgkin lymphoma, and 9 (29%) cases mimicked T-cell lymphoma. Among 33 patients with available clinical follow-up, 20 (61%) showed persistent or refractory disease despite antimycobacterial therapy, and 1 patient died of the disease. We conclude that the presence of ill-defined granulomas, clusters of neutrophils adjacent to the histiocytic aggregates, and some Epstein-Barr virus-positive cells are features highly suggestive of AOIS. A high index of clinical suspicion and awareness of the morphologic features and differential diagnosis of AOIS are helpful for establishing the diagnosis.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/sangue , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Interferon gama/imunologia , Linfonodos/imunologia , Linfadenopatia/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biópsia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Herpesvirus Humano 4/isolamento & purificação , Histiócitos/imunologia , Histiócitos/patologia , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/microbiologia , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/patologia , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/virologia , Linfonodos/microbiologia , Linfonodos/patologia , Linfonodos/virologia , Linfadenopatia/microbiologia , Linfadenopatia/patologia , Linfadenopatia/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Neutrófilos/patologia , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas/isolamento & purificação , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico
9.
Viruses ; 13(3)2021 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803455

RESUMO

The host range of SARS-CoV-2 and the susceptibility of animal species to the virus are topics of great interest to the international scientific community. The angiotensin I converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) protein is the major receptor for the virus, and sequence and structural analysis of the protein has been performed to determine its cross-species conservation. Based on these analyses, cattle have been implicated as a potential susceptible species to SARS-CoV-2 and have been reported to have increased ACE2 receptor distribution in the liver and kidney, and lower levels in the lungs. The goal of the current study was to determine the susceptibility of cattle to SARS-CoV-2 utilizing inoculation routes that facilitated exposure to tissues with increased ACE2 receptor distribution. For this, colostrum-deprived calves approximately 6 weeks of age were inoculated via the intratracheal or intravenous routes. Nasal and rectal swab samples, as well as blood and urine samples, were collected over the course of the study to evaluate viral shedding, viremia, and seroconversion. Pyrexia was used as the primary criteria for euthanasia and tissue samples were collected during necropsy. Importantly, SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in only two nasal swab samples collected on days 3 and 10 post-inoculation (pi) in two calves; one calf in the intratracheal group and the other calf in the intravenous group, respectively. Additionally, the calf in the intratracheal group that was positive on the nasal swab on day 3 pi also had a positive tracheobronchial lymph node on day 9 pi. Viral nucleic acid load on these samples, based on PCR cycle threshold values, were low and infectious virus was not recovered from the samples. These results suggest that there was no productive replication of SARS-CoV-2 in calves following intratracheal and intravenous inoculation.


Assuntos
COVID-19/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Animais , COVID-19/genética , COVID-19/metabolismo , COVID-19/patologia , Bovinos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos , Linfonodos/patologia , Linfonodos/virologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Receptores Virais/genética , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Replicação Viral
10.
Cells ; 10(3)2021 03 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801959

RESUMO

We herein characterize the immunopathological features of two Italian COVID-19 patients who underwent bilateral lung transplantation (bLTx). Removed lungs underwent histopathological evaluation. Gene expression profiling (GEP) for immune-related signatures was performed on lung specimens and SARS-CoV-2-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Cytokine levels were measured on lungs, bronchoalveolar lavage fluids and in culture supernatants. Pathological assessment showed extensive lung damage with the pattern of proliferative to fibrotic phases, with diffuse alveolar damage mimicking usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP). Lungs' GEP revealed overexpression of pathogen recognition receptors, effector cytokines and chemokines, immune activation receptors and of the inflammasome components. Multiplex cytokine analysis confirmed a proinflammatory state, with high levels of monocyte/macrophage chemotactic and activating factors and of IL-6 and TNF-α. A similar profile was observed in SARS-CoV-2-stimulated PBMCs collected 7 days after transplant. The pattern of tissue damage observed in the lungs suggests that this may represent the output of protracted disease, resembling a diffuse UIP-like picture. The molecular immune profiling supports the paradigm of a persistent proinflammatory state and sustained humoral immunity, conditions that are maintained despite the iatrogenic immunosuppression.


Assuntos
COVID-19/cirurgia , Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Transplante de Pulmão , Pulmão/patologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/cirurgia , Adolescente , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/citologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/virologia , COVID-19/sangue , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/virologia , Linfonodos/patologia , Linfonodos/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plasma/virologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/imunologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/patologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/virologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
11.
Nat Immunol ; 22(4): 434-448, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33649580

RESUMO

T cells dynamically interact with multiple, distinct cellular subsets to determine effector and memory differentiation. Here, we developed a platform to quantify cell location in three dimensions to determine the spatial requirements that direct T cell fate. After viral infection, we demonstrated that CD8+ effector T cell differentiation is associated with positioning at the lymph node periphery. This was instructed by CXCR3 signaling since, in its absence, T cells are confined to the lymph node center and alternatively differentiate into stem-like memory cell precursors. By mapping the cellular sources of CXCR3 ligands, we demonstrated that CXCL9 and CXCL10 are expressed by spatially distinct dendritic and stromal cell subsets. Unlike effector cells, retention of stem-like memory precursors in the paracortex is associated with CCR7 expression. Finally, we demonstrated that T cell location can be tuned, through deficiency in CXCL10 or type I interferon signaling, to promote effector or stem-like memory fates.


Assuntos
Infecções por Arenaviridae/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Quimiocina CXCL10/metabolismo , Quimiocina CXCL9/metabolismo , Memória Imunológica , Linfonodos/metabolismo , Células Precursoras de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Receptores CXCR3/metabolismo , Animais , Infecções por Arenaviridae/genética , Infecções por Arenaviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Arenaviridae/virologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/virologia , Linhagem da Célula , Células Cultivadas , Quimiocina CXCL10/genética , Quimiocina CXCL9/genética , Quimiotaxia de Leucócito , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Interferon Tipo I/metabolismo , Ligantes , Linfonodos/imunologia , Linfonodos/virologia , Vírus da Coriomeningite Linfocítica/imunologia , Vírus da Coriomeningite Linfocítica/patogenicidade , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Fenótipo , Células Precursoras de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Células Precursoras de Linfócitos T/virologia , Receptor de Interferon alfa e beta/genética , Receptor de Interferon alfa e beta/metabolismo , Receptores CCR7/metabolismo , Receptores CXCR3/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Nicho de Células-Tronco , Células Estromais/imunologia , Células Estromais/metabolismo
12.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1474, 2021 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33674572

RESUMO

The establishment of a long-lived viral reservoir is the key obstacle for achieving an HIV-1 cure. However, the anatomic, virologic, and immunologic features of the viral reservoir in tissues during antiretroviral therapy (ART) remain poorly understood. Here we present a comprehensive necroscopic analysis of the SIV/SHIV viral reservoir in multiple lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues from SIV/SHIV-infected rhesus macaques suppressed with ART for one year. Viral DNA is observed broadly in multiple tissues and is comparable in animals that had initiated ART at week 1 or week 52 of infection. In contrast, viral RNA is restricted primarily to lymph nodes. Ongoing viral RNA transcription is not the result of unsuppressed viral replication, as single-genome amplification and subsequent phylogenetic analysis do not show evidence of viral evolution. Gag-specific CD8+ T cell responses are predominantly observed in secondary lymphoid organs in animals chronically infected prior to ART and these responses are dominated by CD69+ populations. Overall, we observe that the viral reservoir in rhesus macaques is widely distributed across multiple tissue sites and that lymphoid tissues act as a site of persistent viral RNA transcription under conditions of long-term ART suppression.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Linfonodos/virologia , RNA Viral/genética , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/virologia , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/imunologia , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , DNA Viral , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV-1/genética , Linfonodos/imunologia , Tecido Linfoide/virologia , Macaca mulatta , Filogenia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/imunologia , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/genética , Carga Viral , Replicação Viral
13.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 233: 110194, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530020

RESUMO

Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, or prion diseases, are fatal neurodegenerative diseases affecting humans and animals. Although many host tissues express PrPC (essential for prion replication), relatively few cell types accumulate significant levels of infectivity, including neurons and other cell types in the nervous system, and follicular dendritic cells in secondary lymphoid organs. This suggests that tissue or cell-specific receptors or cofactors could play a role in controlling differential susceptibility to infection. Endogenous retroviruses (ERV), the remnants of ancient retroviral integration into the host germline, may represent one such cofactor. We examined the effect of scrapie infection on expression of three ovine ERV families (enJSRV/ß1-OERV, γ1-OERV, γ2-OERV) in secondary lymphoid tissues of sheep at different time points following subcutaneous inoculation, using RT-qPCR. These OERVs were constitutively expressed in the prescapular lymph node and spleen of uninfected sheep. However, we were unable to find convincing evidence of specific differential expression of OERV in the same tissues following scrapie infection, in contrast to previous studies of ERV expression in brains of prion-infected mice and macaques. This study is the first to quantify the expression of potentially functional OERV transcripts in sheep lymphoid tissues, opening up interesting questions about the consequences for host immune function.


Assuntos
Retrovirus Endógenos/genética , Tecido Linfoide/virologia , Scrapie/virologia , Ovinos , Animais , Expressão Gênica , Genes Virais , Linfonodos/virologia , Baço/virologia
14.
J Virol ; 95(6)2021 02 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33408173

RESUMO

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reservoir is responsible for persistent viral infection, and a small number of mosaic latent cellular reservoirs promote viral rebound upon antiretroviral therapy interruption, which is the major obstacle to a cure. However, markers that determine effective therapy and viral rebound posttreatment interruption remain unclear. In this study, we comprehensively and longitudinally tracked dynamic decay of cell-associated viral RNA/DNA in systemic and lymphoid tissues in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaques on prolonged combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) and evaluated predictors of viral rebound after treatment cessation. The results showed that suppressive ART substantially reduced plasma SIV RNA, cell-associated unspliced, and multiply spliced SIV RNA to undetectable levels, yet viral DNA remained detectable in systemic tissues and lymphoid compartments throughout cART. Intriguingly, a rapid increase of integrated proviral DNA in peripheral mononuclear cells was detected once treatment was withdrawn, accompanied by the emergence of detectable plasma viral load. Notably, the increase of peripheral proviral DNA after treatment interruption correlated with the emergence and degree of viral rebound. These findings suggest that measuring total viral DNA in SIV infection may be a relatively simple surrogate marker of reservoir size and may predict viral rebound after treatment interruption and inform treatment strategies.IMPORTANCE Viral reservoirs are involved in persistent HIV infection, and a small number of mosaic latent cellular reservoirs promote viral rebound upon analytical treatment interruption, which is the major obstacle to a cure. However, early indicators that can predict resurgence of viremia after treatment interruption may aid treatment decisions in people living with HIV. Utilizing the rhesus macaque model, we demonstrated that increased proviral DNA in peripheral cells after treatment interruption, rather than levels of proviral DNA, was a useful marker to predict the emergence and degree of viral rebound after treatment interruption, providing a rapid approach for monitoring HIV rebound and informing decisions.


Assuntos
DNA Viral/metabolismo , Provírus/fisiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/virologia , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/fisiologia , Ativação Viral , Animais , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/virologia , DNA Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/virologia , Linfonodos/virologia , Macaca mulatta , Provírus/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Viral/sangue , RNA Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/tratamento farmacológico , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/efeitos dos fármacos , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Viremia/tratamento farmacológico , Viremia/virologia
15.
Diagn Cytopathol ; 49(1): 25-30, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889776

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most patients with human papillomavirus (HPV)-related head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSC) present with lymph node metastasis. In these patients, fine needle aspiration (FNA) is not only a diagnostic tool, but a means for determining HPV status. HPV status, in turn, is used to determine tumor origin, prognosis, and even guide therapy. Thus, the limited sampling afforded by FNA must be optimized to meet heavy clinical demands. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the residual supernatant portion of the FNA could serve as a resource for reliable determination of HPV status DESIGN/METHOD: 25 FNAs from 24 patients with metastatic HNSC underwent HPV genotyping of post-centrifuged supernatant fluid from FNA needle rinses. HPV genotyping was performed using two real time PCR-based assays, the two-step LightCycler and the one-step automated cobas HPV tests. HPV status of the supernatant was compared with the paired FNA cell blocks and/or surgical tissue samples. RESULTS: The supernatant was adequate for HPV testing in 24 (96%) of 25 cases. Of these, 14 (56%) were HPV positive and 11 (44%) negative by the LightCycler assay. HPV16 was the most commonly detected genotype (n = 12). When results of supernatant and paired cell block testing were compared, HPV status was concordant in all cases. The LightCycler method was more sensitive than the cobas assay due to its ability to detect an expanded profile of HPV variant genotypes. CONCLUSION: The current standard of practice for patients with HNSC who undergo FNA is to construct a cell block and then discard the supernatant. This supernatant is a rich source of tumor DNA that can be used to detect HPV status. It should not be wasted.


Assuntos
DNA de Neoplasias/genética , Papillomavirus Humano 16/genética , Papillomaviridae/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biópsia por Agulha Fina , DNA Viral/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Linfonodos/patologia , Linfonodos/virologia , Metástase Linfática/genética , Metástase Linfática/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Papillomavirus/patologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Prognóstico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/virologia
18.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 51(1): e13443, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33131070

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To reveal detailed histopathological changes, virus distributions, immunologic properties and multi-omic features caused by SARS-CoV-2 in the explanted lungs from the world's first successful lung transplantation of a COVID-19 patient. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 36 samples were collected from the lungs. Histopathological features and virus distribution were observed by optical microscope and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Immune cells were detected by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. Transcriptome and proteome approaches were used to investigate main biological processes involved in COVID-19-associated pulmonary fibrosis. RESULTS: The histopathological changes of the lung tissues were characterized by extensive pulmonary interstitial fibrosis and haemorrhage. Viral particles were observed in the cytoplasm of macrophages. CD3+ CD4- T cells, neutrophils, NK cells, γ/δ T cells and monocytes, but not B cells, were abundant in the lungs. Higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines iNOS, IL-1ß and IL-6 were in the area of mild fibrosis. Multi-omics analyses revealed a total of 126 out of 20,356 significant different transcription and 114 out of 8,493 protein expression in lung samples with mild and severe fibrosis, most of which were related to fibrosis and inflammation. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide novel insight that the significant neutrophil/ CD3+ CD4- T cell/ macrophage activation leads to cytokine storm and severe fibrosis in the lungs of COVID-19 patient and may contribute to a better understanding of COVID-19 pathogenesis.


Assuntos
COVID-19/patologia , Hemorragia/patologia , Transplante de Pulmão , Pulmão/patologia , Linfonodos/patologia , Fibrose Pulmonar/patologia , Linfócitos B/patologia , Linfócitos B/ultraestrutura , Linfócitos B/virologia , COVID-19/genética , COVID-19/metabolismo , COVID-19/cirurgia , Cromatografia Líquida , Citometria de Fluxo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/ultraestrutura , Células Matadoras Naturais/virologia , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/ultraestrutura , Pulmão/virologia , Linfonodos/metabolismo , Linfonodos/ultraestrutura , Linfonodos/virologia , Macrófagos Alveolares/patologia , Macrófagos Alveolares/ultraestrutura , Macrófagos Alveolares/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos/patologia , Monócitos/ultraestrutura , Monócitos/virologia , Neutrófilos/patologia , Neutrófilos/ultraestrutura , Neutrófilos/virologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Proteômica , Fibrose Pulmonar/genética , Fibrose Pulmonar/metabolismo , Fibrose Pulmonar/cirurgia , RNA-Seq , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Linfócitos T/patologia , Linfócitos T/ultraestrutura , Linfócitos T/virologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
20.
Virchows Arch ; 478(3): 541-552, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32803453

RESUMO

The programmed death 1 (PD1)/PD1 ligand (PD-L1) axis plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Epstein-Barr virus-positive diffuse large B cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (EBV+ DLBCL, NOS). Here, we describe PD-L1 expression by EBV+ DLBCL, NOS in order to evaluate its possible contribution to the pathogenesis of this tumor. The study included 57 cases of EBV+ DLBCL, NOS. The median patient age was 69 years and 95% (n = 54) were aged > 45. Extranodal lesions were present in 39 (69%) at initial diagnosis. PD-L1 expression (mAb SP142-positive staining) was present in more than 5% of tumor cells in only six cases (11%), in clear contrast to the 77% reported in cases aged under 45 years. Among the PD-L1+ cases, three were nodal lesions. All six PD-L1+ cases progressed in the 3 years after diagnosis and four of the six patients died of the disease within 2 years. PD-L1+ cases had significantly shorter PFS (P = 0.002) and relatively short OS (P = 0.26), compared with PD-L1- cases. EBV+ DLBCL, NOS in the elderly infrequently expressed PD-L1 and had poor prognosis. PD-L1 expression in EBV+ DLBCL, NOS of the elderly sheds light on the pathogenetic role of immune senescence.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/análise , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Herpesvirus Humano 4/isolamento & purificação , Linfonodos/imunologia , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Imunossenescência , Japão , Linfonodos/patologia , Linfonodos/virologia , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/patologia , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Microambiente Tumoral
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