Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 9.276
Filtrar
1.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243171, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33259529

RESUMO

The origins of linguistic diversity remain controversial. Studies disagree on whether group features such as population size or social structure accelerate or decelerate linguistic differentiation. While some analyses of between-group factors highlight the role of geographical isolation and reduced linguistic exchange in differentiation, others suggest that linguistic divergence is driven primarily by warfare among neighbouring groups and the use of language as marker of group identity. Here we provide the first integrated test of the effects of five historical sociodemographic and geographic variables on three measures of linguistic diversification among 50 Austronesian languages: rates of word gain, loss and overall lexical turnover. We control for their shared evolutionary histories through a time-calibrated phylogenetic sister-pairs approach. Results show that languages spoken in larger communities create new words at a faster pace. Within-group conflict promotes linguistic differentiation by increasing word loss, while warfare hinders linguistic differentiation by decreasing both rates of word gain and loss. Finally, we show that geographical isolation is a strong driver of lexical evolution mainly due to a considerable drift-driven acceleration in rates of word loss. We conclude that the motor of extreme linguistic diversity in Austronesia may have been the dispersal of populations across relatively isolated islands, favouring strong cultural ties amongst societies instead of warfare and cultural group marking.


Assuntos
Evolução Cultural , Idioma , Isolamento Social , Ásia Sudeste , Geografia , Humanos , Linguística , Madagáscar , Malásia , Oceania , Ilhas do Pacífico , Filogenia , Densidade Demográfica , Meio Social , Taiwan
2.
PLoS Biol ; 18(11): e3000895, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33137084

RESUMO

A crucial aspect when learning a language is discovering the rules that govern how words are combined in order to convey meanings. Because rules are characterized by sequential co-occurrences between elements (e.g., "These cupcakes are unbelievable"), tracking the statistical relationships between these elements is fundamental. However, purely bottom-up statistical learning alone cannot fully account for the ability to create abstract rule representations that can be generalized, a paramount requirement of linguistic rules. Here, we provide evidence that, after the statistical relations between words have been extracted, the engagement of goal-directed attention is key to enable rule generalization. Incidental learning performance during a rule-learning task on an artificial language revealed a progressive shift from statistical learning to goal-directed attention. In addition, and consistent with the recruitment of attention, functional MRI (fMRI) analyses of late learning stages showed left parietal activity within a broad bilateral dorsal frontoparietal network. Critically, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on participants' peak of activation within the left parietal cortex impaired their ability to generalize learned rules to a structurally analogous new language. No stimulation or rTMS on a nonrelevant brain region did not have the same interfering effect on generalization. Performance on an additional attentional task showed that this rTMS on the parietal site hindered participants' ability to integrate "what" (stimulus identity) and "when" (stimulus timing) information about an expected target. The present findings suggest that learning rules from speech is a two-stage process: following statistical learning, goal-directed attention-involving left parietal regions-integrates "what" and "when" stimulus information to facilitate rapid rule generalization.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Lobo Parietal/fisiologia , Adulto , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Cognição/fisiologia , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/fisiologia , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Humanos , Idioma , Linguística/métodos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana/métodos , Adulto Jovem
3.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242050, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33180825

RESUMO

Choosing a comprehensive and cost-effective way of articulating and annotating the sentiment of a text is not a trivial task, particularly when dealing with short texts, in which sentiment can be expressed through a wide variety of linguistic and rhetorical phenomena. This problem is especially conspicuous in resource-limited settings and languages, where design options are restricted either in terms of manpower and financial means required to produce appropriate sentiment analysis resources, or in terms of available language tools, or both. In this paper, we present a versatile approach to addressing this issue, based on multiple interpretations of sentiment labels that encode information regarding the polarity, subjectivity, and ambiguity of a text, as well as the presence of sarcasm or a mixture of sentiments. We demonstrate its use on Serbian, a resource-limited language, via the creation of a main sentiment analysis dataset focused on movie comments, and two smaller datasets belonging to the movie and book domains. In addition to measuring the quality of the annotation process, we propose a novel metric to validate its cost-effectiveness. Finally, the practicality of our approach is further validated by training, evaluating, and determining the optimal configurations of several different kinds of machine-learning models on a range of sentiment classification tasks using the produced dataset.


Assuntos
Linguística/métodos , Algoritmos , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Processamento de Linguagem Natural , Sérvia , Mídias Sociais
4.
Codas ; 32(5): e20190086, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33174986

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the performance in phonological processing skills, reading speed and reading comprehension before and after phonological remediation in a restricted group of schoolchildren with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and with dyslexia. METHODS: Thirty-two schoolchildren from the 2nd to 8th year of Elementary School of both genders, with diagnosis of ADHD and Dyslexia according to the DSM-5, participated in this study. All patients underwent Phonological Remediation Program consisted of 18 weekly sessions. RESULTS: The results, expressed in z scores, showed a statistically significant difference between before and after remediation assessments in phonological processing skills, such as syllabic and phonemic awareness, working memory and lexical access. Rhyming task was analyzed separately because it represents another level of segmentation and, for this result, there was no significance. Besides these results, there was a statistically significant difference in reading speed and reading comprehension. CONCLUSION: The phonological remediation program contributes to the development of phonological processing, reading speed and reading comprehension in this population.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Dislexia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Linguística , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo , Fonética , Leitura
5.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0240909, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151975

RESUMO

Speakers' memory of sentence structure can persist and modulate the syntactic choices of subsequent utterances (i.e., structural priming). Much research on structural priming posited a multifactorial account by which an implicit learning process and a process related to explicit memory jointly contribute to the priming effect. Here, we tested two predictions from that account: (1) that lexical repetition facilitates the retrieval of sentence structures from memory; (2) that priming is partly driven by a short-term explicit memory mechanism with limited resources. In two pairs of structural priming and sentence structure memory experiments, we examined the effects of structural priming and its modulation by lexical repetition as a function of cognitive load in native Dutch speakers. Cognitive load was manipulated by interspersing the prime and target trials with easy or difficult mathematical problems. Lexical repetition boosted both structural priming (Experiments 1a-2a) and memory for sentence structure (Experiments 1b-2b) and did so with a comparable magnitude. In Experiment 1, there were no load effects, but in Experiment 2, with a stronger manipulation of load, both the priming and memory effects were reduced with a larger cognitive load. The findings support an explicit memory mechanism in structural priming that is cue-dependent and attention-demanding, consistent with a multifactorial account of structural priming.


Assuntos
Idioma , Memória , Adolescente , Bélgica , Cognição , Compreensão , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Linguística , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo , Modelos Psicológicos , Psicolinguística , Priming de Repetição , Semântica , Adulto Jovem
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33096772

RESUMO

Among children in the third year of life, late talkers comprise from 9% to 20%. This range seems to increase when addressing preterm children. This study examined video-recorded child spontaneous speech during parent-child book sharing as well as linguistic skills reported through the MacArthur Bates Communicative Development Inventories (MB-CDI) Short Form in 61 late talkers aged 30 months old (26 low-risk preterm, 8 females; 35 full-term, 12 females). Differences between low-risk preterm and full-term late talkers in child language measures and parental speech input were tested, as were the roles of child and parent factors on child language. Low-risk preterm and full-term late talkers showed similar speech and language skills. Similarly, no differences were found in measures of parental speech between groups. Child cognitive score, chronological age, and low-risk preterm status were positively associated with lexical diversity, rate, and composition of child speech production, whereas family history for language and/or learning disorders as well as parent measures of lexical diversity, rate, and grammatical complexity were negatively associated with the above child variables. In addition, child cognitive score and low-risk preterm status were positively associated with the MB-CDI measures of word and sentence production. Findings are discussed in terms of the need of good practices when following up on low-risk preterm children and of interventions targeting parents' input to preterm and full-term late talkers.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Nascimento Prematuro , Fala , Criança , Linguagem Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Linguística , Gravidez
7.
Codas ; 32(5): e20190221, 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053091

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to cross culturally adapt the Protocol for the Exploration of Natural Metalinguistic Skills in Aphasia (MetAphAs), contributing to the future application in the aphasic Chilean population. METHOD: The sample corresponds to 72 healthy subjects in the region of Valparaíso, between the ages of 50 to 85. The MetAphAs measures natural metalinguistic skills and presents the basic elements on which to base the exploration of the metacognitive dimensions involved in verbal behavior. The validity was ascertained by means of Cronbach's Alpha Coefficient, including the values of each of the 6 sections; the correlations between variables were analyzed by the Pearson coefficient. RESULTS: We observed that 64% of the sample corresponded to the female and 36% to the male gender, with predominant age ranging from 61 to 70 years. We verified adequate correlation between the variables according to the Pearson coefficient, and highly positive values according to Cronbach's Alpha. CONCLUSION: The use of the protocol is viable, with data demonstrating high reliability. The results evidenced high liability, which encourages the continuation process of its validation with Chilean aphasic population.


Assuntos
Afasia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Afasia/diagnóstico , Chile , Feminino , Humanos , Linguística , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
8.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239359, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027273

RESUMO

Environmental parameters constrain the distributions of plant and animal species. A key question is to what extent does environment influence human behavior. Decreasing linguistic diversity from the equator towards the poles suggests that ecological factors influence linguistic geography. However, attempts to quantify the role of environmental factors in shaping linguistic diversity remain inconclusive. To this end, we apply Ecological Niche Modelling methods to present-day language diversity in New Guinea. We define an Eco-Linguistic Niche (ELN) as the range of environmental conditions present in the territory of a population speaking a specific language or group of languages characterized by common language traits. In order to reconstruct the ELNs, we used Papuan and Austronesian language groups, transformed their geographical distributions into occurrence data, assembled available environmental data for New Guinea, and applied predictive architectures developed in the field of ecology to these data. We find no clear relationship between linguistic diversity and ELNs. This is particularly true when linguistic diversity is examined at the level of language groups. Language groups are variably dependent on environment and generally share their ELN with other language groups. This variability suggests that population dynamics, migration, linguistic drift, and socio-cultural mechanisms must be taken into consideration in order to better understand the myriad factors that shape language diversity.


Assuntos
Idioma , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Linguística , Nova Guiné , Dinâmica Populacional
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066086

RESUMO

The accelerating evolution of scientific terms connected with 4P-medicine terminology and a need to track this process has led to the development of new methods of analysis and visualization of unstructured information. We built a collection of terms especially extracted from the PubMed database. Statistical analysis showed the temporal dynamics of the formation of derivatives and significant collocations of medical terms. We proposed special linguistic constructs such as megatokens for combining cross-lingual terms into a common semantic field. To build a cyberspace of terms, we used modern visualization technologies. The proposed approaches can help solve the problem of structuring multilingual heterogeneous information. The purpose of the article is to identify trends in the development of terminology in 4P-medicine.


Assuntos
Medicina , Semântica , Terminologia como Assunto , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Linguística , Realidade Virtual
11.
Cogn Process ; 21(4): 583-586, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33063246

RESUMO

Asking subjects to list semantic properties for concepts is essential for predicting performance in several linguistic and non-linguistic tasks and for creating carefully controlled stimuli for experiments. The property elicitation task and the ensuing norms are widely used across the field, to investigate the organization of semantic memory and design computational models thereof. The contributions of the current Special Topic discuss several core issues concerning how semantic property norms are constructed and how they may be used for research aiming at understanding cognitive processing.


Assuntos
Linguística , Semântica , Compreensão , Humanos , Memória
12.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 1): 150-152, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890380

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The BODY-Q is a new patient-reported outcome (PRO) instrument designed to measure patient perceptions of weight loss and/or body contouring procedure. A report regarding the translation procedure into French and its preliminary results has been previously published. We here describe the finalization of the translation process and cultural validation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The translation process followed guidelines established by the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcome Research (ISPOR) and the World Health Organisation (WHO). The process included two forward translations, one backward translation, a review by a panel of expert and cognitive debriefing interviews with patients. RESULTS: The 26 scales of the BODY-Q were translated and adapted into French. Each step of the process allowed to make changes leading to a conceptually and culturally equivalent French version. Backward translation comparison to the English version led to the identification of 16 differences necessitating re-translation. Overall feedback from patients over the final version was excellent. CONCLUSIONS: The BODY-Q proved to be a reliable and suited PRO for bariatric and body contouring patients. The thorough method of translation and cultural adaptation allowed us to achieve a conceptually and culturally valid French translation of the BODY-Q.


Assuntos
Contorno Corporal , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Traduções , Humanos , Linguística , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Dev Cogn Neurosci ; 45: 100831, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911229

RESUMO

Neural auditory processing and prelinguistic communication build the foundation for later language development, but how these two are associated is not well known. The current study investigated how neural speech processing is associated with the level and development of prelinguistic skills in 102 infants. We recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) in 6-months-olds to assess the neural detection of a pseudoword (obligatory responses), as well as the neural discrimination of changes in the pseudoword (mismatch responses, MMRs). Prelinguistic skills were assessed at 6 and 12 months of age with a parental questionnaire (Infant-Toddler Checklist). The association between the ERPs and prelinguistic skills was examined using latent change score models, a method specifically constructed for longitudinal analyses and explicitly modeling intra-individual change. The results show that a large obligatory P1 at 6 months of age predicted strong improvement in prelinguistic skills between 6 and 12 months of age. The MMR to a frequency change was associated with the concurrent level of prelinguistic skills, but not with the improvement of the skills. Overall, our results highlight the strong association between ERPs and prelinguistic skills, possibly offering opportunities for early detection of atypical linguistic and communicative development.


Assuntos
Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Linguística/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
14.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 82(8): 3788-3794, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893310

RESUMO

Studies using a grammaticality decision task suggest surprising flexibility in the processing of the relative order of words in sentences when reading alphabetic scripts like French. In these studies, participants made rapid grammaticality decisions for ungrammatical stimuli created by transposing two adjacent words in either a grammatical or an ungrammatical base sentence, which were intermixed with equal numbers of grammatically correct stimuli. The key finding was that participants made more errors and were slower to reject transposed-word stimuli created from grammatical than ungrammatical base sentences. This suggested that flexibility in the processing of word order allowed participants to access representations of the base grammatical sentences, interfering with their decisions to correctly reject transposed-word stimuli. With the present research, we investigated if a similar transposed-word effect is observed for a non-alphabetic script (Chinese) that uses few grammatical markers and primarily conveys grammatical structure via word order. Such scripts may require stricter processing of word order during reading and so provide a strong test of the cross-linguistic generality of the transposed-word effect. We report three experiments using the same design and procedure as previous research, while varying the length of the transposed words across experiments. In all three experiments, participants made more errors and were slower to reject transposed-word stimuli derived from grammatical than ungrammatical base sentences. This replicates previous findings with alphabetic scripts and provides novel evidence for a transposed-word effect in Chinese reading. We consider the implications for models of reading in alphabetic and non-alphabetic scripts.


Assuntos
Idioma , Leitura , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Humanos , Linguística
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947989

RESUMO

Hyperactive behaviour refers to a person making more movement than expected for his or her age and development, acting impulsively, and being easily distracted. There is a need to encourage early and reliable detection through the proposal of new methodologies and systems in the context of hyperactive behaviour to prevent or lessen related problems and disorders. This paper presents a methodology to compute a fuzzy protoform (a linguistic description) as an estimator for hyperactive behaviour. The proposed methodology is developed in a system called Smart HyBeDe, which integrate non-invasive and commercial wearable devices, such as activity bracelets, in order to capture data streams from inertial measurement units and optical heart rate sensors. The generated data by the wearable device are synchronized with a mobile device to process the fuzzy protoform to inform family members and professionals. Three datasets generated by the wearable device in real contexts are presented. These datasets are used to evaluate the impact of wrist choice for the wearable device, multiple fuzzy temporal windows, different aggregation operators, and relevant linguistic terms to define the fuzzy protoform as an estimator for the hyperactive behaviour. The results, analysed by a hyperactive behaviour expert, show that the proposed protoform is a suitable hyperactive behaviour estimator.


Assuntos
Hipercinese , Movimento , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Linguística , Punho
16.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239009, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32932516

RESUMO

International attention on the environmental impacts of China's Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) is increasing, but little is known internationally about the large corpus of Chinese BRI environmental research. We present the first systematic review of the Chinese and English-language BRI environmental research, supported with text mining and sentiment analysis. We found that the research is dominated by Chinese authors writing about BRI routes within China in Chinese, even though concerns around BRI are largely about impacts and benefits within host countries, and the volume of publications in English is recently catching up. Different disciplines and methods are well-represented across languages, apart from specific types of Chinese social science papers. The sentiments of academic research are largely neutral and less polarised than media discourse. We recommend that scientists and practitioners should pay more attention to BRI environmental impacts in developing countries and proactively engage local voices.


Assuntos
Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Idioma , Linguística/métodos , China , Programas Governamentais , Humanos
17.
Dev Cogn Neurosci ; 45: 100819, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32828032

RESUMO

Non-adjacent dependencies (NADs) are important building blocks for language and extracting them from the input is a fundamental part of language acquisition. Prior event-related potential (ERP) studies revealed changes in the neural signature of NAD learning between infancy and adulthood, suggesting a developmental shift in the learning route for NADs. The present study aimed to specify which brain regions are involved in this developmental shift and whether this shift extends to NAD learning in the non-linguistic domain. In two experiments, 2- and 3-year-old German-learning children were familiarized with either Italian sentences or tone sequences containing NADs and subsequently tested with NAD violations, while functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) data were recorded. Results showed increased hemodynamic responses related to the detection of linguistic NAD violations in the left temporal, inferior frontal, and parietal regions in 2-year-old children, but not in 3-year-old children. A different developmental trajectory was found for non-linguistic NADs, where 3-year-old, but not 2-year-old children showed evidence for the detection of non-linguistic NAD violations. These results confirm a developmental shift in the NAD learning route and point to distinct mechanisms underlying NAD learning in the linguistic and the non-linguistic domain.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Linguística/métodos , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
18.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236522, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785236

RESUMO

In current practice, when dating the root of a Bayesian language phylogeny the researcher is required to supply some of the information beforehand, including a distribution of root ages and dates for some nodes serving as calibration points. In addition to the potential subjectivity that this leaves room for, the problem arises that for many of the language families of the world there are no available internal calibration points. Here we address the following questions: Can a new Bayesian framework which overcomes these problems be introduced and how well does it perform? The new framework that we present is generalized in the sense that no family-specific priors or calibration points are needed. We moreover introduce a way to overcome another potential source of subjectivity in Bayesian tree inference as commonly practiced, namely that of manual cognate identification; instead, we apply an automated approach. Dates are obtained by fitting a Gamma regression model to tree lengths and known time depths for 30 phylogenetically independent calibration points. This model is used to predict the time depths of both the root and the internal nodes for 116 language families, producing a total of 1,287 dates for families and subgroups. It turns out that results are similar to those of published Bayesian studies of individual language families. The performance of the method is compared to automated glottochronology, which is an update of the classical method of Swadesh drawing upon automated cognate recognition and a new formula for deriving a time depth from percentages of shared cognates. It is also compared to a third dating method, that of the Automated Similarity Judgment Program (ASJP). In terms of errors and correlations with known dates, ASJP works better than the new method and both work better than automated glottochronology.


Assuntos
Teorema de Bayes , Idioma/história , Filogenia , Fósseis , História Antiga , Humanos , Linguística
19.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237012, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813695

RESUMO

Successful natural language understanding requires that comprehenders be able to resolve uncertainty in language. One source of potential uncertainty emerges from a speaker's choice to use a pronoun (e.g., he, she, they), since pronouns often do not fully specify the speaker's intended referent. Nevertheless, comprehenders are typically able to interpret pronouns rapidly despite having limited cognitive resources. Here we report three pronoun interpretation experiments that investigate whether comprehenders reverse-engineer a speaker's referential intentions based on Bayesian principles, as documented in previous studies for English. Using Mandarin Chinese, we test the generality of the Bayesian pronoun interpretation theory, and further evaluate the predictions of the theory in ways that are not possible in English. Our results lend both qualitative and quantitative support to a cross-linguistically general Bayesian theory of pronoun interpretation.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , Compreensão/fisiologia , Idioma , Teorema de Bayes , China , Comunicação , Humanos , Linguística/métodos , Leitura , Semântica , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia
20.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0234894, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667959

RESUMO

We present a multi-agent computational approach to partitioning semantic spaces using reinforcement-learning (RL). Two agents communicate using a finite linguistic vocabulary in order to convey a concept. This is tested in the color domain, and a natural reinforcement learning mechanism is shown to converge to a scheme that achieves a near-optimal trade-off of simplicity versus communication efficiency. Results are presented both on the communication efficiency as well as on analyses of the resulting partitions of the color space. The effect of varying environmental factors such as noise is also studied. These results suggest that RL offers a powerful and flexible computational framework that can contribute to the development of communication schemes for color names that are near-optimal in an information-theoretic sense and may shape color-naming systems across languages. Our approach is not specific to color and can be used to explore cross-language variation in other semantic domains.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Reforço Psicológico , Semântica , Cor , Percepção de Cores , Humanos , Idioma , Aprendizagem , Linguística/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Teóricos , Nomes , Vocabulário
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA