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1.
J Dent Educ ; 84(1): 105-110, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977096

RESUMO

The World Health Organization has indicated that Interprofessional Education (IPE) occurs when "students from two or more professions learn about, from, and with each other".1 These IPE experiences are widely thought to provide students with the opportunity to learn and practice the knowledge, skills, behaviors and attitudes that will ultimately translate into the provision of safer, higher quality, team-based patient care when they become health care practitioners in collaborative care environments. At the joint American Dental Education Association (ADEA) and Association for Dental Education in Europe (ADEE) 2019 Shaping the Future of Dental Education III conference in Brescia, Italy, delegates explored the concept of transprofessional learning, where students learn skills across a wider range of professions than health professions alone. The workshop continued the dialogue that began during the 2017 ADEA-ADEE Shaping the Future of Dental Education II conference in London, England as previously reported by Davis et al.,2 and explored the use of transprofessional learning through the lenses of dental education, applied linguistics education and law education focusing on the use of reflective practices. The workshop brought together educators from around the globe in a highly interactive setting where they had the opportunity to discuss and develop tools and practices for teaching reflective practice by using a transprofessional learning approach.


Assuntos
Educação em Odontologia , Relações Interprofissionais , Odontologia , Inglaterra , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Linguística , Londres
2.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 18: eAO5023, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31994606

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To adapt an antibiotic dose adjustment software initially developed in English, to Portuguese and to the Brazilian context. METHODS: This was an observational, descriptive study in which the Delphi method was used to establish consensus among specialists from different health areas, with questions addressing the visual and operational aspects of the software. In a second stage, a pilot experimental study was performed with the random comparison of patients for evaluation and adaptation of the software in the real environment of an intensive care unit, where it was compared between patients who used the standardized dose of piperacillin/tazobactam, and those who used an individualized dose adjusted through the software Individually Designed and Optimized Dosing Strategies. RESULTS: Twelve professionals participated in the first round, whose suggestions were forwarded to the software developer for adjustments, and subsequently submitted to the second round. Eight specialists participated in the second round. Indexes of 80% and 90% of concordance were obtained between the judges, characterizing uniformity in the suggestions. Thus, there was modification in the layout of the software for linguistic and cultural adequacy, minimizing errors of understanding and contradictions. In the second stage, 21 patients were included, and there were no differences between doses of piperacillin in the standard dose and adjusted dose Groups. CONCLUSION: The adapted version of the software is safe and reliable for its use in Brazil.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Linguística/normas , Piperacilina/administração & dosagem , Desenho de Programas de Computador , Tazobactam/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antropometria , Brasil , Comparação Transcultural , Técnica Delfos , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Padrões de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Brain Lang ; 200: 104708, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698097

RESUMO

One of the key questions in the study of human language acquisition is the extent to which the development of neural processing networks for different components of language are modulated by exposure to linguistic stimuli. Sign languages offer a unique perspective on this issue, because prelingually Deaf children who receive access to complex linguistic input later in life provide a window into brain maturation in the absence of language, and subsequent neuroplasticity of neurolinguistic networks during late language learning. While the duration of sensitive periods of acquisition of linguistic subsystems (sound, vocabulary, and syntactic structure) is well established on the basis of L2 acquisition in spoken language, for sign languages, the relative timelines for development of neural processing networks for linguistic sub-domains are unknown. We examined neural responses of a group of Deaf signers who received access to signed input at varying ages to three linguistic phenomena at the levels of classifier signs, syntactic structure, and information structure. The amplitude of the N400 response to the marked word order condition negatively correlated with the age of acquisition for syntax and information structure, indicating increased cognitive load in these conditions. Additionally, the combination of behavioral and neural data suggested that late learners preferentially relied on classifiers over word order for meaning extraction. This suggests that late acquisition of sign language significantly increases cognitive load during analysis of syntax and information structure, but not word-level meaning.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Surdez/fisiopatologia , Surdez/psicologia , Eletroencefalografia , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Linguística , Línguas de Sinais , Adulto , Potenciais Evocados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plasticidade Neuronal , Vocabulário
4.
Brain Lang ; 200: 104712, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704517

RESUMO

Previous studies investigating the processing of complex sentences have demonstrated the involvement of the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) and left superior temporal gyrus (LSTG), which might subserve ordering and storage of linguistic components, respectively, for sentence comprehension. However, how these brain regions are interconnected, especially during the processing of Chinese sentences, need to be further explored. In this study, the neural network supporting the comprehension of Chinese relative clause was identified. Both the LIFG and LSTG exhibited higher activation in processing subject-extracted relative clauses (SRCs) than object-extracted relative clauses (ORCs). Moreover, a Granger causality analysis revealed that the effective connectivity from the LIFG to LSTG was significant only when participants read Chinese SRCs, which were argued to be more difficult than ORCs. Contrary to the observations of an SRC advantage in most other languages, the present results provide clear neuroimaging evidence for an ORC advantage in Chinese.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Mapeamento Encefálico , Compreensão/fisiologia , Linguagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Linguística , Masculino , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Leitura , Lobo Temporal/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Radiol Med ; 125(2): 228-235, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31784925

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To linguistically validate the Italian translation of the Vanderbilt Head and Neck Symptom Survey (VHNSS), there is a patient-reported outcome measure to screen for symptoms in the head and neck cancer (HNC) patients population. The goal was to ensure conceptually equivalence with the original version and maintain clarity, ease of use and understanding. METHODS: We conducted a multi-step linguistic process (forward translation, backward translation and patient testing) to generate and validate an Italian translation of the VHNSS. RESULTS: Two intermediate Italian versions were created: The first Italian version was derived from a reconciliation of the three forward translations, and the second Italian version was derived from changes in the first version after the backward translation step. All investigators involved actively discussed possible solutions to produce a translated instrument that maintained a reading and comprehension level accessible by most respondents, without altering the meaning and content of the original source. During the patient testing step, only two patients reported problems with items comprehension and the rate of comprehension problems per single item was lower than expected. This phase allowed patients to give suggestion in order to make items clearer and easier to understand: 43% of patients proposed a revision of the survey during the face-to-face interview, and most of these suggestions were retained. CONCLUSIONS: A valid multi-step process leads to the creation of the final version of the VHNSS-IT, a suitable instrument to screen for symptoms in the Italian HNC patients population and an official measurement tool that can be used in cooperative research group.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/psicologia , Linguística , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Avaliação de Sintomas/métodos , Humanos , Itália , Traduções
6.
Nurse Educ ; 45(1): 43-46, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30882585

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Students' word choice when writing in a reflective journal may reveal their emotional development, sense of belonging, cognitive processing, and ability to appraise their own growth and understanding. New linguistic analysis software can scan and categorize these journals for the use of pronouns, positive and negative emotions, and cognitive keywords. METHODS: A retrospective study design evaluated student journaling from a psychiatric clinical course. Journal entries from weeks 1 and 12 were compared by z-score analysis. FINDINGS: Significant increases were found in the use of "we" (P = .001), positive emotions (P < .001), inclusion words (P < .001), and insight words (P = .004), whereas the use of cause and self-discrepancy words were not significantly different. CONCLUSION: Identification of learning as expressed in words could have an impact on how student assignments are designed by including the use of the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count software to assess changes in student cognition.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Linguística , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Pesquisa em Educação de Enfermagem , Pesquisa em Avaliação de Enfermagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Software
8.
Rev. salud pública Parag ; 9(2): [P53-P57], Dic 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1047139

RESUMO

Introducción: Para la Teoría de Enfermería del Déficit de Autocuidado (TEDA), el enfermero trabaja con "sistemas de enfermería": parcialmente compensatorio, totalmente compensatorio y sistema de apoyo educativo. Para este último, los materiales informativos (educativos) impresos son importantes. De la legibilidad de ellos depende la eficacia de los programas del Ministerio de Salud Pública y Bienestar Social (MSP y BS) del Paraguay. Sin embargo, esta legibilidad no ha sido estudiada en el país. Objetivo: Analizar la legibilidad lingüística de materiales informativos impresos, divulgados por el MSP y BS, aplicando el Índice de Niebla de Gunning (ING). Materiales y métodos: De los materiales informativos impresos, publicados por el MSP y BS entre 2003 y 2018, se identificó un corpus de 49 materiales. De ellos, por muestreo aleatorio polietápico, fueron seleccionados 250 párrafos. Se calculó el ING de cada uno. La media de ING de dichos párrafos se comparó con un "patrón oro", elaborado para el español paraguayo estándar a partir de una muestra artículos de opinión de periódicos de circulación nacional. Resultados: La media de legibilidad lingüística calculada fue 20,50, valor de un nivel de dificultad "normal" en la escala del patrón oro elaborado con artículos periodísticos de opinión. Conclusión: Los párrafos estudiados, en promedio, tienen niveles de legibilidad comparables con los de artículos de opinión de periódicos de circulación nacional. Dado que la media de años de escolaridad de la población del país (8,4 años) es baja, la eficacia de los materiales informativos impresos, para fines de autocuidado, no está garantizada. Palabras clave: Autocuidado, Sistemas de enfermería, Materiales informativos impresos, Legibilidad lingüística.


Introduction: The Orem's Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory (SCDNT) states that nurses work with "nursing systems": Partly compensatory, Wholly compensatory and Supportive-educative. For the latter, printed health instructional resources are important. The efficacy of the programs of the Ministry of Public Health and Social Welfare (MPH & SW) of Paraguay depends on the readability of those informational aids. However, there are no studies about the readability of these health educational resources in the country. Objective: To analyze the readability of printed health educational resources published by the MPH & SW, applying the Gunning Fog Index (GFI). Methods: A corpus of 49 health informational resources, published by the MPH & SW between 2003 and 2018, was identified. From these, by random multi-stage sampling, 250 paragraphs were selected. The GFI of each one was calculated. The mean of GFI of these paragraphs was compared with a "gold standard", designed for the Paraguayan Spanish, based on a sample of opinion articles of national newspapers. Results: The mean of GFI calculated was 20.50, which can be read as a "normal" difficulty level on the gold standard scale developed with newspaper opinion articles. Conclusion: The paragraphs studied, on average, have comparable readability levels with opinion articles of national newspapers. Since the schooling year average of the country's population is low (8.4 years), the efficacy of the printed health educational resource for self-care purposes is not guaranteed. Keywords: Self-Care, Nursing Systems, Printed Health Educational Resources, Readability.


Assuntos
Recursos Audiovisuais , Autocuidado , Compreensão , Linguística , Cuidados de Enfermagem/métodos
9.
Dyslexia ; 25(4): 345-359, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697024

RESUMO

Considerable support exists for both the phonological core deficit and the naming speed deficit models of dyslexia. The double deficit model proposed that many students with dyslexia might also be impaired in both underlying processes. Employing either performance thresholds (i.e., scores below the 16th or 25th percentile) or k-means clustering as classification methods, the current study investigated whether 154 young adolescents with dyslexia could be categorized into subtypes according to the presence or absence of phonological deficits alone, naming speed deficits alone, or a combination of the two and whether group composition changed depending on classification method. Results support the existence of both single and double deficit groups and confirm that those with both deficits are the most severely impaired across multiple measures. Contrary to previous research, most adolescents were classified as either naming speed only (about a third of the group) or double deficit when defining impairment using performance thresholds to classify groups. This may suggest that although early phonological deficits are amenable to remediation, identification of language symbols fails to become automatized in most individuals with dyslexia and may require more targeted intervention. Classification differences reported in the literature may depend on age and methods employed for classification.


Assuntos
Dislexia/diagnóstico , Modelos Psicológicos , Adolescente , Criança , Dislexia/classificação , Feminino , Humanos , Linguagem , Linguística , Masculino
10.
Codas ; 31(6): e20180197, 2019.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778423

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to characterize and compare the use of typical story grammar elements and global coherence level in the oral narrative of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder with the narrative of children without the disorder and with typical development. METHODS: A total of 40 children of both sexes aged 5 to 10 years who attended elementary school participated in the study, 20 of whom were diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD Group), and 20 with typical development (TD Group). Participants from each group were similar in sex, chronological age, schooling and socioeconomic status. The wordless picture book Frog, Where Are You? was used to elicit the oral narrative analyzed for the presence of the main typical elements of the story schema (character, theme/topic, event/plot and outcome), and afterwards their narration was classified according to four different levels of organization corresponding to the global story coherence level. RESULTS: The ADHD Group presented lower scores on the structural elements "theme/ topic" and "outcome" and a narrative with lower degree of coherence compared to the TD Group. CONCLUSION: The children with ADHD included in this study presented difficulties to use typical story grammar elements, mainly related to the maintenance of the central theme and outcome of the story. These elements are considered fundamental for construction of narrative coherence, which justifies the lower levels of global coherence found in the oral narrative of the ADHD Group.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/fisiopatologia , Narração , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Linguagem Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Linguística , Masculino
11.
PLoS Biol ; 17(11): e3000389, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31774810

RESUMO

Recently, prominent theoretical linguists have argued for an explicit scenario for the evolution of the human language capacity on the basis of its computational properties. Concretely, the simplicity of a minimalist formulation of the operation Merge, which allows humans to recursively compute hierarchical relations in language, has been used to promote a sudden-emergence, single-mutation scenario. In support of this view, Merge is said to be either fully present or fully absent: one cannot have half-Merge. On this basis, it is inferred that the emergence of our fully fledged language capacity had to be sudden. Thus, proponents of this view draw a parallelism between the formal complexity of the operation at the computational level and the number of evolutionary steps it must imply. Here, we examine this argument in detail and show that the jump from the atomicity of Merge to a single-mutation scenario is not valid and therefore cannot be used as justification for a theory of language evolution along those lines.


Assuntos
Linguística/classificação , Linguística/tendências , Evolução Biológica , Humanos , Linguagem
12.
Med Educ ; 53(12): 1169-1170, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31750570
13.
Psychiatr Danub ; 31(Suppl 3): 406-410, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488761

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery or reconstructive body contouring surgery performed after weight loss, has the potential to have a major impact one's body image, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and mental wellbeing. Many researches show interest in measuring this impact using generic instruments that unfortunately are not specifically oriented toward bariatric or surgery patients. The BODY-Q is a new patient-reported outcome (PRO) instrument designed to measure patient perceptions of weight loss and/or body contouring. In this article, we describe the methods used to translate and culturally adapt the French version of the BODY-Q. MATERIAL AND METHOD: We followed the recommendation for translation process established by the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcome Research (ISPOR) and the World Health Organisation (WHO). This process included two forward translations, one backward translation, a review by a panel of expert and cognitive debriefing interviews with patient. Our aim was to ensure a conceptual and culturally valid translation. RESULTS: This translation process led to a conceptually and culturally equivalent French version of the Body-Q. Backward translation comparison to the English original version led to the identification of 16 differences necessitating re-translation. The expert panel offered support to identify inadequate expressions and proposed changes to the translations. The cognitive debriefing interviews with 15 patients contributed to minor changes in the translation. CONCLUSIONS: This thorough method of translation and cultural adaptation allowed us to develop a conceptually and culturally valid French translation of the BODY-Q.


Assuntos
Contorno Corporal/psicologia , Linguística , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Traduções , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Competência Cultural , França , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Perda de Peso
14.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 119(7. Vyp. 2): 52-57, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532591

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of computer game addiction in educational institutions and to develop additional diagnostics of computer game addiction using the vocabulary of colloquial speech of a computer gamer and the «portrait of a gamer student¼. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 7-10 grade students, aged 12-17 years (14.6±2.4 years), their parents and teachers from educational institutions. Sociological, clinical, psychometric and statistical methods were used. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The study has established that the more time a student spend playing computer games, the more words in the test he/she defines as «familiar¼; the difference in the means for analyzing quantitative data between groups with different degrees of involvement in computer games is significant. The results indicate that the proposed «language vocabulary¼ testing is suitable for additional diagnosis of the degree of computer game dependence.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Linguística , Jogos de Vídeo , Adolescente , Comportamento Aditivo/diagnóstico , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometria , Estudantes
15.
Georgian Med News ; (292-293): 118-121, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560676

RESUMO

The article presents the results of linguistic study regarding the means of expressing the fundamental terms of the micro-terminology system "Gerontology and Geriatrics" in Latin and Greek. The aim of the research is to study the verbal codification in the corpus of basic gerontological concepts as an integral part of medical terminology in classical languages. The study of age-related changes, which take place in the aging body, the peculiarities of the course of diseases in the elderly and senile age, and prevention methods are becoming more urgent and therefore substantiates the necessity and timeliness of this research. Specialized studies of Latin and Greek terminology in this field of medical science have not been performed yet, which determines the scientific novelty of this paper. The research material relies on the authoritative encyclopedic and etymological dictionaries, using the method of continuous sampling with a semantic criterion. The frequency of using the Greek initial term elements ger-/geront- and presby- as components of single-word composites has been considered. The compositional models of several gerontological terms and grammatical means of their expression have been analyzed. The relevance of the study is due to the fact that the study of trends and principles of the formation of Latin medical terms, the mechanisms of their functioning, semantic features in synchronous and diachronic aspects makes it possible to trace the main stages of development of medical science and contributes to the standardization of the sublanguage of medicine.


Assuntos
Geriatria , Linguagem , Linguística , Semântica , Terminologia como Assunto , Humanos
16.
J Biosci ; 44(3)2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389347

RESUMO

Data from archaeology, linguistics, population genetics, and from early Vedic texts, which deal with religion, mythology and rituals, have to be assembled and closely compared in order to gain a comprehensive picture of the early 'Aryans'. Such interdisciplinary dialogue is necessary in order to establish areas of overlap of data. This paper attempts to indicate a western Central Asian origin of the Indo-Aryan speakers, in the steppe belt near the Urals, from where they moved, via the Inner Asian Mountain belt and Bactria, into India. Their gradual migration entailed acculturation with previous populations, their languages and cultures.


Assuntos
Arqueologia/métodos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/história , DNA Antigo/análise , Grupos Étnicos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/história , Migração Humana/tendências , Animais , Comportamento Ritualístico , Equidae , Feminino , Genética Populacional/métodos , História Antiga , Cavalos , Humanos , Índia/etnologia , Linguística/métodos , Masculino
18.
J Biosci ; 44(3)2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389349

RESUMO

When and where was the Rigveda (Rv) composed? How are the Vedic people related to the vast Harappan archaeological tradition? These quintessential questions have no direct answers. At our current level of understanding, archaeology and sacred texts constitute two distinct streams which do not intersect. We must therefore collate evidence from different sources and try to produce a synthesis. It is particularly important to take note of archaeological evidence from Central Asia, because it has not received the attention it deserves. What is well known in science must be kept in mind in the case of history also. A theory to be valid must explain each and every fact (known at present or to be known in future) in a selfconsistent manner. Conversely, even if there is one piece of evidence that a theory is unable to explain, it should be put on hold, modified or even rejected.


Assuntos
Agricultura/história , Arqueologia/métodos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/história , Grupos Étnicos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/história , Migração Humana/tendências , Animais , Comportamento Ritualístico , DNA Antigo/análise , Domesticação , Secas , Feminino , Genética Populacional/métodos , História Antiga , Cavalos , Humanos , Índia/etnologia , Linguística/métodos , Masculino , Melhoramento Vegetal/história
19.
J Biosci ; 44(3)2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389351

RESUMO

This paper addresses the theme of the seminar from the perspective of historical linguistics. It introduces the construct of 'language family' and then proceeds to a discussion of contact and the dynamics of linguistic exchange among the main language families of India over several millennia. Some prevalent hypotheses to explain the creation of India as a linguistic area are presented. The 'substratum view' is critically assessed. Evidence from historical linguistics in support of two dominant hypotheses - 'the Aryan migration view''and 'the out-of-India hypothesis' - is presented and briefly assessed. In conclusion, it is observed that the current understanding in historical linguistics favours the Aryan migration view though the 'substratum view' is questionable.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/história , Grupos Étnicos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/história , Migração Humana/tendências , Linguagem/história , Linguística/métodos , Arqueologia/métodos , Comportamento Ritualístico , Feminino , História Antiga , Humanos , Índia/etnologia , Masculino
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