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1.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 117: 157-168, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358703

RESUMO

Infectious diseases are one of the main causes of social and economical losses in world aquaculture. Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) is an important species for aquaculture in southern Europe, whose production is affected by the appearance of bacterial diseases such as photobacteriosis, a septicemia caused by Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida (Phdp). The aim of this study was to obtain an oral DNA nanovaccine and to evaluate its efficacy against Phdp in S. senegalensis juveniles. For this purpose, the amplified product corresponding to the protein inosine-5'-monophophate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) from Phdp, was cloned into the expression vector pcDNA™6.2/C-EmGFP-GW obtaining the DNA vaccine named as pPDPimpdh. The correct transcription and protein expression was verified at 48 h post tansfection in HEK293 cells. Chitosan nanoparticles (CS-TPP NPs) were prepared by ionotropic gelation and their features were appropriate for use as oral delivery system. Therefore, pPDPimpdh was protected with chitosan CS-TPP NPs throughout complex coacervation method giving as a result a DNA nanovaccine referred as CS-TPP+pPDPimpdh NPs. Sole juveniles were vaccinated orally with CS-TPP NPs, pPDPimpdh and CS-TPP+pPDPimpdh NPs followed by a challenge with Phdp at 30 days post vaccination (dpv). The relative percentage survival (RPS) for pPDPimpdh vaccinated groups was 6.25%, probably due to its degradation in the digestive tract. RPS value obtained for CS-TPP NPs and CS-TPP+pPDPimpdh NPs was 40% and antibodies were observed in both cases. However, a delay in mortality was observed in sole juveniles vaccinated orally with CS-TPP+pPDPimpdh NPs. In fact, an upregulation of tf, mhcII, cd8a and igm in the posterior gut and c3, hamp1, tf and cd4 in spleen was observed in juveniles vaccinated with CS-TPP+pPDPimpdh NPs. After challenge, a modulation of cd8a and cd4 expression levels in the posterior gut and c3, tf, lyg, cd4, igm and igt expression levels in spleen was observed. Moreover, the concentration of lysozyme in skin mucus significantly increased in fish vaccinated orally with CS-TPP+pPDPimpdh NPs at 11 dpc. These data indicate that oral vaccination with CS-TPP+pPDPimpdh NPs could be acting through the non-specific immune responses as well as the specific humoral and cell mediated immunity and provide the first step toward a development of an oral DNA nanovaccine against Phdp in sole.


Assuntos
Quitosana/administração & dosagem , Doenças dos Peixes/prevenção & controle , Linguados , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/prevenção & controle , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Photobacterium/imunologia , Vacinas de DNA/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Animais , Linguados/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34387538

RESUMO

The present study objective was to assess polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Bizerte and Ghar El Melh Lagoons Solea solea and to assess the potential risk to human health from its consumption. To reach these objectives twenty fish samples from each site were collected and 15 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed in their muscles using high-performance liquid chromatography with a fluorescence detector. Total PAH sole concentrations from Bizerte and Ghar El Melh Lagoons were similar or lower to those recorded in other species from other regions across the world. In the studied fish species, the 2 and 3 ring PAHs are the dominated compounds that enter to the composition of PAHs which indicates that PAHs could be principally derived from a petrogenic origin for the both studied lagoons. The human health risk by sole consumption was evaluated and revealed to exhibit no hazard to the local population health concerning PAH intakes. The findings of this biomonitoring study will help in the implementation of sustainable environmental policies for effective water pollution control and the two investigated lagoons management.


Assuntos
Linguados , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Bioacumulação , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Medição de Risco , Tunísia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
3.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 116: 52-60, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216786

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary bile acids (BAs) on intestinal healthy status of tongue sole in terms of immunity, antioxidant status, digestive ability, mucosal barrier-related genes expression and microbiota. Three experimental diets were prepared with BA levels at 0 mg/kg (CT), 300 mg/kg (BA1) and 900 mg/kg (BA2) in a commercial basal diet. Each diet was fed to three replicates with 120 fish (10.87 ± 0.32 g) in each tank. After an 8-week feeding trial, growth parameters were significantly enhanced in both BAs supplementary groups (P < 0.05), and compared with CT group, survival rate in BA2 group was significantly improved (P < 0.05). Intestinal lysozyme activity and contents of immunoglobulin M and complement 3 were significantly increased in both BAs supplementary groups (P < 0.05), suggesting an enhancement effect on the non-specific immune response. BAs inclusion also significantly improved intestinal antioxidant capabilities by increasing antioxidase activities and decreasing malondialdehyde levels. In addition, compared with CT group, intestinal digestive ability was substantially enhanced as indicated by the significantly increased lipase activity in BA2 group (P < 0.05) and significantly increased amylase activity in BA1 and BA2 groups (P < 0.05). Coincidentally, BAs inclusion significantly upregulated the relative expression of intestinal mucosal barrier-related genes (P < 0.05). Further, dietary BAs distinctly remodeled intestinal microbiota by decreased the abundance of some potential pathogenic bacteria. In conclusion, dietary BAs supplementation is an effective way to improve the intestinal healthy status of tongue sole.


Assuntos
Ácidos e Sais Biliares/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Linguados , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfatase Alcalina/imunologia , Amilases/metabolismo , Animais , Complemento C3/imunologia , Dieta/veterinária , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Linguados/genética , Linguados/imunologia , Linguados/metabolismo , Linguados/microbiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Lipase/metabolismo , Muramidase/imunologia , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Junções Íntimas/genética
4.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 115: 104-111, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062237

RESUMO

C-type lectins (CTLs) are important pathogen pattern recognition receptors that recognize carbohydrate structures. In present study, a C-type lectin domain family 4 member E-like gene from turbot, which tentatively named SmCLEC4E-like (SmCLEC4EL), was identified, and the expressional and functional analyses were performed. In our results, SmCLEC4EL showed conserved synteny with CLEC4E-like genes from several fish species in genome, and possessed a typical type II transmembrane CTL architecture: an N-terminal intracellular region, a transmembrane domain and a C-terminal extracellular region which contained a predicted carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD). In addition, SmCLEC4EL exhibited the highest expression level in spleen in healthy fish, and showed significantly induced expression in mucosal tissues, intestine and skin, under bacteria challenge. Finally, the recombinant SmCLEC4EL protein combined with LPS, PGN, LTA and five different kinds of bacteria in a dose-dependent manner, and agglutinated these bacteria strains in the presence of calcium. These findings collectively demonstrated that SmCLEC4EL, a calcium-dependent CTL, could function as a pattern recognition receptor in pathogen recognition and participate in host anti-bacteria immunity.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Linguados/genética , Linguados/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Lectinas Tipo C/genética , Lectinas Tipo C/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Infecções Bacterianas/imunologia , Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Lectinas Tipo C/química , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Peptidoglicano/farmacologia , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária , Ácidos Teicoicos/farmacologia
5.
Environ Toxicol ; 36(9): 1894-1910, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34156741

RESUMO

The toxicity of malathion to Solea senegalensis was studied in a static renewal bioassay during its first month of larval life (between 4 and 30 dph). Through the use of different biomarkers and biochemical, cellular and molecular approaches (inhibition of cholinesterases [ChEs], changes in cytochrome P450-1A [CYP1A] and the study of histopathological alterations), the effects of three concentrations of malathion (1.56, 3.12, and 6.25 µg/L) have been analyzed. In subacute exposure, malathion inhibited cholinesterase activities (AChE, BChE, CbE) in a dose- and time-dependent manner, ranging the inhibition percentage from 20% to 90%. However, the expression levels of CYP1A and AChE transcripts or proteins were not modified. Additionally, exposure to malathion provoked histopathological alterations in several organ systems of Senegalese sole in a time- and dose dependent way, namely disruption of parenchymal architecture in the liver, epithelial desquamation, pyknotic nuclei and steatosis in the intestine, disorganization of supporting cartilage, and sings of hyperplasia and hypertrophy in the gills and degeneration of the epithelial cells from the renal tubules. Malathion exposure also provoked strong disorganization of cardiac fibers from the heart. The findings provide evidence that exposure to sublethal concentrations of malathion that provoked serious injury to the fish S. senegalensis, were below the expected environmental concentrations reported in many other ecosystems and different fish species,revealing a higher sensitivity for Solea senegalensis to malathion exposure, thus reinforcing its use as sentinel species for environmental pollution in coastal and estuarine environments.


Assuntos
Linguados , Malation , Animais , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450 , Ecossistema , Esterases , Linguados/genética , Malation/toxicidade
6.
BMC Ecol Evol ; 21(1): 114, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As flatfish, turbot undergo metamorphosis as part of their life cycle. In the larval stage, turbot live at the ocean surface, but after metamorphosis they move to deeper water and turn to benthic life. Thus, the light environment differs greatly between life stages. The visual system plays a great role in organic evolution, but reports of the relationship between the visual system and benthic life are rare. In this study, we reported the molecular and evolutionary analysis of opsin genes in turbot, and the heterochronic shifts in opsin expression during development. RESULTS: Our gene synteny analysis showed that subtype RH2C was not on the same gene cluster as the other four green-sensitive opsin genes (RH2) in turbot. It was translocated to chromosome 8 from chromosome 6. Based on branch-site test and spectral tuning sites analyses, E122Q and M207L substitutions in RH2C, which were found to be under positive selection, are closely related to the blue shift of optimum light sensitivities. And real-time PCR results indicated the dominant opsin gene shifted from red-sensitive (LWS) to RH2B1 during turbot development, which may lead to spectral sensitivity shifts to shorter wavelengths. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report that RH2C may be an important subtype of green opsin gene that was retained by turbot and possibly other flatfish species during evolution. Moreover, E122Q and M207L substitutions in RH2C may contribute to the survival of turbot in the bluish colored ocean. And heterochronic shifts in opsin expression may be an important strategy for turbot to adapt to benthic life.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Linguados , Opsinas , Animais , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Linguados/genética , Opsinas/genética , Filogenia , Seleção Genética , Sintenia
7.
J Fish Biol ; 99(4): 1299-1306, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34184260

RESUMO

Common topknots (Zeugopterus punctatus) attach to vertical rock surfaces and overhangs. It has been speculated that attachment is by a suction cup, with the median (anal, dorsal) fins providing a peripheral seal. Here the authors propose that the attachment is actually based on a Venturi effect. The rear portions of the median fins continually move in a fan-like fashion (at c. 4 cycles per second). This movement produces a tailward fluid flow that ventilates the shallow underbody space between the fish and its rocky substratum. The anterior portions of the median fins seal the space laterally, but the space is open anterior (beneath the raised head) and posterior to the sea. The mid-underbody space likely has a lower cross-sectional area than does the front intake or rear exit, so flow should be faster (and pressure lower) within it than outside, thus providing pressure gradient suction. Topknots attach to rough and heavily biofouled surfaces, presumably because the high numbers of fin rays and their associated membranes plus fine muscle control allow effective sealing. The attachment ability is shared by all members of the flatfish tribe Phrynorhombini; it can be related to anatomical peculiarities and constitutes a probable synapomorphy for this clade.


Assuntos
Linguados , Linguado , Nadadeiras de Animais , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Natação
8.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 115: 70-74, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34089887

RESUMO

The polymerization of monomeric antigens can be a strategy to overcome the low immunogenicity of subunit vaccines. IMX313 is a hybrid oligomerization domain of chicken C4bp, and has been demonstrated to have potent activity as adjuvants for the fused antigens in mammals. In the present study, we investigated whether the oligomerization of α-enolase of Streptococcus iniae by fusion with IMX313 affected on antibody induction and on protection against S. iniae infection in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). The oligomerization of S. iniae enolase by fusion with IMX313 (enolase-IMX313) was verified by non-reducing PAGE, and the antibody titer against enolase in olive flounder immunized with enolase-IMX313 was significantly higher than that in fish immunized with enolase alone. Furthermore, although the survival of olive flounder immunized with enolase alone was low, fish immunized with enolase-IMX313 showed much higher survival (RPS 50%) in accordance with higher serum antibody titer, suggesting that fusion of antigens with IMX313 can be an effective way to enhance protective efficacy of subunit vaccines in olive flounder.


Assuntos
Formação de Anticorpos , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Linguados , Fosfopiruvato Hidratase/genética , Infecções Estreptocócicas/veterinária , Streptococcus iniae/genética , Animais , Anisóis , Proteínas Aviárias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Longevidade , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Sinalização NOD/genética , Fosfopiruvato Hidratase/metabolismo , Infecções Estreptocócicas/imunologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/microbiologia , Streptococcus iniae/enzimologia , Triazinas , Triazóis
9.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 115: 27-34, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34052389

RESUMO

TLRs are the first and best-characterized pattern recognition receptors conserved across all the species. Different from mammals, the TLRs in teleost fishes are very diversified due to various evolutionary mechanisms. Here, we characterized one TLR1 gene in turbot, with a 2,415 bp open reading frame (ORF), that encoding 804 amino acid residues, and have the highest similarity and identity both to Paralichthys olivaceus with 88.9% and 79.9%. In phylogenetic analysis, it was firstly clustered with P. olivaceus, and then clustered with Takifugu rubripes. TLR1 was widely expressed in all the examined healthy tissues with the highest expression level in spleen, followed by head-kidney. In addition, it was significantly regulated in gill, skin and intestine following Edwardsiella tarda and Vibrio anguillarum challenge with different expression patterns. In in vitro stimulation with pathogen-associated molecular patterns, TLR1 showed significantly strong and elevated responses to LPS, but only responded to LTA and Poly(I:C) at the highest evaluated concentration, while no response was detected using PGN stimulation. Moreover, in subcellular localization analysis, TLR1 was distributed in the cytoplasm, membrane and nucleus. Taken together, TLR1 played vital roles for host immune response to bacterial infection, only with strong binding ability to LPS and involved in the production of inflammatory cytokines. However, the specific ligand for TLR1 and its functional association with other TLRs should be further characterized in fish species.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Linguados/genética , Linguados/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Receptor 1 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 1 Toll-Like/imunologia , Animais , Edwardsiella tarda/fisiologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/imunologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/veterinária , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de Proteína/veterinária , Receptor 1 Toll-Like/química , Vibrio/fisiologia , Vibrioses/imunologia , Vibrioses/veterinária
10.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(37): 51440-51452, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33987723

RESUMO

Many personal care products integrate UV-filters, such as 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC), a compound frequently detected in aquatic habitats, including coastal areas. However, the potential effects of 4-MBC to saltwater species have been poorly studied. Therefore, the main objective of this work is to study the effects of 4-MBC exposure on Solea senegalensis during metamorphosis, a sensitive life stage of this flatfish. To achieve this, fish were exposed to 4-MBC (0.2-2.0 mg L-1) for 48 h at the beginning of metamorphosis (13 days after hatching, dah). After this period, the fish were transferred to a clean medium. They were fed and maintained until more than 80% of individuals in the control group completed the metamorphosis (24 dah). Mortality, malformations, and metamorphic progression were studied daily. Growth, behavior, and biochemical markers of neurotransmission (acetylcholinesterase, AChE), oxidative stress (catalase, CAT; lipid peroxidation, LPO), detoxification (glutathione S-transferase, GST), and anaerobic metabolism (lactate dehydrogenase, LDH) were also determined at the end of the experiment. An acceleration of metamorphosis progression was observed during and 2 days after the 4-MBC exposure in all concentrations tested. In addition, reduced length, inhibition of CAT activity, and induction of oxidative damage were observed (lowest observed effect concentration, LOEC = 0.928 mg L-1 4-MBC for length, CAT, and LPO). Short-term exposure to 4-MBC at the onset of metamorphosis affected S. senegalensis at several levels of organization, even after 9 days in a clean medium, including growth and metamorphic progression, suggesting possible long-term adverse effects in this species.


Assuntos
Linguados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Linguados/metabolismo , Metamorfose Biológica , Estresse Oxidativo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
11.
Mar Environ Res ; 170: 105351, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34015608

RESUMO

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are priority contaminants in coastal and estuarine ecosystems under anthropogenic pressure. Although PAHs tend to accumulate in the sediment, toxicity for benthic flat fish such as soles may be caused by PAHs released from the sediment to the water column. Within this context, the present investigation aims at recognizing toxicopathic effects elicited after waterborne exposure to benzo[a]pyrene B[a]P, a model individual PAH compound, in juvenile Solea senegalensis. Sole juveniles were exposed to various concentrations of waterborne B[a]P for 3 and 7 days. Brain, liver, gills and gonad were the target tissues selected to determine biochemical and lysosomal biomarkers, and histopathology. Biological responses and toxicopathic effects were consistent with B[a]P concentration and exposure time. From day 3, hepatic catalase inhibition indicated potential oxidative effects of B[a]P. At day 7, contaminant exposure produced hepatic glutathione-S-transferase induction at low concentrations and inhibition at higher levels, evidencing a bell-shaped response. A clear gradient in lysosomal membrane destabilisation was observed in relation with B[a]P concentrations. Histopathological lesions were more frequent at day 7 and at higher contaminant levels. It seems that environmentally relevant waterborne concentrations of B[a]P (1000 ng/l) would suffice to cause toxicopathic effects on sole juveniles in relatively short exposure times. In agreement, the Integrative Biological Response index (IBR/n) indicated a dose-dependent decline in health condition upon exposure to B[a]P (IBR/nHighB[a]P > IBR/nMidB[a]P > IBR/nLowB[a]P > IBR/nDMSO > IBR/nControl). Overall, changes in antioxidant enzymes activity, lysosomal biomarkers and gill and liver histopathology are responsive early-warning signs of health disturbance in sole juveniles exposed to waterborne PAHs.


Assuntos
Linguados , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Benzo(a)pireno/toxicidade , Biomarcadores , Ecossistema , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
12.
Mar Drugs ; 19(5)2021 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33946805

RESUMO

Fish vary in their ability to biosynthesise long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) depending upon the complement and function of key enzymes commonly known as fatty acyl desaturases and elongases. It has been reported in Solea senegalensis the existence of a Δ4 desaturase, enabling the biosynthesis of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), which can be modulated by the diet. The present study aims to evaluate the combined effects of the partial replacement of fish oil (FO) with vegetable oils and reduced environmental salinity in the fatty acid composition of relevant body compartments (muscle, hepatocytes and enterocytes), the enzymatic activity over α-linolenic acid (ALA) to form n-3 LC-PUFA through the incubation of isolated hepatocytes and enterocytes with [1-14C] 18:3 n-3, and the regulation of the S. senegalensis fads2 and elovl5 in the liver and intestine. The presence of radiolabelled products, including 18:4n-3, 20:4n-3 and EPA, provided compelling evidence that a complete pathway enabling the biosynthesis of EPA from ALA, establishing S. senegalensis, has at least one Fads2 with ∆6 activity. Dietary composition prevailed over salinity in regulating the expression of fads2, while salinity did so over dietary composition for elovl5. FO replacement enhanced the proportion of DHA in S. senegalensis muscle and the combination with 20 ppt salinity increased the amount of n-3 LC-PUFA in hepatocytes.


Assuntos
Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/biossíntese , Óleos de Peixe/metabolismo , Linguados/metabolismo , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Ração Animal , Animais , Aquicultura , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Enterócitos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/genética , Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/metabolismo , Elongases de Ácidos Graxos/genética , Elongases de Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Óleos de Peixe/administração & dosagem , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Músculos/metabolismo , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Salinidade , Fatores de Tempo , Água/química
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33848768

RESUMO

In addition to the typical sexual size dimorphism, considerable size differences within the female population of the Chinese tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) have become a further bottleneck of the improvement of sole aquaculture. To identify the internal mechanism, transcriptomic analysis and weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) were employed simultaneously. Transcriptomic analyses of brain, pituitary gland, liver, gonad, and muscle tissues from two female groups with size differences identified 109, 698, 1325, 2299, and 2141 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), respectively. The results of these enrichment analyses suggest that the up-regulation of neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, cell cycle, DNA replication, and MAPK signaling pathway in the group with larger females may be involved in the regulation of the observed growth differences. WGCNA of DEGs showed that cell cycle and DNA replication might be crucial pathways for accelerating cell growth in the groups with larger females. Finally, a series of hub genes including 6-phosphofructokinase type C (pfkp), ribosome biogenesis protein (wdr12), bleomycin hydrolase (blmh), and semaphorin-3A (sema3a) were recognized by the illustrated network map of modules. The linkage of cell cycle, DNA replication, and hub genes in the growth regulation of C. semilaevis provides further information for a better understanding of growth differences in fish.


Assuntos
Ciclo Celular , Replicação do DNA , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Linguados/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Transcriptoma , Animais , Feminino , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Linguados/genética , Linguados/metabolismo , Gônadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gônadas/metabolismo
14.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 144: 107-115, 2021 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33884959

RESUMO

Scuticociliatosis, caused by ciliated protozoa of the subclass Scuticociliatia, has been associated with high mortalities in marine fish. Environmental factors such as an increase in water temperature can enhance this disease. The aim of the present report is to describe the occurrence of a cluster of cases of scuticociliatosis in a multispecies marine cold-water system in a public aquarium. Philasterides dicentrarchi was identified by PCR in formalin-fixed tissues of some of the fish showing meningitis or meningoencephalitis, dermatitis and myositis with intralesional protozoa. An increase in water temperature of approximately 2°C was identified as a potential contributing factor for this cluster of infections. Higher temperature may have enhanced the propagation or pathogenicity of scuticociliates or increased host susceptibility of some species of fish, especially wolf-eel Anarrhichthys ocellatus and spotted ratfish Hydrolagus colliei. This report also highlights the complexity of dealing with mixed species systems housing fish from different natural ecozones.


Assuntos
Infecções por Cilióforos , Cilióforos , Doenças dos Peixes , Linguados , Oligoimenóforos , Animais , Infecções por Cilióforos/veterinária , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Oligoimenóforos/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária
15.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 113: 79-85, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812989

RESUMO

Bacterial infections cause huge losses to aquaculture globally, and increased antibiotic resistance means that alternative methods of reducing mortality from bacterial diseases are required. We compared the resistance of Juvenile olive flounders, Paralichthys olivaceus, to Streptococcus iniae between those reared in biofloc and seawater conditions for ten months. Experimental fish were challenged with S. iniae at concentrations of 0, 3.36 × 106, 3.36 × 107, 3.36 × 108, and 3.36 × 109 colony forming units (CFU)/g fish for 96 h to evaluate the difference in S. iniae susceptibility of flounders reared in biofloc and seawater. The 96 h lethal concentration 50% (LC50) of fish injected with S. iniae was 2.41 × 109 CFU/g fish in biofloc and 1.51 × 108 CFU/g fish in seawater. Hematological parameters such as hemoglobin and hematocrit significantly decreased when fish were challenged by S. iniae. Plasma components such as calcium, glucose, cholesterol, total protein, GOT, GPT, and ALP were significantly altered by S. iniae infection and acetylcholinesterase activity was significantly inhibited. These results indicate that S. iniae infection affects the survival rates, hematological parameters, and neurotransmitter levels of flounders reared in biofloc and seawater, and that S. iniae susceptibility was higher in flounders reared in seawater than those reared in biofloc.


Assuntos
Aquicultura/instrumentação , Doenças dos Peixes/mortalidade , Linguados , Testes Hematológicos/veterinária , Neurotransmissores/metabolismo , Água do Mar/química , Infecções Estreptocócicas/veterinária , Animais , Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/microbiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/mortalidade , Streptococcus iniae/fisiologia , Taxa de Sobrevida
16.
Mar Drugs ; 19(4)2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33916965

RESUMO

Fishery by-products are rich in biologically active substances and the use of green and efficient extraction methods to recover these high-added-value compounds is of particular importance. In this study, head, skin and viscera of rainbow trout and sole were used as the target matrices and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) (45-55 °C, 15 min, pH 5.2-6.8, 103.4 bars) and pulsed electric fields (PEF) (1-3 kV/cm, 123-300 kJ/kg, 15-24 h) were applied as extraction technologies. The results showed that ASE and PEF significantly increased the protein extract efficiency of the fish by-products (p < 0.05) by up to 80%. SDS-PAGE results showed that ASE and PEF treatments changed the molecular size distribution of the protein in the extracts, which was specifically expressed as the change in the area or number of bands between 5 and 250 kDa. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts was evaluated by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and total antioxidant capacity (ABTS) assays. The results showed that both ASE and PEF treatments significantly increased the antioxidant capacity of rainbow trout and sole skin and head extracts (p < 0.05). ASE and PEF extraction processes can be used as new technologies to extract high-added-value compounds from fish by-products.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Eletricidade , Proteínas de Peixes/farmacologia , Linguados/metabolismo , Oncorhynchus mykiss/metabolismo , Alimentos Marinhos , Solventes/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Fracionamento Químico , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Proteínas de Peixes/isolamento & purificação , Manipulação de Alimentos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Peso Molecular , Capacidade de Absorbância de Radicais de Oxigênio , Pressão , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo , Resíduos
17.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 114: 49-57, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33887442

RESUMO

Soy saponins, as thermo-stable anti-nutrients in soybean meal (SBM), are the primary causal agents of SBM-induced enteritis, which represents a well-documented pathologic alternation involving the distal intestines of various farmed fish. Our previous work showed that soy saponins might lead to SBM-induced enteritis, destroy tight junction structure and induce oxidative damage in juvenile turbot. Glutamine, as a conditionally essential amino acid, is an important substrate utilized for the growth of intestinal epithelial cells. An 8-week feeding trial was carried out to determine whether glutamine can attenuate the detrimental effects of soy saponins. Three isonitrogenous-isolipidic experimental diets were formulated as follows: (i) fish meal-based diet (FM), considered as control; (ii) FM + 10 g/kg soy saponins, SAP; and (iii) SAP + 15 g/kg glutamine, GLN. The results showed that dietary soy saponins significantly increased the gene expression levels of inflammatory markers (IL-1ß, IL-8 and TNF-α) and related signaling factors (NF-кB, AP-1, p38, JNK and ERK), which were remarkably attenuated by dietary glutamine. Compared to SAP group, GLN-fed fish exhibited significantly higher expression levels of tight junction genes (CLDN3, CLDN4, OCLN, Tricellulin and ZO-1). Glutamine supplementation in SAP diet markedly suppressed the production of reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl, and enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes as well as the mRNA levels of HO-1, SOD, GPX and Nrf2. Furthermore, GLN-fed fish had a remarkably lower number of autophagosomes compared to SAP-fed fish. In conclusion, our study indicated that glutamine could reverse the harmful effects of soy saponins on intestinal inflammation, tight junction disruption and oxidative damage, via attenuation of NF-кB, AP-1 and MAPK pathways and activation of Nrf2 pathway. Glutamine may have the function of controlling autophaghic process within an appropriate level of encountering inflammation.


Assuntos
Enterite/induzido quimicamente , Doenças dos Peixes/induzido quimicamente , Linguados/fisiologia , Glutamina/farmacologia , Saponinas/toxicidade , Soja/química , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta/veterinária , Enterite/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Peixes/prevenção & controle , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
J Wildl Dis ; 57(2): 292-302, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822161

RESUMO

Environmental changes or stressors can result in the development of diseases. Through regular fish disease surveys in the Belgian part of the North Sea, attention was drawn to a sudden increase of skin ulceration prevalence between 2011 and 2014 in common dab (Limanda limanda). Information on prevalence, ulceration, bacteriology, fish-related (e.g., length, age, and sex) and (spatial and temporal) environmental factors, and fishing intensity were gathered. This detailed investigation was framed within a long-term monitoring program, executed every spring-autumn from 2000 to present. Ulcerations were observed in 1.3% of fish (n=3,999). Spatial and temporal differences were evident, and highest prevalence was found in summer. Vibrio was the dominant cultivated bacterial genus present in the lesions. Skin ulcerations appeared to be correlated with length and body condition of the fish, as well as with temperature and pH of the seawater and fishing vessel density. Our research suggested the involvement of multiple factors in the development of skin ulcerations in common dab and endorsed the effects of changing environment and human influence on the marine ecosystem through activities such as fishing.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Linguados/microbiologia , Úlcera Cutânea/veterinária , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Tamanho Corporal , Feminino , Doenças dos Peixes/etiologia , Masculino , Mar do Norte/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Pigmentação da Pele , Úlcera Cutânea/epidemiologia , Úlcera Cutânea/etiologia
19.
Nat Genet ; 53(5): 742-751, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33875864

RESUMO

The evolutionary and genetic origins of the specialized body plan of flatfish are largely unclear. We analyzed the genomes of 11 flatfish species representing 9 of the 14 Pleuronectiforme families and conclude that Pleuronectoidei and Psettodoidei do not form a monophyletic group, suggesting independent origins from different percoid ancestors. Genomic and transcriptomic data indicate that genes related to WNT and retinoic acid pathways, hampered musculature and reduced lipids might have functioned in the evolution of the specialized body plan of Pleuronectoidei. Evolution of Psettodoidei involved similar but not identical genes. Our work provides valuable resources and insights for understanding the genetic origins of the unusual body plan of flatfishes.


Assuntos
Linguados/anatomia & histologia , Linguados/genética , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Nadadeiras de Animais/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Biocatálise , Evolução Molecular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Mutação/genética , Tamanho do Órgão , Especificidade da Espécie
20.
Environ Pollut ; 283: 117103, 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33894628

RESUMO

Nitrate (NO3-) is one of the common inorganic nitrogen compound pollutants in natural ecosystems, which may have serious risks for aquatic organisms. However, its toxicological mechanism remains unclear. In the current study, juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) were exposed to different concentrations of NO3- (CK- 3.57 ± 0.16, LN - 60.80 ± 1.21, MN - 203.13 ± 10.97 and HN - 414.16 ± 15.22 mg/L NO3-N) for 60 d. The blood biochemical assays results revealed that elevated NO3- exposure significantly increased the concentrations of plasma NO3-, NO2-, MetHb, K+, cortisol, glucose, triglyceride, lactate, while significantly decreased the concentrations of plasma Hb, Na+ and Cl-, which meant that NO3- caused hypoxic stress and further affected the osmoregulation and metabolism in fish. Besides, exposure to MN and HN induced a significant decrease in the level of antioxidants, including SOD (Point: 60th day, MN, HN v.s. CK: 258.36, 203.73 v.s. 326.95 U/mL), CAT (1.97, 1.17 v.s. 2.37 U/mL), GSH (25.38, 20.74 v.s. 37.00 µmol/L), and GPx (85.32, 71.46 v.s. 129.36 U/mL), and a significant increase of MDA (7.54, 9.73 v.s. 5.27 nmol/L), suggesting that NO3- exposure leading to a disruption of the redox status in fish. Also, further research revealed that NO3- exposure altered the mRNA levels of p53 (HN: up to 4.28 folds) and p53-regulated downstream genes such as Bcl-2 (inferior to 0.44 folds), caspase-3 (up to 2.90 folds) and caspase-7 (up to 3.49 folds), indicating that NO3- exposure induced abnormal apoptosis in the fish gills. Moreover, IBRv2 analysis showed that the toxicity of NO3- exposure to turbot was dose-dependent, and the toxicity peaked on the 15th day. In short, NO3- is an environmental toxicological factor that cannot be ignored, because its toxic effects are long-term and could cause irreversible damage to fish. These results would be beneficial to improve our understanding of the toxicity mechanism of NO3- to fish, which provides baseline evidence for the risk assessment of environmental NO3- in aquatic ecosystems.


Assuntos
Linguados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Apoptose , Ecossistema , Nitratos/toxicidade , Oxirredução , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
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