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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35409506

RESUMO

The literature on the role of gestures in children with language delay (LD) is partial and controversial. The present study explores gestural production and modality of expression in children with LD and semantic and temporal relationships between gestures and words in gesture + word combinations. Thirty-three children participated (mean age, 26 months), who were recruited through a screening programme for LD. Cognitive skills, lexical abilities, and the use of spontaneous gestures in a naming task were evaluated when the children were 32 months old. When the children were 78 months old, their parents were interviewed to collect information about an eventual diagnosis of developmental language disorder (DLD). According to these data, the children fell into three groups: children with typical development (n = 13), children with LD who did not show DLD (transient LD; n = 9), and children with LD who showed DLD (n = 11). No significant differences emerged between the three groups for cognitive and lexical skills (comprehension and production), for number of gestures spontaneously produced, and for the sematic relationships between gestures and words. Differences emerged in the modality of expression, where children with transient LD produced more unimodal gestural utterances than typical-development children, and in the temporal relationships between gestures and words, where the children who would show DLD provided more frequent representational gestures before the spoken answer than typical-development children. We suggest a different function for gestures in children with T-LD, who used representational gestures to replace the spoken word they were not yet able to produce, and in children with LD-DLD, who used representational gestures to access spoken words.


Assuntos
Gestos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Criança , Linguagem Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Projetos Piloto , Vocabulário
2.
Av. psicol. latinoam ; 40(1): 1-16, ene.-abr. 2022. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1367248

RESUMO

Existe pouco consenso sobre o que constitui um bom reconto de uma história e como avaliar essa importante habilidade linguística. Este estudo revisou artigos publi-cados entre 2010 e 2018 que avaliaram narrativas orais de histórias por crianças, a fim de mapear e sistematizar as medidas qualitativas e quantitativas empregadas. Ini-cialmente os estudos analisados foram classificados de acordo com o uso de uma de quatro metodologias amplas: avaliações padronizadas, gramática narrativa, unidades-C e protocolos de pontuação de narrativa. No entanto, um exame mais detalhado mostrou que essa classificação geral obscureceu o fato de que as medidas específicas podiam não ser equivalentes entre estudos. Para melhorar esse esquema conceitual, as medidas específicas foram organizadas em novas categorias, baseadas em dimensões diferentes do desempenho da narrativa oral de histórias, como fluência, coesão e inclusão de elementos psicológicos. A aplicação desse novo esquema classificatório aos estudos publicados entre 2010 e 2018 revelou que as medidas específicas da qualidade narrativa variam ampla e ortogonalmente aos métodos mais gerais empregados, o que explica parte da confusão conceitual e metodológica presente na literatura sobre avaliação de habilidades narrativas orais. Espera-se que esse novo esquema de classificação possa ajudar a dissipar parte dessa confusão e melhorar a comparabilidade e a replicabilidade dos estudos


Hay poco consenso sobre lo que constituye un buen recuento de una historia y cómo evaluar esta importante habilidad lingüística. El presente estudio revisó artículos publicados entre 2010 y 2018 que evaluaron narrativas orales de historias contadas por niños para mapear y sistematizar las medidas cualitativas y cuantitativas empleadas. Inicialmente, los estudios analizados se clasificaron de acuerdo con el uso de una de cuatro metodologías amplias: evaluaciones estandarizadas, gramática narrativa, unidades-C y protocolos de puntuación narrativa. Sin embargo, un examen más detallado mostró que esta clasificación general ocultaba el hecho de que las medidas específicas podrían no ser equivalentes entre los estudios. Para mejorar este esquema conceptual, las medidas específicas fueron organizadas en nuevas categorías, basadas en diferentes dimensiones del desempeño de la narrativa oral de historias como la fluidez, la cohesión y la inclusión de elementos psicológicos. La aplicación de este nuevo esquema de clasificación a los estudios publicados entre 2010 y 2018 reveló que las medidas específicas de calidad narrativa varían amplia y ortogonalmente a los métodos más generales empleados, lo que explica parte de la confusión conceptual y metodológica presente en la literatura sobre la evaluación de las habilidades narrativas orales. Se espera que este nuevo esquema de clasificación pueda ayudar a disipar parte de esta confusión y a mejorar la comparabilidad y la replicabilidad de los estudios


There has been little consensus on what constitutes a good retelling of a story and how to assess this essential language skill. This study reviewed studies between 2010 and 2018 that assessed children ́s retellings of stories to map and systematize the qualitative and quan-titative measures employed. Initially, studies were clas-sified according to the use of one of four broad method-ologies: standardized assessments, narrative grammar, C-Units, and narrative scoring protocols. However, closer examination showed that this general classifica-tion obscured the fact that the specific measures might not be equivalent between one study and another. To improve this conceptual scheme, the specific measures were organized into new categories, based on different dimensions of retelling performance, such as fluency, cohesion, and inclusion of psychological elements. The application of this new classificatory scheme to studies between 2010 and 2018 revealed that the specific measures of narrative quality vary broadly and orthog-onally to the more general methods employed, which explains part of the conceptual and methodological confusion present in the literature on assessment of narrative oral skills. It is hoped this new classification scheme can help to dispel some of this confusion and improve comparability and replicability


Assuntos
Humanos , Linguagem Infantil , Criança , Narração
3.
Lang Speech Hear Serv Sch ; 53(2): 329-334, 2022 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35344443

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This introduction presents the LSHSS Forum: Can You See My Screen? Virtual Assessment in Speech and Language. The goals of the forum are to document reliability and validity of assessment results conducted virtually, identify characteristics of measures that are suitable for online assessment, and provide clinical and research guidance for interpreting diagnostic results obtained in virtual settings. METHOD: In this introduction, we provide an overview of the research completed by nine teams, who submitted research articles and notes on a variety of topics pertinent to the theme of telehealth assessments. Of these, seven teams investigated the validity and reliability of 14 different assessment tools, while two teams described training and experience issues. CONCLUSION: The nine studies presented in this forum will provide speech-language pathologists with insight into a range of issues regarding telehealth assessment, including the breadth of suitable assessment tools; practical strategies for assessing children with a diverse range of ages, languages, skills, and abilities; and the unexpected challenges and opportunities of conducting clinical work and research during a global pandemic.


Assuntos
Patologia da Fala e Linguagem , Fala , Criança , Linguagem Infantil , Humanos , Idioma , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Patologia da Fala e Linguagem/métodos
4.
Lang Speech Hear Serv Sch ; 53(2): 532-541, 2022 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35271346

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to examine the change in specific English microstructure features according to language ability in preschool Spanish-English dual language learners. METHOD: We collected English narratives from 22 Spanish-English dual language learners with typical language development (TD) and 22 Spanish-English dual language learners with developmental language disorder (DLD) at the beginning and end of their first year in Head Start. Children came from Spanish-speaking homes and were exposed to English and Spanish in their preschool classrooms. We analyzed children's use of English microstructure across time using the Narrative Assessment Protocol. RESULTS: Both groups showed improvement in overall English microstructure use, although children with TD made greater gains than children with DLD. Phrase structure (noun phrases, coordinating conjunctions, and prepositional phrases) increased in both groups, but more so in children with TD than with DLD. Sentence structure (compound, complex, negative, and interrogative sentences) increased in both groups. Verb use, noun use (Tier 2 nouns and nouns marked with plural and possessive endings), and modifiers (adverbs and adjectives) neither changed across time nor differed between groups. CONCLUSIONS: Spanish-English dual language learners who attend Head Start and come from Spanish-speaking homes, regardless of language ability, may not readily acquire verbs, nouns, and modifiers during their first year of formal English exposure, suggesting that they would benefit from explicit instruction in these areas. Preschool Spanish-English dual language learners with DLD may make less progress than their peers with TD in phrase structure use, indicating that explicit instruction in this microstructure feature may be beneficial for children with DLD.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Multilinguismo , Criança , Linguagem Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Idioma , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Testes de Linguagem
5.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 65(4): 1370-1385, 2022 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35235374

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare word-initial and word-final consonant cluster productions in young children who speak African American English (AAE) and compare their productions to what we know about cluster productions in children who speak Mainstream American English (MAE), in order to minimize misdiagnosis of speech sound disorders. METHOD: Twenty-two children (ages 2;10-5;4 [years;months]) labeled pictures whose names contained at least one consonant cluster in word-initial and/or word-final position. Most two-element clusters of English were sampled, the majority in two or more words. The participants' responses were transcribed using a consensus transcription procedure. Each cluster attempt was analyzed for its similarity with MAE. RESULTS: Percentage matching scores were significantly higher for word-initial than word-final clusters. Word-final clusters produced as singletons were significantly more common than word-final cluster substitutions. However, word-initial cluster substitutions were significantly more common than word-initial clusters produced as singletons. Word-initial cluster mismatches were consistent with markedness theory and the sonority sequencing principle (SSP). By contrast, word-final cluster mismatches were not consistent with the SSP, while the voicing generalization seen in adult speakers of AAE was evident. CONCLUSION: Culturally and linguistically appropriate assessment of phonological development in children who speak AAE requires an understanding of the contrastive and noncontrastive features exemplified in their consonant cluster productions.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Transtorno Fonológico , Criança , Linguagem Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Idioma , Fonética , Medida da Produção da Fala , Transtorno Fonológico/diagnóstico
6.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 65(4): 1294-1310, 2022 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35263167

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Very preterm (VPT) children are at risk for speech and language problems throughout school age. However, little is known about early speech sound production in these children. This study aims to present a detailed description of early speech sound production and its trajectories in VPT children from 2 to 4 years of age. In addition, this study aimed to determine if early speech sound production is associated with speech production and expressive language function at 4 years of age. METHOD: In 63 VPT children (< 32 weeks of gestation, 41 boys, mean gestational age = 28.8 weeks, mean birth weight = 1,135 g), speech sound production was assessed by naturalistic speech analysis at 2 years of corrected age and speech and language function by standardized tests at 4 years of age. RESULTS: Speech sound production was found to be abnormal in 49% of the VPT children at 2 years of age and in 19% at 4 years of age. Four different speech production trajectories from 2 to 4 years of age could be identified: a normal trajectory, an abnormal trajectory, a catch-up trajectory, and a growing-into-deficit trajectory. Early speech production, defined by the number of acquired consonants at 2 years of age, significantly predicted the word production score at 4 years of age and the sentence production score at 4 years of age. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to the general population, an alarmingly high proportion of VPT children showed speech production problems at 2 years of age. About half of these children showed persistent speech problems at 4 years of age. Moreover, these problems were associated with expressive language problems at the age of 4 years. SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIAL: https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.19310822.


Assuntos
Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Fonética , Criança , Linguagem Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Masculino , Fala
7.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 65(4): 1543-1560, 2022 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35320679

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Sentence repetition (SR) is believed to be a clinical marker for developmental language disorder (DLD) across many languages. This study explored the potential of a self-designed Mandarin SR task (MSRT) to reflect Mandarin-speaking preschoolers' language ability and to differentiate children with and without DLD in this population. Furthermore, we aimed to compare five scoring systems for evaluating children's MSRT performance. METHOD: In Study 1, the MSRT was administered to 59 typically developing (TD) children aged 3;6 (years;months) to 6;5 in China. The task was examined regarding its ability to correlate with language indices derived from children's narrative samples. In Study 2, both a TD and a DLD group were recruited to investigate the task's sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios to distinguish between children with and without DLD. RESULTS: Study 1 showed that, using four of the five scoring methods, TD children's performance on the MSRT significantly correlated with all the language measures derived from narratives. Study 2 showed that the MSRT was able to differentiate children with and without DLD. CONCLUSION: The MSRT is a promising tool to reflect language abilities and identify DLD in Mandarin-speaking preschoolers. Based on the current evidence, we recommend that researchers and clinicians select the number of errors in the syllable method or the binary method when scoring responses to meet their specific needs. SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIAL: https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.19386257.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Biomarcadores , Criança , Linguagem Infantil , Humanos , Idioma , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Testes de Linguagem
8.
Lang Speech Hear Serv Sch ; 53(2): 542-560, 2022 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35320680

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Learning new vocabulary has been identified as a challenge for students with (developmental) language disorder ((D)LD). In this study, we evaluate the effects of two active learning methods, (a) retrieval practice (RP) and (b) rich vocabulary instruction (RVI), in a group of students with (D)LD in secondary school. METHOD: A quasi-experimental counterbalanced within-subject design was used to compare and evaluate the effect of RP and RVI on learning Tier 2 vocabulary, with target and control words as dependent measures. Eleven students with (D)LD (M age = 14.9 years) attending a language unit participated. RP and RVI were implemented in regular classroom activities during 16 lessons (eight lessons/instructional condition). Learning was assessed by comparing performance on a pretest session 1-2 weeks prior, with posttest performance 1 week after each instructional condition. RESULTS: The learning gain for RP was superior to that for RVI, both with respect to the Bayesian probabilistic estimations for target words relative to control words and in direct comparison with RVI. Only weak evidence was found for RVI with respect to the Bayesian probabilistic estimations for target words relative to control words. CONCLUSIONS: All participants showed positive learning gains following RP, whereas the outcome for RVI was more diverse. This initial work suggests that RP promotes larger learning gains relative to RVI and promotes learning across language profiles. This study extends previous studies by exploring the implementation of RP in regular classroom activities and by using more complex to-be-learned material (Tier 2 words).


Assuntos
Transtornos da Linguagem , Vocabulário , Adolescente , Teorema de Bayes , Criança , Linguagem Infantil , Humanos , Testes de Linguagem
9.
Dev Psychol ; 58(3): 405-416, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35286106

RESUMO

Infants learn nouns during object-naming events-moments when caregivers name the object of infants' play (e.g., ball as infant holds a ball). Do caregivers also label the actions of infants' play (e.g., roll as infant rolls a ball)? We investigated connections between mothers' verb inputs and infants' actions. We video-recorded 32 infant-mother dyads for 2 hr at home (13 month olds, n = 16; 18 month olds, n = 16; girls, n = 16; White, n = 23; Asian, n = 2; Black, n = 1; other, n = 1; multiple races, n = 5; Hispanic/Latinx, n = 2). Dyads were predominantly from middle-class to upper middle-class households. We identified each manual verb (e.g., press, shake) and whole-body verb (e.g., kick, go) that mothers directed to infants. We coded whether infants displayed manual and/or whole-body actions during a 6-s window surrounding the verb (i.e., 3 s prior and 3 s after the named verb). Mothers' verbs and infant actions were largely congruent: Whole-body verbs co-occurred with whole-body actions, and manual verbs co-occurred with manual actions. Moreover, half of mothers' verbs corresponded precisely to infants' concurrent action (e.g., infant pressed button as mother said, "Press the button"). In most instances, mothers commented on rather than instigated infants' actions. Findings suggest that verb learning is embodied, such that infants' motor actions offer powerful cues to verb meanings. Furthermore, our approach highlights the value of cross-domain research integrating infants' developing motor and language skills to understand word learning. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Linguagem Infantil , Mães , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Comportamento do Lactente , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Aprendizagem Verbal
10.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 65(3): 1001-1024, 2022 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35104424

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Language sampling analysis (LSA) plays an important role in evaluating language skills; hence, the study aimed to develop new assessment measures for the LSA in Turkish as alternatives to mean length of utterance (MLU) and the Language Assessment, Remediation and Screening Procedure. With this aim, Developmental Sentence Scoring (DSS) and the Index of Productive Syntax (IPSyn) were adapted to Turkish. METHOD: Eighty monolingual Turkish children were included in the study, and the age range was from 2;0 to 5;11 (years;months). The children were grouped with 6-month intervals, and each group had an equal number of participants in terms of gender. Their general and language development were tested with standardized tests, and language sampling was recorded during play with farm toys for 15-20 min. Reviewing literature and observing participants' production schemas were created for DSS for Turkish (DSS-TR) and the IPSyn for Turkish (IPSyn-TR) separately, and final versions were determined in consultation with experts. RESULTS: DSS-TR and IPSyn-TR were significantly correlated with standardized tests, and MLU values were statistically significant (p < .05). Total scores increased with age; however, grammatical categories did not go up. No difference was observed between genders (p > .05). In DSS-TR, the "sentence point" did not affect the participants' total scores because of language characteristics (p > .05). Finally, DSS-TR and IPSyn-TR were seen to be correlated with each other (p < .05). CONCLUSIONS: DSS-TR and IPSyn-TR are valid, being correlated with other assessment tools, and reliable, showing a high correlation with other raters, to reflect morphosyntactic skills. Therefore, they both are alternative assessment measures that will be used in LSA and give an opportunity to clinicians to plan their intervention goals. Also, they enable clinicians to observe progress not only specific to grammatical category but also in the total scores of the children either during or at the end of the therapy.


Assuntos
Linguagem Infantil , Transtornos da Linguagem , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Idioma , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Transtornos da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Testes de Linguagem , Masculino
11.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 65(3): 1183-1185, 2022 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35192372

RESUMO

In a recent issue of JSLHR, Tucci et al. (2022) presented a method for assigning SEM scores to a language sample. However, this method is based on data that are not publicly available and uses a commercial analysis program that is not open source. The TalkBank system and the Child Language Data Exchange System database provides free analysis software based on openly accessible data, thereby adhering to Open Science standards, which represent an important next step for the fields of speech and hearing.


Assuntos
Linguagem Infantil , Fala , Criança , Humanos , Idioma , Testes de Linguagem , Software
12.
Lang Speech Hear Serv Sch ; 53(2): 275-289, 2022 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35104418

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This investigation adapted a well-studied language treatment method, Enhanced Conversational Recast, paired with auditory bombardment to a teletherapy format. METHOD: The study used a single case series approach (n = 7) to determine the feasibility of teletherapy with children ages 5 and 6 years of age. Treatment targeted grammatical errors in the context of dialogic reading and craft activities. Clinicians administered 24 doses in the form of focused conversational recasting, followed by 12 doses consisting of simple sentences containing the grammatical forms targeted for remediation. Children were treated for up to 26 sessions, with four children treated on consecutive weekdays and three treated twice a week. Treatment progress was operationalized as generalization of target grammatical forms to untreated linguistic contexts, as well as spontaneous use of the treated form. To control for nontreatment effects, generalization of an untreated form was also tracked throughout the treatment period. RESULTS: Six of the seven children showed clinically meaningful gains in the use of the grammatical forms targeted for treatment within the treatment period. This was true for children enrolled in both treatment schedules. Learning for treated forms was retained after treatment was discontinued. In comparison, no change was seen for untreated forms for six of the seven children. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that this treatment method is feasible in a telepractice format, even with young children. The range of individual results is generally comparable to previous face-to-face versions of this treatment.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Terapia da Linguagem , Criança , Linguagem Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/terapia , Testes de Linguagem , Terapia da Linguagem/métodos , Linguística
13.
Lang Speech Hear Serv Sch ; 53(2): 511-531, 2022 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35192374

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study examined performance of dual language learners (DLLs) on Spanish- and English-language narrative story retells and unique tells. Transcription and analysis focused on comparisons of common microstructural language sample measures in Spanish and English across tasks. Each language sample measure was evaluated for its possible convergence with norm-referenced standardized assessments for DLL children. METHOD: Spanish-English DLLs (N = 133) enrolled in English-only kindergarten or first-grade classrooms completed two-language sample tasks (one in each language), which were transcribed and analyzed using Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts (Miller & Iglesias, 2017) for measures of syntactic complexity (mean length of utterance [MLU] in words), lexical diversity (number of different words [NDW]), and grammaticality (percent grammatical utterances [PGU]). Students also completed a norm-referenced sentence repetition task (Peña et al., 2014) and expressive vocabulary assessment (Martin, 2013). RESULTS: Comparison of story retells and unique stories revealed similar performance on MLU, NDW, and PGU across elicitation techniques, with one exception: NDW in Spanish was higher in the story retell condition. Predictive models revealed several differences in the relations between the microstructure measures and norm-referenced language measures by elicitation technique, although neither context demonstrated a consistent advantage across all metrics. CONCLUSIONS: Measures derived from story retells and unique tells offer practical findings for speech-language pathologists and other educators to use in assessment of early grade DLLs. This work increases knowledge of procedural differences across narrative assessments and their influence on language variables, supporting school-based speech-language pathologists in making assessment decisions for DLLs on their caseload. SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIAL: https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.19191278.


Assuntos
Linguagem Infantil , Multilinguismo , Criança , Humanos , Idioma , Testes de Linguagem , Vocabulário
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 1936, 2022 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35121796

RESUMO

The Down syndrome (DS) phenotype is usually characterized by relative strengths in non-verbal skills and deficits in verbal processing, but high interindividual variability has been registered in the syndrome. The goal of this study was to explore the cognitive profile, considering verbal and non-verbal intelligence, of children and adolescents with DS, also taking into account interindividual variability. We particularly aimed to investigate whether this variability means that we should envisage more than one cognitive profile in this population. The correlation between cognitive profile and medical conditions, parents' education levels and developmental milestones was also explored. Seventy-two children/adolescents with DS, aged 7-16 years, were assessed with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-III. Age-equivalent scores were adopted, and Verbal and Non-Verbal indices were obtained for each individual. The cognitive profile of the group as a whole was characterized by similar scores in the verbal and non-verbal domain. Cluster analysis revealed three different profiles, however: one group, with the lowest scores, had the typical profile associated with DS (with higher non-verbal than verbal intelligence); one, with intermediate scores, had greater verbal than non-verbal intelligence; and one, with the highest scores, fared equally well in the verbal and non-verbal domain. Three cognitive profiles emerged, suggesting that educational support for children and adolescents with DS may need to be more specific.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Comportamento Infantil , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Cognição , Síndrome de Down/psicologia , Pessoas com Deficiência Mental/psicologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Variação Biológica da População , Criança , Linguagem Infantil , Síndrome de Down/diagnóstico , Educação de Pessoa com Deficiência Intelectual , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Inteligência , Masculino , Comportamento Verbal , Vocabulário
15.
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 31(2): 722-738, 2022 03 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35077657

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study examined the effectiveness of a standalone mobile application (app), Háblame Bebé, for use in real-world settings without supplemental human interaction to promote Spanish-speaking mothers' language interactions with their young children and associated child bilingual (Spanish-English) language development. METHOD: Thirty-seven Spanish-speaking Latina mothers with lower incomes and their children were randomly assigned to experimental and wait-list control groups for 12 weeks. The experimental group was introduced to the app to learn how to provide language-promoting strategies in the home language and encouraged to use the app to track child vocabulary growth and overall development. Mother and child outcomes were measured before and after intervention via standardized assessments, direct observations, and parent report. Engagement and social validity data were also gathered. RESULTS: No statistically significant differences were identified between experimental and control groups. However, looking at the magnitude of the difference between groups, child outcomes consistently favored the experimental group (d = 0.2-0.4). Mothers reported high levels of acceptance of the intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Culturally and linguistically responsive app-based interventions have the potential to serve as a unique delivery model for speech-language pathologists and other professionals to share critical information on bilingual language development with parents of young children who are learning in a bilingual context. Clinical and research implications are discussed, including the consideration that low-intensity interventions may need to be paired with ongoing parent coaching. SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIAL: https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.18461585.


Assuntos
Aplicativos Móveis , Multilinguismo , Criança , Linguagem Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Estresse Financeiro , Humanos , Mães , Vocabulário
16.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 65(2): 775-784, 2022 02 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34990557

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Analysis of narrative language samples is a recommended clinical practice in the assessment of children's language skills, but we know little about how results from such analyses relate to overall oral language ability across the early school years. We examined the relations between language sample metrics from a short narrative retell, collected in kindergarten, and an oral language factor in grades kindergarten through 3. Our specific questions were to determine the extent to which metrics from narrative language sample analysis are concurrently related to language in kindergarten and predict language through Grade 3. METHOD: Participants were a sample of 284 children who were administered a narrative retell task in kindergarten and a battery of vocabulary and grammar measures in kindergarten through Grade 3. Language samples were analyzed for number of different words, mean length of utterance, and a relatively new metric, percent grammatical utterances (PGUs). Structural equation models were used to estimate the concurrent and longitudinal relationships. RESULTS: The narrative language sample metrics were consistently correlated with the individual vocabulary and grammar measures as well as the language factor in each grade, and also consistently and uniquely predicted the language factor in each grade. Standardized path estimates in the structural equation models ranged from 0.20 to 0.39. CONCLUSIONS: This study found narrative language sample metrics to be predictive, concurrently and longitudinally, of a latent factor of language from kindergarten through Grade 3. These results further validate the importance of collecting and analyzing narrative language samples, to include PGU along with more traditional metrics, and point to directions for future research. SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIAL: https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.17700980.


Assuntos
Idioma , Vocabulário , Criança , Linguagem Infantil , Humanos , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Testes de Linguagem
17.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 65(2): 672-691, 2022 02 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34990558

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Despite the increasing population of dual language learners (DLLs) in the United States, vocabulary measures for young DLLs have largely relied on instruments developed for monolinguals. The multistudy project reports on the psychometric properties of the English-Spanish Vocabulary Inventory (ESVI), which was designed to capture unique cross-language measures of lexical knowledge that are critical for assessing DLLs' vocabulary, including translation equivalents (whether the child knows the words for the same concept in each language), total vocabulary (the number of words known across both languages), and conceptual vocabulary (the number of words known that represent unique concepts in either language). METHOD: Three studies included 87 Spanish-English DLLs (M age = 26.58 months, SD = 2.86 months) with and without language delay from two geographic regions. Multiple measures (e.g., caregiver report, observation, behavioral tasks, and standardized assessments) determined content validity, construct validity, social validity, and criterion validity of the ESVI. RESULTS: Monolingual instruments used in bilingual contexts significantly undercounted lexical knowledge as measured on the ESVI. Scores on the ESVI were related to performance on other measures of communication, indicating acceptable content, construct, and criterion validity. Social validity ratings were similarly positive. ESVI scores were also associated with suspected language delay. CONCLUSIONS: These studies provide initial evidence of the adequacy of the ESVI for use in research and clinical contexts with young children learning English and Spanish (with or without a language delay). Developing tools such as the ESVI promotes culturally and linguistically responsive practices that support accurate assessment of DLLs' lexical development. SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIAL: https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.17704391.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Multilinguismo , Criança , Linguagem Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Idioma , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Testes de Linguagem , Psicometria , Vocabulário
18.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 65(2): 738-759, 2022 02 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35050697

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We evaluated the efficacy of a reading comprehension intervention with dual language learners (DLLs) with documented English reading comprehension difficulties, half of whom had a developmental language disorder. The intervention EMBRACE (Enhanced Moved by Reading to Accelerate Comprehension in English) required children to move images on an iPad to both improve and demonstrate understanding of multichapter stories. Additionally, we determined the characteristics of students who most benefit from the intervention. METHOD: Fifty-six participants in second to fifth grades were randomly assigned to one of two groups: (a) Spanish support intervention or (b) Spanish support control. Outcome measures included performance on comprehension questions related to the intervention texts, two transfer texts with no strategy instruction, and the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests-Fourth Edition Reading Comprehension subtest administered pre- and post-intervention. RESULTS: Multilevel hierarchical linear models were used to account for nesting of question within child within classroom. For this group of DLLs, the overall intervention effect was not statistically significant. However, the intervention was most effective with narrative (vs. expository) texts and easy (vs. more difficult) texts. DLLs with lower initial English reading abilities (decoding and comprehension) benefited more from the intervention than those with stronger reading skills. CONCLUSIONS: The EMBRACE intervention has promise for use with DLLs with low baseline decoding and comprehension skills, particularly in early elementary grades. Future research should aim to match text difficulty with child skills when introducing new comprehension strategies to maximize benefit from the intervention.


Assuntos
Compreensão , Leitura , Criança , Linguagem Infantil , Humanos , Idioma , Testes de Linguagem
19.
Dev Sci ; 25(2): e13177, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592032

RESUMO

Over half of US children are enrolled in preschools, where the quantity and quality of language input from teachers are likely to affect children's language development. Leveraging repeated objective measurements, we examined the rate per minute and phonemic diversity of child and teacher speech-related vocalizations in preschool classrooms and their association with children's end-of-year receptive and expressive language abilities measured with the Preschool Language Scales (PLS-5). Phonemic diversity was computed as the number of unique consonants and vowels in a speech-related vocalization. We observed three successive cohorts of 2.5-3.5-year-old children enrolled in an oral language classroom that included children with and without hearing loss (N = 29, 16 girls, 14 Hispanic). Vocalization data were collected using child-worn audio recorders over 34 observations spanning three successive school years, yielding 21.53 mean hours of audio recording per child. The rate of teacher vocalizations positively predicted the rate of children's speech-related vocalizations while the phonemic diversity of teacher vocalizations positively predicted the phonemic diversity of children's speech-related vocalizations. The phonemic diversity of children's speech-related vocalizations was a stronger predictor of end-of-year language abilities than the rate of children's speech-related vocalizations. Mediation analyses indicated that the phonemic diversity of teacher vocalizations was associated with children's receptive and expressive language abilities to the extent that it influenced the phonemic diversity of children's own speech-related vocalizations. The results suggest that qualitatively richer language input expands the phonemic diversity of children's speech, which in turn is associated with language abilities.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Fala , Aptidão , Linguagem Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas
20.
Int J Lang Commun Disord ; 57(1): 103-111, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34676948

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is growing understanding of the potential benefits of a multi-method approach to accurately capture language skills of children on the autism spectrum. Tools such as Language ENvironment Analysis (LENA) provide an efficient means of capturing and analysing early child vocalizations (CVs) and the language learning environment. While developed to capture whole-day recordings of child language in naturalistic settings, there is potential utility in capturing, but little knowledge about, primary LENA metrics-including CVs and conversational turns (CTs)-and novel metrics, such as vocalization ratios (VRs), sampled in clinical practice settings where children are often seen. Moreover, recent research indicates that the novel VR may offer a broad indicator of children's developmental level, beyond just their language abilities, a hypothesis yet to be investigated in a large sample of children for whom the LENA was designed (i.e., pre-schoolers). AIMS: To explore the extent to which primary and novel LENA metrics collected during brief one-to-one clinical interaction was a useful indicator of developmental outcomes for children on the autism spectrum. METHODS & PROCEDURES: Participants were recruited as part of an on-going research programme evaluating early intervention outcomes (n = 99; age 14-47 months). Language samples were collected at intake (T1) using the wearable LENA Digital Language Processors during a one-to-one, play-based assessment with a clinician. Direct (Mullen Scales of Early Learning-MSEL) and parent-report (Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-VABS) measures of verbal and non-verbal skills were also collected at intake (T1) and again at exit (T2), approximately 12 months later. OUTCOMES & RESULTS: Few correlations were observed between child measures and CVs, a primary LENA metric. The novel VR metric was associated with concurrent direct assessment (MSEL) (and to a lesser extent parent report; VABS) measures of verbal and non-verbal skills, with moderate positive correlations found between VRs and all directly assessed subscale scores. However, VRs did not uniquely contribute to the prediction of child outcomes when baseline skills were also considered. CONCLUSIONS & IMPLICATIONS: The novel VR may provide an insight into autistic children's overall development in addition to their language ability, suggesting that even when collected in a short recording format, LENA might be a useful component of a multi-method assessment approach. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS: What is already known on the subject To accurately capture language skills of children on the autism spectrum, multi-method approaches, including natural language sampling, are recommended. Tools such as LENA provide an efficient means of capturing and analysing naturalistic child language and the language learning environment. What this paper adds to existing knowledge This study demonstrates the potential benefits, and limitations, of using LENA to augment assessment of young children on the autism spectrum. Specifically, LENA provides a complementary, and low burden, method for capturing child language samples. What are the potential or actual clinical implications of this work? Novel metrics, such as the VR, collected during brief clinical interactions might be a useful component of a multi-method assessment approach for children on the autism spectrum.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno Autístico/diagnóstico , Criança , Linguagem Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Idioma , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/complicações , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/terapia
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