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1.
Rev. Asoc. Esp. Neuropsiquiatr ; 39(135): 91-108, ene.-jun. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-186383

RESUMO

A partir de una etnografía realizada en Galicia entre 2013 y 2014, el presente texto aborda el impacto que tiene la praxis biomédica en entornos terapéuticos, particularmente en la elaboración de significados personales sobre el sufrimiento psíquico. A partir de diferentes relatos biográficos de personas diagnosticadas de esquizofrenia, se destacan algunos elementos discursivos y prácticas atencionales que interfieren en los marcos de referencia desde los que las personas afectadas identifican posibles causas de su malestar. Desde una perspectiva socioeducativa, dialógica y crítica, se señala cómo, más allá de la existencia de determinadas estructuras de poder, por medio de la puesta en valor de los saberes en primera persona, resulta posible situar alternativas, tácticas y objetivos a desarrollar en la gestión social del malestar


Based on an ethnographic study conducted in Galicia (Spain) during 2013-2014, this paper analyses the impact of biomedical praxis in therapeutic environments, particularly on how people diagnosed with mental disorders attribute personal meanings to their own psychic suffering. Drawing from different personal biographical accounts of people diagnosed with schizophrenia, we highlight certain biomedical discourses and practices actually interfering the way in which they identify the causes of their own suffering. As an attempt to step beyond the hegemonic frameworks and practices in dealing with mental suffering, we propose some other theoretical approaches (e.g. socio-educational, dialogical, and critical ones), emphasizing personal grounded knowledge among other alternative options


Assuntos
Humanos , Narrativas Pessoais como Assunto , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Linguagem do Esquizofrênico , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Opressão Social , Marginalização Social/psicologia , Participação do Paciente/métodos , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia
2.
Rev. Asoc. Esp. Neuropsiquiatr ; 39(135): 133-155, ene.-jun. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-186385

RESUMO

Antecedentes y objetivo: La esquizofrenia se caracteriza por una distorsión del pensamiento, las percepciones, las emociones, el lenguaje, la conciencia de sí mismo y la conducta. Afecta a más de 21 millones de personas en todo el mundo y es una de las 10 enfermedades más incapacitantes según la Organización Mundial de la Salud; sin embargo, existe escasa evidencia sobre el déficit lingüístico con el que cursa la enfermedad. Metodología: Se trata de un estudio transversal y cuasi-experimental donde se analizan los datos de diferentes pruebas lingüísticas de las áreas de semántica y fonología en una muestra compuesta por 96 sujetos, de los cuales 48 (50%) tienen esquizofrenia y componen el grupo experimental y otros 48 (50%) no tienen ninguna enfermedad mental y componen el grupo control. Según la clasificación de Crow, el 56,2% de los participantes con esquizofrenia (27 sujetos) presentaba sintomatología positiva y el 43,8% (21 sujetos) presentaba sintomatología negativa. Resultados: Se observa un patrón de déficit según la sintomatología, así como una afectación de las áreas lingüísticas evaluadas (semántica y fonología). Conclusiones: La esquizofrenia cursa con déficit lingüístico en la semántica y en la fonología, siendo necesario evaluar dichas áreas lingüísticas para poder intervenir logopédica y multidisciplinarmente sobre ellas


Background and objective: Schizophrenia is characterized by a distortion of thin-king, perceptions, emotions, language, self-awareness, and behaviour. It affects more than 21 million people worldwide and is one of the 10 most disabling diseases according to the World Health Organization. However, there is little evidence of language deficits in patients with schizophrenia. Method: This is a cross-sectional and quasi-experimental study in which the data of the evaluation of different linguistic tests in the areas of semantics and phonology are analysed. The sample consisted of 96 subjects, 48 of whom (50%) had schizophrenia and made up the experimental group and other 48 (50%) had no mental illness and made up the control group. According to the classification of Crow, 56.2% (27 subjects) presented with positive symptomatology and 43.8% (21 subjects) presented with negative symptoms. Results: A deficit pattern according to the symptomatology was observed, as well as an affectation of all the areas examined in the study (semantics and phonology). Conclusions: Schizophrenia involves a linguistic deficit in semantics and phonology. It is necessary to assess these linguistic areas in order to intervene from a multidisciplinary approach, including speech therapy


Assuntos
Humanos , Esquizofrenia , Linguagem do Esquizofrênico , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Transtorno Fonológico/psicologia , Semântica , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Fonoterapia/tendências , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
PLoS One ; 13(8): e0201545, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30086142

RESUMO

Formal thought disorder (TD) is a neuropathology manifest in formal language dysfunction, but few behavioural linguistic studies exist. These have highlighted problems in the domain of semantics and more specifically of reference. Here we aimed for a more complete and systematic linguistic model of TD, focused on (i) a more in-depth analysis of anomalies of reference as depending on the grammatical construction type in which they occur, and (ii) measures of formal grammatical complexity and errors. Narrative speech obtained from 40 patients with schizophrenia, 20 with TD and 20 without, and from 14 healthy controls matched on pre-morbid IQ, was rated blindly. Results showed that of 10 linguistic variables annotated, 4 showed significant differences between groups, including the two patient groups. These all concerned mis-uses of noun phrases (NPs) for purposes of reference, but showed sensitivity to how NPs were classed: definite and pronominal forms of reference were more affected than indefinite and non-pronominal (lexical) NPs. None of the measures of formal grammatical complexity and errors distinguished groups. We conclude that TD exhibits a specific and differentiated linguistic profile, which can illuminate TD neuro-cognitively and inform future neuroimaging studies, and can have clinical utility as a linguistic biomarker.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Distúrbios da Fala/diagnóstico , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Narração , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Linguagem do Esquizofrênico , Pensamento
4.
Psicothema ; 30(1): 8-13, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29363464

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Negative symptoms represent the main cause of disability in schizophrenia, having recently been grouped into two general dimensions: avolition and diminished emotional expression, which includes affective flattening and alogia. The aim of this study was to explore the response of these two symptoms to a set of behavioral interventions based on contingency management, performed in an interdisciplinary context. METHOD: Behaviors of interest were monitored and evaluations before and after the treatment were performed on 9 schizophrenic inpatients with persistent negative symptoms. The program included 12 group double sessions aimed at developing facial expression and verbal communication, and a nursing care plan to generalize and strengthen these behaviors synergistically. RESULTS: there were appreciable differences in facial expression, which were less clear for alogia. The clinical evaluation using PANSS-N did not find notable differences at group level, but the nursing assessment using NOC indicators did. CONCLUSIONS: although difficult to modify, negative symptoms are not insensitive to the influence of behavioral interventions. Specific psychological interventions that address negative symptoms as a priority focus of attention and care need to be promoted and developed, particularly when considering the crucial role of context in their progression.


Assuntos
Apatia , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Emoções , Linguagem do Esquizofrênico , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Adulto , Afeto , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Simulação por Computador , Expressão Facial , Feminino , Humanos , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Terapia da Linguagem , Masculino , Cadeias de Markov , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Psicológicos , Método de Monte Carlo , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Comportamento Verbal , Adulto Jovem
5.
Eur. j. psychiatry ; 30(4): 249-257, oct.-dic. 2016. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-158196

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Prefrontal cortex (PFC) dysfunctions leading to cognitive deficits refer to a core feature of schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD). This exploratory study compares the effect of SSD on two stages of maturation of PFC. Methods: Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we measured the brain correlates related to a verbal fluency task (a hallmark executive function test) in 12 patients with SSD: 6 adolescents (SSD-ado) and 6 adults (SSD-adu). Results: SSD-ado showed greater activation in insula, thalamus and hIP1 whereas SSDadu recruited more intensively precentral gyrus and temporal pole to resolve the task. Thus, adolescents with SSD seem to adopt less frontal mediated strategic processes. In contrast, adults seem to be able to use PFC mediated strategy despite the well-known deleterious effect of SSD on the PFC. Conclusions: This first exploratory study revealed that adults and adolescents with SSD seemed not to use the same strategy to resolve a verbal fluency task. Thus, despite the illness, which is known to have a deleterious influence on PFC, adult patients seem to be able to recruit these resources to perform an executive function task. Further studies are needed in order to confirm and extend these new and preliminary results (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Linguagem do Esquizofrênico , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiopatologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Neuroimagem Funcional
6.
Eur. j. psychiatry ; 30(4): 305-320, oct.-dic. 2016. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-158199

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Even if verbal fluency deficits have been described in Schizophrenia, error pattern in this test has not been analyzed in detail in the literature. The pattern analysis of such errors could contribute to the understanding of the factors that influence poor task performance in schizophrenia. In this study we analyzed the intrusion and perseveration errors in verbal fluency tasks in patients with chronic schizophrenia. Methods: 87 patients diagnosed with Chronic Schizophrenia and 87 healthy controls were included in this investigation and were assessed with four Phonological and Semantic Verbal Fluency tasks. Results: The results of this study showed that at least half of schizophrenic patients produced perseverative errors on verbal fluency and about made intrusion errors. The severity of negative symptoms, the severity of Formal Thought Disorder and pharmacological variables were significant moderators to errors in Verbal Fluency performance. Conclusions: Errors in Verbal Fluency can be explained by the interaction of different variables in patients with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia is a psychological pathology with great phenomenological complexity and its particularities can only be explained by the consideration of the multiple factors involved in its manifestation


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Linguagem do Esquizofrênico , Transtornos da Linguagem , Comportamento Verbal , Testes de Linguagem , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
7.
Psychiatry Res ; 245: 8-14, 2016 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27526311

RESUMO

Hope is integral to recovery for those with schizophrenia. Considering recent advancements in the examination of clients' lexical qualities, we were interested in how clients' words reflect hope. Using computerized lexical analysis, we examined social, emotion, and future words' relations to hope and its pathways and agency components. Forty-five clients provided detailed narratives about their life and mental illness. Transcripts were analyzed using the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count program (LIWC), which assigns words to categories (e.g., "anxiety") based on a pre-existing dictionary. Correlations and linear multiple regression were used to examine relationships between lexical qualities and hope. Hope and its subcomponents had significant or trending bivariate correlations in expected directions with several emotion-related word categories (anger and sadness) but were not associated with expected categories such as social words, positive emotions, optimism, achievement, and future words. In linear multiple regressions, no LIWC variable significantly predicted hope agency, but anger words significantly predicted both total hope and hope pathways. Our findings indicate lexical analysis tools can be used to investigate recovery-oriented concepts such as hope, and results may inform clinical practice. Future research should aim to replicate our findings in larger samples.


Assuntos
Esperança , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Psicóticos/terapia , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Linguagem do Esquizofrênico , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Adulto , Ira , Serviços Comunitários de Saúde Mental , Currículo , Feminino , Objetivos , Humanos , Controle Interno-Externo , Idioma , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Narração , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Esquizofrenia/terapia , Autocuidado/psicologia , Semântica , Estatística como Assunto
8.
Eur. j. psychiatry ; 30(2): 97-108, abr.-jun. 2016. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-155808

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: The cognitive impairments known as schizophrenia have been extensively reported in the literature. The severity of such impairments has been shown to vary depending on the cognitive domain that is being studied. Impairments in performance in VF tasks have also been extensively reported by comparing schizophrenic patients on the one hand with healthy controls and patients suffering from other mental disorders on the other, and it is suggested that such impairments can be considered as part of the neuropsychological endophenotype for schizophrenia. This study analyzed the organization of semantic memory in patients with chronic schizophrenia by means of the «Human Body Parts» VF task. Methods: 44 patients with chronic schizophrenia and 44 healthy controls were examined, paired by age, sex, years of education, and handedness. The organization of semantic memory was derived from the construction of semantic maps obtained by means of correspondence analysis. Results: Performance in the VF task studied was significantly lower in the patients group. The semantic maps obtained from the CoA show a semantic organization partly differential in both groups of participants. Conclusions: The hypothesis that there would be better performance because this is a test that has a selfreferential key was partially rebutted. Although there was a deficit in performance, the findings from this study suggest that such performance cannot be accounted for by lack of organization in semantic networks or clinical variables (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Esquizofrenia , Linguagem do Esquizofrênico , Testes de Linguagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Verbal , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Testes Psicológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Diferencial Semântico , Estudos de Casos e Controles
9.
Eur. j. psychiatry ; 30(2): 119-130, abr.-jun. 2016. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-155810

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: We investigated idiom comprehension in patients with schizophrenia, and the involvement of working memory and executive functions in this comprehension. Methods: Nineteen patients with schizophrenia aged 22-46 years (mean = 34.73 years) took part in this study, and were matched for age and education level with a control group. Our assessment consisted of (1) an experimental task assessing idiom comprehension through short stories, (2) three tasks assessing verbal, visuospatial and multimodal spans, and (3) four tasks assessing executive functions (Hayling test, Stroop test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and Trail Making Test). Results and Conclusion: Results highlighted several deficits in the comprehension of idioms in patients with schizophrenia. An executive deficit is not sufficient to explain these difficulties. Nevertheless, the conceptual disorganization observed in the patients conduce them to not focus their attention on the relevant elements avoiding the comprehension of idioms (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Esquizofrenia , Linguagem do Esquizofrênico , Comportamento Verbal , Compreensão , Transtornos da Comunicação , Memória de Curto Prazo , Função Executiva
12.
Span J Psychol ; 18: E86, 2015 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26522128

RESUMO

Emotional states, attitudes and intentions are often conveyed by modulations in the tone of voice. Impaired recognition of emotions from a tone of voice (receptive prosody) has been described as characteristic symptoms of schizophrenia. However, the ability to express non-verbal information in speech (expressive prosody) has been understudied. This paper describes a useful technique for quantifying the degree of expressive prosody deficits in schizophrenia, using a semi-automatic method, and evaluates this method's ability to discriminate between patient and control groups. Forty-five medicated patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia were matched with thirty-five healthy comparison subjects. Production of expressive prosodic speech was analyzed using variation in fundamental frequency (F0) measures on an emotionally neutral reading task. Results revealed that patients with schizophrenia exhibited significantly more pauses (p < .001), were slower (p < .001), and showed less pitch variability in speech (p < .05) and fewer variations in syllable timing (p < .001) than control subjects. These features have been associated with «flat¼ speech prosody. Signal processing algorithms applied to speech were shown to be capable of discriminating between patients and controls with an accuracy of 93.8%. These speech parameters may have a diagnostic and prognosis value and therefore could be used as a dependent measure in clinical trials.


Assuntos
Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Acústica da Fala , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Linguagem do Esquizofrênico , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico
13.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 203(9): 702-8, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26252823

RESUMO

Previous research has suggested that complexity of speech, speech rate, use of emotion words, and use of pronouns are all potential indicators of important clinical components of schizophrenia, but little research has examined the relationships of these disturbances to cognitive variables impaired in schizophrenia, including social cognition. The current study examined these lexical differences to better characterize the cognitive substrates of speech disturbances in schizophrenia. Brief narratives of individuals with schizophrenia (n = 42) and non-clinical controls (n = 48) were compared according to their lexical characteristics, and these were examined for relationships to social cognition and real-world functioning. Significant differences between the groups were found in words per sentence (related to functioning, but not negative symptoms) as well as pronoun use (related to attributional style and theory of mind). Additionally, lexical characteristics effectively distinguished individuals with schizophrenia from non-clinical controls. Language disturbances in schizophrenia seem related to social cognition impairments and real-world functioning, and are a robust indicator of clinical status.


Assuntos
Inteligência Emocional , Linguagem do Esquizofrênico , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Ajustamento Social , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevista Psicológica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Narração , Semântica , Percepção Social , Teoria da Mente , Adulto Jovem
14.
Int. j. psychol. psychol. ther. (Ed. impr.) ; 15(1): 155-167, mar. 2015. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-133922

RESUMO

This study present data from 300 unselected individuals who had completed the Formal Thought Disorder-Self Scale (FTD-S) (Study 1) and from a separate sample of over 150 unselected individuals who had completed the FTD-S and also had a relative or friend complete the Formal Thought Disorder-Other Scale (FTD-O) (Study 2). The questionnaire, originally devised to measure self-ratings of thought disorder in clinical samples, was adapted from a yes-no questionnaire to a 4 point Likert format, to more sensitively determine the extent to which such characteristics may be reported amongst the healthy population. Principal Components Analysis of the FTD-S scale suggested a three-component solution for which we proposed the nomenclature of: odd speech, conversational ability and working memory deficit. Study 2 found that the FTD-S (self-report) and the FTD-O (other rated) reached a significant but low correlation (r= .29; p <0.01); these findings are discussed in terms of its significance for self-report of Formal Thought Disorder and proneness to psychosis (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Linguagem do Esquizofrênico , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico , Psicopatologia
15.
Arch Psychiatr Nurs ; 29(1): 33-8, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25634872

RESUMO

This review paper provides analyses confirming correlation between various brain regions activity, particularly its prefrontal portions, and schizophrenia patients' performance in verbal fluency tests. Various factors modifying patients' performance in the aforementioned tasks were singled out and discussed. Systematically we have reviewed the results of non-verbal fluency tests conducted in the schizophrenic patients. The authors also summarizes findings of earlier studies stressing the role of semantic fluency as a predictor of first-episode psychosis. Verbal and non-verbal fluency tests engage complex cognitive processes and executive functions in patients. As a result, the interpretation of their results is often complicated and requires special competences. The tests are popular neuropsychological tools used for assessment of verbal memory, executive functions, visual-spatial abilities and psychomotor speed in patients with mental and neurological disorders. The aim of this paper is to discuss diagnostic tools used for measuring both types of fluency (verbal and non-verbal), test interpretation methods, as well as their usefulness in clinical diagnostics and scientific research.


Assuntos
Linguagem do Esquizofrênico , Comportamento Verbal , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Neuroimagem Funcional , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Verbal/fisiologia
16.
Compr Psychiatry ; 58: 138-45, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25600423

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Social cognition and metacognition have been identified as important cognitive domains in schizophrenia, which are separable from general neurocognition and predictive of functional and treatment outcomes. However, one challenge to improved models of schizophrenia has been the conceptual overlap between the two. One tool used in previous research to develop cognitive models of psychopathology is language analysis. In this article we aimed to clarify distinctions between social cognition and metacognition in schizophrenia using computerized language software. METHODS: Fifty-eight (n=58) individuals with schizophrenia completed the Metacognitive Assessment Scale Abbreviated and measures of social cognition using the Hinting, Eyes, BLERT and Picture Arrangement test. A lexical analysis of participants' speech using Language Inquiry and Word Count software was conducted to examine relative frequencies of word types. Lexical characteristics were examined for their relationships to social cognition and metacognition. RESULTS: We found that lexical characteristics indicative of cognitive complexity were significantly related to level of metacognitive capacity while social cognition was related to second-person pronoun use, articles, and prepositions, and pronoun use overall. The relationships between lexical variables and metacognition persisted after controlling for demographics, verbal intelligence, and overall word count, but the same was not true for social cognition. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provided support for the view that metacognition requires more synthetic and complex verbal and linguistic operations, while social cognition is associated with the representation and clear identification of others.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/psicologia , Cognição , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Comportamento Social , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Inteligência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Linguagem do Esquizofrênico
17.
Apuntes psicol ; 33(3): 137-151, 2015. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-158363

RESUMO

La Teoría de la Mente (ToM), conceptuada como la habilidad de atribuir creencias, intenciones o emociones a uno mismo o a otros y ver estos estados mentales como la base de las acciones, así como las implicaciones de su afectación en la cognición social, se han puesto de relevancia en los últimos años en el ámbito de la esquizofrenia. Se presenta una revisión teórica de la literatura disponible publicada en los últimos cinco años (2010-2014). Se observa el predominio del modelo biomédico, interesado en encontrar las relaciones entre los déficits en habilidades de ToM y estructuras cerebrales. En líneas generales, puede concluirse que las habilidades de ToM, constituyen una variable predictora del funcionamiento social y global, pudiendo dar cuenta de la pobre comprensión del sarcasmo, el lenguaje figurativo y el humor en pacientes con esquizofrenia. Se determina la necesidad de establecer nuevos paradigmas, de corte interactivo y validez ecológica, superando las limitaciones de las medidas tradicionalmente utilizadas para evaluar la ToM, siendo fundamental la continuidad y el desarrollo de líneas de intervención


The Theory of Mind (ToM), conceptualized as the ability to attribute beliefs, intentions or emotions to oneself or others and understand these mental states as the basis of actions, and the implications of their involvement in social cognition, have been of importance in recent years in the field of schizophrenia. A theoretical review of the literature published in the last five years (2010-2014) is presented. The dominance of biomedical model is observed, interested in finding the relationship between deficits in ToM skills and brain structures. In general, it can be concluded that ToM skills, constitute a predictor of social and global functioning, and may account for the understanding of sarcasm, figurative language and mood in patients with schizophrenia. The need of new paradigms, of interactive orientation and ecological validity is determined, overcoming the limitations of traditional measures used to assess ToM. Continuity and development of lines of intervention are crucial


Assuntos
Humanos , Esquizofrenia , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Teoria da Mente , Habilidades Sociais , Linguagem do Esquizofrênico
18.
Span. j. psychol ; 18: e86.1-e86.9, 2015. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-146411

RESUMO

Emotional states, attitudes and intentions are often conveyed by modulations in the tone of voice. Impaired recognition of emotions from a tone of voice (receptive prosody) has been described as characteristic symptoms of schizophrenia. However, the ability to express non-verbal information in speech (expressive prosody) has been understudied. This paper describes a useful technique for quantifying the degree of expressive prosody deficits in schizophrenia, using a semi-automatic method, and evaluates this method’s ability to discriminate between patient and control groups. Forty-five medicated patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia were matched with thirty-five healthy comparison subjects. Production of expressive prosodic speech was analyzed using variation in fundamental frequency (F0) measures on an emotionally neutral reading task. Results revealed that patients with schizophrenia exhibited significantly more pauses (p < .001), were slower (p < .001), and showed less pitch variability in speech (p < .05) and fewer variations in syllable timing (p < .001) than control subjects. These features have been associated with «flat» speech prosody. Signal processing algorithms applied to speech were shown to be capable of discriminating between patients and controls with an accuracy of 93.8%. These speech parameters may have a diagnostic and prognosis value and therefore could be used as a dependent measure in clinical trials (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Acústica da Fala , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Linguagem do Esquizofrênico , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos Transversais
20.
Cortex ; 55: 148-66, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24709122

RESUMO

Many cortical disorders are associated with memory problems. In schizophrenia, verbal memory deficits are a hallmark feature. However, the exact nature of this deficit remains elusive. Modeling aspects of language features used in memory recall have the potential to provide means for measuring these verbal processes. We employ computational language approaches to assess time-varying semantic and sequential properties of prose recall at various retrieval intervals (immediate, 30 min and 24 h later) in patients with schizophrenia, unaffected siblings and healthy unrelated control participants. First, we model the recall data to quantify the degradation of performance with increasing retrieval interval and the effect of diagnosis (i.e., group membership) on performance. Next we model the human scoring of recall performance using an n-gram language sequence technique, and then with a semantic feature based on Latent Semantic Analysis. These models show that automated analyses of the recalls can produce scores that accurately mimic human scoring. The final analysis addresses the validity of this approach by ascertaining the ability to predict group membership from models built on the two classes of language features. Taken individually, the semantic feature is most predictive, while a model combining the features improves accuracy of group membership prediction slightly above the semantic feature alone as well as over the human rating approach. We discuss the implications for cognitive neuroscience of such a computational approach in exploring the mechanisms of prose recall.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Memória/fisiopatologia , Memória Episódica , Rememoração Mental , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Linguagem do Esquizofrênico , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Irmãos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Transtornos da Memória/genética , Transtornos da Memória/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esquizofrenia/genética , Semântica , Adulto Jovem
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