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1.
Anticancer Res ; 40(1): 213-220, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31892569

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Kisspeptin produced from the KISS1 gene is secreted from the living cells, binds to endogenous receptor KISS1R (also called G protein-coupled receptor 54, GPR54), and has various functions in normal physiological conditions. Although an anti-metastatic role of kisspeptin in cancer is well known in several cancer types, its role in brain tumors is not yet understood. Herein, we investigated a the role of kisspeptin in glioblastoma cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Glioblastoma cells were treated with kisspeptin and subjected to proliferation, migration, and invasion assays. KISS1R dependency was tested by KISS1R silencing with KISS1R siRNAs. RESULTS: Kisspeptin inhibited migratory and invasive abilities of U87-MG, U-251-MG and U373-MG glioblastoma cells with no effect on cell viability. KISS1R gene silencing with KISS1R siRNAs blocked kisspeptin-induced glioblastoma cell invasiveness. Moreover, chemical inhibitors against Gq, PLC or PKC blocked kisspeptin-induced glioblastoma cell invasiveness. CONCLUSION: Kisspeptin induces glioblastoma cell invasiveness via the KISS1R-Gq-PLC-PKC signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Subunidades alfa Gq-G11 de Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/patologia , Kisspeptinas/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase C/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Fosfolipases Tipo C/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ativação Enzimática , Humanos , Invasividade Neoplásica , Metástase Neoplásica
2.
Anticancer Res ; 40(1): 221-227, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31892570

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Autophagy can be either tumor promotive or suppressive. We previously identified an autophagy-inducing activity in the 30-100 kDa fraction of areca-nut-extract (ANE 30-100K) and showed that several tumor cells subjected to chronic ANE 30-100K stimulation (CAS) exhibited higher resistance against stressed environments including serum-free (SF) conditions in vitro. Herein, we aimed to assess whether CAS can also provide growth advantages for tumor cells in vivo and the therapeutic effect of autophagy inhibition on CAS-treated tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Esophageal CE81T/VGH cells and nude mice were used as experimental models. Autophagy inhibitors 3-methyladenine (3-MA) and chloroquine (CQ), as well as another anticancer drug cisplatin (DDP), were chosen to challenge CAS-treated CE81T/VGH cells in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS: CAS-treated CE81T/VGH cells expressed higher levels of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3A/B-II (LC3-II) and beclin 1 proteins, and showed stronger resistance to SF and hypoxia conditions, that were mitigated by CQ or 3-MA in vitro. Furthermore, CAS-treated CE81T/VGH cells induced significantly larger tumors in mice, which were also attenuated by single 3-MA or CQ treatment. Finally, the combined treatment of 3-MA or CQ with DDP further up-regulated DDP-induced caspase-3 activity in vitro and exhibited synergistic anti-tumor effects on mice. CONCLUSION: CAS may up-regulate tumoral autophagy and provide growth advantage for tumors both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, autophagy inhibition alone or in combination with DDP may achieve positive therapy for tumors encountered with CAS.


Assuntos
Areca/química , Autofagia , Neoplasias/patologia , Nozes/química , Regulação para Cima , Animais , Autofagia/genética , Hipóxia Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus
3.
Anticancer Res ; 40(1): 349-356, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31892586

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHr), expressed on endothelial cells of vessels in different malignant tumors, has been recently investigated as a potential pan-receptor of cancer treatment. However, the expression of this receptor has also been confirmed in other tissues under pathological conditions including cancer. The aim of the presented pilot study was to evaluate the expression of FSHr in head and neck squamous cancer (HNSCC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 28 HNSCC patient samples were immunohistochemically analyzed for the presence of FSHr using a commercially available primary antibody. RESULTS: FSHr was detected not only in the tumor tissue, but also in the basal layer or dysplastic parts of squamous mucosa and also in fibroblasts surrounding the tumor tissue. CONCLUSION: FSHr is present on different benign or malignant mesenchymal and epithelial structures in HNSCC. A brief literature review revealed a wider role of FSHr in the development of neoplasia.


Assuntos
Receptores do FSH/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Camundongos , Projetos Piloto
4.
Anticancer Res ; 40(1): 169-176, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31892565

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are considered to be one of the causes of tumor recurrence after chemotherapy. The purpose of our study was to isolate CSCs from human colorectal cancer cell (CRC) lines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nine CRC lines were screened based on the expression level of potential CSC markers to identify putative CSCs. Tumor formation capacity in immunodeficient mice was compared with that of their counterparts. Stemness, differentiation potency and sensitivity to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), in vitro, were also assessed. Microarray analysis was used to characterize the features of the putative CSCs. RESULTS: COLO 201 cells were separated into two populations based on CD44 expression. CD44 positive (CD44+) cells showed significantly higher tumor formation capacity than CD44- cells in immunodeficient mice. CD44+ cells also possessed stemness properties and lower sensitivity to 5-FU in vitro. Moreover, cancer stemness and chemoresistance-related genes were highly up-regulated in CD44+ cells. CONCLUSION: CD44+ COLO 201 cells possessed the features of CSCs; therefore, the present CSC model could serve as a valuable tool to accelerate CSC research.


Assuntos
Receptores de Hialuronatos/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Citometria de Fluxo , Fluoruracila/farmacologia , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Receptores de Hialuronatos/genética , Camundongos
5.
Anticancer Res ; 40(1): 177-190, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31892566

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor II (COUP-TFII) regulates cancer cell proliferation and invasion via complex molecular mechanisms. We aimed to investigate whether COUP-TFII modulates proliferation and invasion of the colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line HT-29. MATERIALS AND METHODS: HT-29 cells were stably tranfected with COUP-TFII shRNA plasmid to knock-down COUP-TFII (COUP-TFII shRNA-HT-29 cells). Cell proliferation, colony formation assay, invasion assay, microarray assays and western blot analyses were performed. RESULTS: Cell proliferation and invasion were significantly enhanced in COUP-TFII shRNA-HT-29 cells. The protein levels of forkhead box C1 (FOXC1), p-Akt, p-glycogen synthase kinase-3ß (p-GSK-3ß), and ß-catenin, which are known to be involved in cell proliferation and invasion, were significantly increased in COUP-TFII shRNA-HT-29 cells. Akt inhibitor IV and dominant negative (DN)-Akt expression vector transfection reversed the increased proliferation and invasion, which was accompanied by decreased protein levels of p-Akt, p-GSK-3ß, ß-catenin and FOXC1. CONCLUSION: COUP-TFII knock-down promoted proliferation and invasion via activation of Akt/GSK-3ß/ß-catenin and up-regulation of FOXC1. Further studies on the molecular mechanism of interaction between ß-catenin and FOXC1 expression may reveal novel target molecules for metastatic colorectal cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Fator II de Transcrição COUP/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Fator II de Transcrição COUP/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética
6.
Anticancer Res ; 40(1): 191-199, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31892567

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate the feasibility of conducting studies of saliva circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) as a biomarker of metastasis or recurrence in our orthotopic head and neck cancer (HNC) mouse model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A mouse model of recurrence or metastasis after tongue cancer resection was developed. Blood and saliva were collected at baseline and at the establishment of recurrence or metastasis. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to quantify human long interspersed element (hLINE) in samples to assess the amount of ctDNA. RESULTS: In our model, salivary hLINE increased as the cancer developed and decreased after surgery. Plasma hLINE was significantly elevated in mice with metastasis. The presence of tongue cancer recurrence in mice was more correlated with hLINE concentration in saliva than in plasma. CONCLUSION: In our orthotopic model, salivary ctDNA better reflected tumor development and recurrence than did plasma ctDNA.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , DNA Tumoral Circulante , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/metabolismo , Saliva/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Elementos Nucleotídeos Longos e Dispersos , Camundongos , Recidiva
7.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1232: 169-176, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893407

RESUMO

Inhospitable conditions within the tumor microenvironment (TME) are a characteristic feature ('hallmark') of most solid malignancies. Regional tumor hypoxia is a primary deficiency since it plays a key role in malignant progression. Severe hypoxia is often associated with other detrimental conditions in the TME as a consequence of hypoxia-/HIF-1α-induced (with/without oncogene-direction and/or reciprocal interaction of cancer cells with TME cells) metabolic re-programming, exorbitant extracellular adenosine (ADO) generation and VEGF overexpression/VEGF-R activation. Re-programming of the tumor metabolism inter alia includes a 'selfish' upregulation of aerobic glycolysis/glycolytic flux ('Warburg effect'), a strongly enhanced glutaminolysis in tumor cells, ketogenesis in cancer-associated fibroblasts, and an acceleration of the tryptophan uptake/intensified catabolism yielding kynurenine, which can support the malignant phenotype. Aerobic glycolysis and glutaminolysis result in lactate accumulation (up to 40 mM), and together with the enhanced ketogenesis and CO2/carbonic acid production lead to extracellular acidosis (pHe < 6.8). These traits of the TME individually or collectively operate towards cancer progression via e.g. promotion of genetic instability and mutation, resistance to apoptosis, clonal selection, limitless cell survival and sustained proliferation, continuous angiogenesis and tumor growth, local invasion and distant metastasis, anti-tumor immunosuppression and resistance to therapy.


Assuntos
Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia , Neoplasias , Hipóxia Tumoral , Microambiente Tumoral , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Progressão da Doença , Glicólise , Humanos , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Neoplasias/fisiopatologia , Fenótipo
8.
Anticancer Res ; 40(1): 9-26, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31892549

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Inhibition of apoptosis is one of the hallmarks of cancer, and anti-apoptotic genes are often targets of genetic and epigenetic alterations. Cellular inhibitor of apoptosis 2 (cIAP2) has a role in degrading caspases by linking them to ubiquitin molecules, and is upregulated in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Previous studies have demonstrated that cIAP2 may play a role in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, was administered to triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells alone or in combination with epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitor isolated from green tea. RESULTS: The compounds were able to decrease the expression of cIAP2 while increasing the expression of pro-apoptotic caspase 7. There were also changes in histone modifications, suggesting a role of epigenetic mechanisms in these changes in expression of cIAP2. These changes resulted in an increase in apoptosis. SAHA and EGCG were also capable of limiting TNBC cell migration across a fibronectin (FN) matrix. CONCLUSION: SAHA and EGCG reduce the metastatic potential of TNBC by inducing the apoptotic pathway.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína 3 com Repetições IAP de Baculovírus/genética , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Vorinostat/farmacologia , Proteína 3 com Repetições IAP de Baculovírus/metabolismo , Caspase 7/genética , Caspase 7/metabolismo , Catequina/farmacologia , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
9.
Anticancer Res ; 40(1): 53-66, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31892552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Medulloblastoma (MB) accounts for ~20% of pediatric malignant central nervous system tumors. Treatment strategies, including surgery, radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy, are effective, but recurrence and metastasis frequently occur. Therefore, novel therapies are required. Herein, the effects of fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors on MB cells lines were evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MB cell lines (UW228-3, DAOY, Med8a, D425, D283) were tested for sensitivity to FGFR (AZD4547) and PI3K (BEZ235 and BYL719) inhibitors by viability, cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and proliferation assays. RESULTS: Single treatments with FGFR and PI3K inhibitors decreased viability and proliferation in a dose-dependent pattern in most cell lines. Combinination of the two type of drugs, increased sensitivity, especially of the most resistant cell line UW228-3. CONCLUSION: Combination treatments with FGFR and PI3K inhibitors were superior to single treatments with FGFR and PI3K inhibitors, especially with BEZ235, for MB cell lines.


Assuntos
Meduloblastoma/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/metabolismo , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Meduloblastoma/patologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
10.
Anticancer Res ; 40(1): 35-52, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31892551

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Co-expression of c-Met and ALDH1A3 indicates a poor prognosis in stage III-IV breast cancers and contributes to cell proliferation and tumor formation by ALDH1-positive breast CSCs. PKCλ is overexpressed and contributes to a poor prognosis in several cancers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A breast cancer genomics data set (METABRIC, n=2509) was downloaded and analyzed, as was the effect c-Met and PKCλ inhibitors on ALDH1high cell viability and tumor-sphere formation. RESULTS: c-Met expression correlates with expression of PKCλ in breast cancer. Stage III-IV breast cancer patients with c-Methigh PKCλhigh ALDH1A3high have a poorer prognosis than patients with c-Metlow PKCλlow ALDH1A3low Foretinib and auranofin suppressed cell viability and tumor-sphere formation by ALDH1high cells. These results suggest that c-Met and PKCλ are cooperatively involved in cancer progression and contribute to poor prognoses in breast cancer. CONCLUSION: c-Met and PKCλ are potentially useful prognostic markers and therapeutic targets in late-stage breast cancer.


Assuntos
Aldeído Oxirredutases/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Proteína Quinase C/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-met/genética , Aldeído Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Proteína Quinase C/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-met/metabolismo
11.
Anticancer Res ; 40(1): 67-73, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31892553

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Aberrant expression of the SEI1 oncogene has been prevalently found in a variety of human cancers, including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Recent studies have shown that cisplatin up-regulates the expression of SEI1 in breast and bladder cancer cells, thus inhibiting apoptosis and cell death in these cells. In the present study, we investigated the impact of cisplatin on the expression of SEI1 in OSCC cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four OSCC cell lines, CAL27, SCC4, SCC15, and SCC22A were treated with cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil, and changes in SEI1 expression in these cells were evaluated using quantitative Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR) analyses. RESULTS: Cisplatin significantly induced SEI1 expression in the tested OSCC cells. Contrarily, cisplatin treatment did not affect the expression of gankyrin and BMI1, two oncogenes frequently overexpressed in a coordinate manner with SEI1 in OSCC. Additionally, 5-fluorouracil did not bring about any detectable changes in SEI1 expression in these cells. CONCLUSION: Cisplatin-induced up-regulation of SEI1 expression in OSCC is specific, and such induction could underlie the development of resistance to cisplatin in OSCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Bucais/genética , Oncogenes , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Fluoruracila/farmacologia , Humanos
12.
Anticancer Res ; 40(1): 81-86, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31892555

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Zinc finger protein ZKSCAN3 (ZNF306) is a promising oncogene candidate in colon, bladder, breast, uterine cervical, and prostate cancers. The present study aimed to investigate ZKSCAN3 protein expression in gastric carcinoma patient tissues and to evaluate oncological outcomes in these patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ZKSCAN3 was detected using the anti-ZKSCAN3 rabbit polyclonal antibody. For immunohistochemical examination, we used paraffin-embedded specimens from 87 consecutive patients with gastric cancer who underwent gastrectomy. We investigated ZKSCAN3 expression in relation with patient prognosis and clinicopathological factors. RESULTS: ZKSCAN3 was detected in 28 (32.2%) tumour specimens, with significant association with lymphatic system invasion and distant metastasis. Patients with ZKSCAN3-positive tumours had worse overall survival (OS) than those with ZKSCAN3-negative tumours based on log-rank testing. Furthermore, multivariate analysis revealed that ZKSCAN3 was an independent prognostic parameter for OS (hazard ratio: 2.6379, p=0.0164). CONCLUSION: ZKSCAN3 is a potential novel prognostic factor in gastric cancer patients.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/mortalidade , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Recidiva , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias Gástricas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Gástricas/metabolismo
13.
Anticancer Res ; 40(1): 87-95, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31892556

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Very few studies are available about the biological activity of 3-styrylchromones. Our previous study demonstrated the importance of methoxy group at 6-position of the chromone ring and hydroxyl group at 4'-position of phenyl group in styryl moiety. As a sequel of this study, we synthesized fourteen compounds that include eight 3-styrylchromones where methoxy group was introduced at 7-position of chromone rings, and then evaluated their tumor-specificity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tumor-specificity (TS) was calculated by relative cytotoxicity against human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines versus human normal oral cells. Apoptosis induction and growth arrest were monitored by cell-cycle analysis. Quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis of TS was performed with 3,167 chemical descriptors. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Two compounds, 7-methoxy-3-[(1E)-2-phenylethenyl]-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one [7] and 3-[(1E)-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethenyl]-7-methoxy-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one [14] showed higher tumor-specificity than doxorubicin and 5-FU, suggesting the importance of methoxy group in 7-position of the chromone ring. These compounds induced the apoptosis and mitotic arrest in HSC-2 cells. The tumor-specificity of 3-styrylchromone derivatives were most correlated with descriptors for molecule shape and electronic charge. The present study suggested that modification by introducing methoxy group at 7-position, instead at 6-position, further increased the tumor-specificity of 3-styrylchromone.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Cromonas/química , Cromonas/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Quantitativa Estrutura-Atividade
14.
Anticancer Res ; 40(1): 109-119, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31892559

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Although molecular targeting therapy is an attractive treatment for cancer, resistance eventually develops in most cases. Here, we evaluated chemotherapeutic efficacy on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with acquired resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors mechanistically. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Antitumor effects of taxotere were evaluated using multiple models, including xenograft, and patient-derived models developed from adenocarcinoma cancer patients. Protein expressions were analyzed after drug treatment. RESULTS: Taxotere inhibited tumor growth of NSCLC cells harboring drug resistance, and reduced the expression of phosphorylated MET proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase (MET). A tumor-inhibitory effect of taxotere was also demonstrated in vivo in xenografts in mice, patient-derived primary lung tumor cells and patient-derived xenograft with concomitant repression of phosphorylated MET expression. Chemotherapeutic and MET-targeting drug exhibited a synergistic cell growth-inhibitory effect. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the anticancer drug taxane may be an adjuvant for lung tumors exhibiting enhanced signaling of MET networks.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Docetaxel/farmacologia , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-met/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Camundongos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/patologia , Fosforilação , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
15.
Anticancer Res ; 40(1): 121-132, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31892560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) are rare pancreatic neoplasms, and therapeutic options for pNETs are limited. Metformin is an anti-hypoglycemic drug that appears to have anticancer effects. However, little is known about the effect of metformin on pNETs. In this study, we investigated the anti-proliferative effect of metformin on a human pNET cell line. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The anti-proliferative properties of metformin were evaluated in QGP-1 and NCI-H727 cells using a cell counting kit-8 assay. Xenograft mouse models were used to assess the tumor effect in vivo. RESULTS: Metformin inhibited the proliferation and anti-tumor growth of QGP-1 cells, accompanied by their arrest during the cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase. Immunohistochemical analysis of tumor tissues revealed down-regulation of cyclin D1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in the metformin-treated group. Additionally, metformin induced apoptosis, and the expression of survivin and claspin were decreased in metformin-treated QGP-1 cells according to the apoptosis array. Furthermore, the angiogenic related protein TIMP-1 was down-regulated, and its miRNA expression was altered by metformin in QGP-1 cells. CONCLUSION: Taken together, our study demonstrated the therapeutic potential of metformin and provides molecular mechanistic insights into its anti-tumoral effect on pNETs. This study is the first one describing anti-tumoral effects in pNETs.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Metformina/farmacologia , Biomarcadores , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/metabolismo , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , Neovascularização Patológica/tratamento farmacológico , Neovascularização Patológica/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
16.
Anticancer Res ; 40(1): 133-141, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31892561

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Aberrant expression of the BMI1 oncogene has been prevalently found in a variety of human cancers, including cervical cancer. Recent studies have shown that PTC209, a specific BMI1 inhibitor, exhibits high potency in inhibiting the growth of colon, breast, oral cancer cells and cancer-initiating cells, indicative of its chemotherapeutic potential. In the current study, we evaluated the inhibitory abilities of PTC209 in cervical cancer cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three cervical cell lines, C33A, HeLa, and SiHa were treated with PTC209. The impacts of PTC209 on BMI1 were investigated using quantitative reverse-transcription PCR assay (qRT-PCR) and western blotting; changes in cell viability, cell cycle distribution, and apoptosis were assessed using cell viability testing, colony formation assay and flow cytometry analyses, respectively. RESULTS: PTC209 exhibited considerably high short-term and long-term cytotoxicities in all tested cervical cancer cell lines regardless of their HPV infection status, TP53 and pRb statuses. PTC209 significantly downregulated the expression of BMI1 in cervical cancer cell lines, and such downregulation led to G0/G1 arrest (p<0.05). Moreover, PTC209 drove more cells into apoptosis (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: PTC209 (BMI1-targeting agents, in general) represents a novel chemotherapeutic agent with potential in cervical cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 1/genética , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 1/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia
17.
Anticancer Res ; 40(1): 153-160, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31892563

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: In this study, we evaluated the effect of galloflavin, an inhibitor of lactate dehydrogenase, in combination with metformin, an anti-diabetic drug and inhibitor of oxidative phosphorylation, on pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We explored the effect of galloflavin and metformin on proliferation and cell death of murine 6606PDA and human MIA PaCa-2 cells. RESULTS: We observed that monotherapies of galloflavin and metformin both inhibit proliferation and induce cancer cell death. Moreover, the combination of both agents increased these effects on pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells. The inhibition of proliferation by this combination therapy can be detected under hypoxic and normoxic conditions, leading to the assumption that this therapy might impair insufficiently supplied solid tumors as well as small clusters of cancer cells, e.g. after metastatic dissemination. CONCLUSION: Galloflavin, especially in combination with metformin, has a strong anti-cancerous effect on pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Isocumarinas/farmacologia , Metformina/farmacologia , Biomarcadores , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo
18.
Anticancer Res ; 40(1): 161-168, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31892564

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arming of an oncolytic adenovirus (OAd) by inserting expression cassettes of therapeutic transgenes into the OAd genome is a promising approach to enhance the therapeutic effects of an OAd. Ideally, this approach would simultaneously promote the replication of an OAd in tumor cells and transgene product-mediated antitumor effects by expressing therapeutic transgenes. We previously demonstrated that knockdown of cullin 4A (CUL4A), which is an E3 ubiquitin ligase, significantly promoted adenovirus replication by increasing the c-JUN protein level. In addition, previous studies reported that CUL4A was highly expressed in various types of tumor, and was involved in tumor growth and metastasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, we developed a novel OAd expressing a short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) against CUL4A (OAd-shCUL4A). RESULTS: OAd-shCUL4 mediated higher levels of cytotoxic effects on various types of human tumor cell than a conventional OAd. Higher levels of OAd genome copy numbers were found in the tumor cells for OAd-shCUL4A, compared with a conventional OAd. CONCLUSION: OAd-shCUL4A showed efficient antitumor effects by both enhancing OAd replication and inhibiting tumor cell growth.


Assuntos
Adenoviridae/genética , Proteínas Culina/genética , Vetores Genéticos/genética , Vírus Oncolíticos/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Camundongos , Terapia Viral Oncolítica , Interferência de RNA , Transdução Genética
19.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 68(1): 77-90, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902903

RESUMO

Novel 3,5-dimethylpyridin-4(1H)-one scaffold compounds were synthesized and evaluated as AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activators. Unlike direct AMPK activators, this series of compounds showed selective cell growth inhibitory activity against human breast cancer cell lines. By optimizing the lead compound (4a) from our library, 2-[({1'-[(4-fluorophenyl)methyl]-2-methyl-1',2',3',6'-tetrahydro[3,4'-bipyridin]-6-yl}oxy)methyl]-3,5-dimethylpyridin-4(1H)-one (25) was found to have potent AMPK activating activity. Compound 25 also showed good aqueous solubility while maintaining the unique selectivity in cell growth inhibitory activity.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Piridonas/química , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Humanos , Piridonas/síntese química , Piridonas/farmacologia , Solubilidade , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
20.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 68(1): 96-99, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902905

RESUMO

Chemical investigation of the aerial parts of Andrographis paniculata resulted in isolation of nine compounds, including a new ent-labdane diterpenoid, andrographic acid methyl ester (1), a new chalcone glucoside, pashanone glucoside (5), and seven known metabolites, andrograpanin (2), andrographolide (3), andropanolide (4), andrographidine A (6), andrographidine F (7), 6-epi-8-O-acetyl-harpagide (8), and curvifloruside F (9). Their chemical structures were elucidated based on comprehensive analyses of the spectroscopic data, including NMR and MS. Among the isolated compounds, andropanolide exerted cytotoxicity toward LNCaP, HepG2, KB, MCF7, and SK-Mel2 carcinoma cells, with IC50 values ranging from 31.8 to 45.9 µM. In addition, andropanolide significantly inhibited the overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages, with an IC50 value of 13.4 µM.


Assuntos
Andrographis/química , Diterpenos/química , Flavonoides/química , Andrographis/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Humanos , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Camundongos , Conformação Molecular , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7
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