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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4642, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32934200

RESUMO

Epigenetic regulation plays an important role in governing stem cell fate and tumorigenesis. Lost expression of a key DNA demethylation enzyme TET2 is associated with human cancers and has been linked to stem cell traits in vitro; however, whether and how TET2 regulates mammary stem cell fate and mammary tumorigenesis in vivo remains to be determined. Here, using our recently established mammary specific Tet2 deletion mouse model, the data reveals that TET2 plays a pivotal role in mammary gland development and luminal lineage commitment. We show that TET2 and FOXP1 form a chromatin complex that mediates demethylation of ESR1, GATA3, and FOXA1, three key genes that are known to coordinately orchestrate mammary luminal lineage specification and endocrine response, and also are often silenced by DNA methylation in aggressive breast cancers. Furthermore, Tet2 deletion-PyMT breast cancer mouse model exhibits enhanced mammary tumor development with deficient ERα expression that confers tamoxifen resistance in vivo. As a result, this study elucidates a role for TET2 in governing luminal cell differentiation and endocrine response that underlies breast cancer resistance to anti-estrogen treatments.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Estradiol/metabolismo , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/fisiopatologia , Linhagem da Célula , Metilação de DNA , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Sistema Endócrino/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/genética , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/fisiopatologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4483, 2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900993

RESUMO

The Drosophila lymph gland, the larval hematopoietic organ comprised of prohemocytes and mature hemocytes, has been a valuable model for understanding mechanisms underlying hematopoiesis and immunity. Three types of mature hemocytes have been characterized in the lymph gland: plasmatocytes, lamellocytes, and crystal cells, which are analogous to vertebrate myeloid cells, yet molecular underpinnings of the lymph gland hemocytes have been less investigated. Here, we use single-cell RNA sequencing to comprehensively analyze heterogeneity of developing hemocytes in the lymph gland, and discover previously undescribed hemocyte types including adipohemocytes, stem-like prohemocytes, and intermediate prohemocytes. Additionally, we identify the developmental trajectory of hemocytes during normal development as well as the emergence of the lamellocyte lineage following active cellular immunity caused by wasp infestation. Finally, we establish similarities and differences between embryonically derived- and larval lymph gland hemocytes. Altogether, our study provides detailed insights into the hemocyte development and cellular immune responses at single-cell resolution.


Assuntos
Drosophila melanogaster/citologia , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Hemócitos/citologia , Hemócitos/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Linhagem da Célula/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Ectoparasitoses/genética , Ectoparasitoses/metabolismo , Ectoparasitoses/patologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Hematopoese/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/fisiologia , Tecido Linfoide/citologia , Tecido Linfoide/metabolismo , Tecido Linfoide/parasitologia , RNA-Seq , Análise de Célula Única , Vespas/patogenicidade
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4549, 2020 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917889

RESUMO

Arterial macrophages have different developmental origins, but the association of macrophage ontogeny with their phenotypes and functions in adulthood is still unclear. Here, we combine macrophage fate-mapping analysis with single-cell RNA sequencing to establish their cellular identity during homeostasis, and in response to angiotensin-II (AngII)-induced arterial inflammation. Yolk sac erythro-myeloid progenitors (EMP) contribute substantially to adventitial macrophages and give rise to a defined cluster of resident immune cells with homeostatic functions that is stable in adult mice, but declines in numbers during ageing and is not replenished by bone marrow (BM)-derived macrophages. In response to AngII inflammation, increase in adventitial macrophages is driven by recruitment of BM monocytes, while EMP-derived macrophages proliferate locally and provide a distinct transcriptional response that is linked to tissue regeneration. Our findings thus contribute to the understanding of macrophage heterogeneity, and associate macrophage ontogeny with distinct functions in health and disease.


Assuntos
Artérias/citologia , Arterite/imunologia , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Homeostase/fisiologia , Macrófagos/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Angiotensina II/administração & dosagem , Angiotensina II/imunologia , Animais , Artérias/fisiologia , Medula Óssea/fisiologia , Transplante de Medula Óssea , Linhagem da Célula , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , RNA-Seq , Regeneração/fisiologia , Análise de Célula Única , Quimeras de Transplante
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4158, 2020 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32855417

RESUMO

Visceral organs, such as the lungs, stomach and liver, are derived from the fetal foregut through a series of inductive interactions between the definitive endoderm (DE) and the surrounding splanchnic mesoderm (SM). While DE patterning is fairly well studied, the paracrine signaling controlling SM regionalization and how this is coordinated with epithelial identity is obscure. Here, we use single cell transcriptomics to generate a high-resolution cell state map of the embryonic mouse foregut. This identifies a diversity of SM cell types that develop in close register with the organ-specific epithelium. We infer a spatiotemporal signaling network of endoderm-mesoderm interactions that orchestrate foregut organogenesis. We validate key predictions with mouse genetics, showing the importance of endoderm-derived signals in mesoderm patterning. Finally, leveraging these signaling interactions, we generate different SM subtypes from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), which previously have been elusive. The single cell data can be explored at: https://research.cchmc.org/ZornLab-singlecell .


Assuntos
Sistema Digestório/metabolismo , Endoderma/metabolismo , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Mesoderma/metabolismo , Organogênese/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Animais , Linhagem da Célula/genética , Sistema Digestório/citologia , Sistema Digestório/embriologia , Endoderma/citologia , Endoderma/embriologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Internet , Mesoderma/citologia , Mesoderma/embriologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3987, 2020 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778678

RESUMO

Aneuploidy, the presence of an abnormal number of chromosomes, is a major cause of early pregnancy loss in humans. Yet, the developmental consequences of specific aneuploidies remain unexplored. Here, we determine the extent of post-implantation development of human embryos bearing common aneuploidies using a recently established culture platform. We show that while trisomy 15 and trisomy 21 embryos develop similarly to euploid embryos, monosomy 21 embryos exhibit high rates of developmental arrest, and trisomy 16 embryos display a hypo-proliferation of the trophoblast, the tissue that forms the placenta. Using human trophoblast stem cells, we show that this phenotype can be mechanistically ascribed to increased levels of the cell adhesion protein E-CADHERIN, which lead to premature differentiation and cell cycle arrest. We identify three cases of mosaicism in embryos diagnosed as full aneuploid by pre-implantation genetic testing. Our results present the first detailed analysis of post-implantation development of aneuploid human embryos.


Assuntos
Aneuploidia , Implantação do Embrião/genética , Embrião de Mamíferos , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Antígenos CD/genética , Caderinas/genética , Caderinas/metabolismo , Adesão Celular , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular , Linhagem da Célula , Segregação de Cromossomos , Cromossomos Humanos Par 16 , Cromossomos Humanos Par 21 , Feminino , Genes erbB-1/genética , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Monossomia , Mosaicismo , Gravidez , Células-Tronco , Trissomia
6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4239, 2020 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32843640

RESUMO

How stem cells give rise to epidermis is unclear despite the crucial role the epidermis plays in barrier and appendage formation. Here we use single cell-RNA sequencing to interrogate basal stem cell heterogeneity of human interfollicular epidermis and find four spatially distinct stem cell populations at the top and bottom of rete ridges and transitional positions between the basal and suprabasal epidermal layers. Cell-cell communication modeling suggests that basal cell populations serve as crucial signaling hubs to maintain epidermal communication. Combining pseudotime, RNA velocity, and cellular entropy analyses point to a hierarchical differentiation lineage supporting multi-stem cell interfollicular epidermal homeostasis models and suggest that transitional basal stem cells are stable states essential for proper stratification. Finally, alterations in differentially expressed transitional basal stem cell genes result in severe thinning of human skin equivalents, validating their essential role in epidermal homeostasis and reinforcing the critical nature of basal stem cell heterogeneity.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular , Células Epidérmicas/citologia , Homeostase , Células-Tronco/citologia , Comunicação Celular/genética , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Linhagem da Célula/genética , Células Epidérmicas/metabolismo , Epiderme/metabolismo , Prepúcio do Pênis/citologia , Prepúcio do Pênis/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Queratinócitos/citologia , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Transdução de Sinais , Células-Tronco/metabolismo
7.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(8): e1008763, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32834002

RESUMO

The various sub-species of Salmonella enterica cause a range of disease in human hosts. The human-adapted Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi enters the gastrointestinal tract and invades systemic sites to cause enteric (typhoid) fever. In contrast, most non-typhoidal serovars of Salmonella are primarily restricted to gut tissues. Across Africa, invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella (iNTS) have emerged with an ability to spread beyond the gastrointestinal tract and cause systemic bloodstream infections with increased morbidity and mortality. To investigate this evolution in pathogenesis, we compared the genomes of African iNTS isolates with other Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and identified several macA and macB gene variants unique to African iNTS. MacAB forms a tripartite efflux pump with TolC and is implicated in Salmonella pathogenesis. We show that macAB transcription is upregulated during macrophage infection and after antimicrobial peptide exposure, with macAB transcription being supported by the PhoP/Q two-component system. Constitutive expression of macAB improves survival of Salmonella in the presence of the antimicrobial peptide C18G. Furthermore, these macAB variants affect replication in macrophages and influence fitness during colonization of the murine gastrointestinal tract. Importantly, the infection outcome resulting from these macAB variants depends upon both the Salmonella Typhimurium genetic background and the host gene Nramp1, an important determinant of innate resistance to intracellular bacterial infection. The variations we have identified in the MacAB-TolC efflux pump in African iNTS may reflect evolution within human host populations that are compromised in their ability to clear intracellular Salmonella infections.


Assuntos
Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Colite/patologia , Variação Genética , Macrófagos/imunologia , Salmonelose Animal/patologia , Salmonella typhimurium/imunologia , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Linhagem da Célula , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/imunologia , Colite/microbiologia , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/microbiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Salmonelose Animal/imunologia , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Replicação Viral
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3955, 2020 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769998

RESUMO

Cellular therapy to treat heart failure is an ongoing focus of intense research, but progress toward structural and functional recovery remains modest. Engineered augmentation of established cellular effectors overcomes impediments to enhance reparative activity. Such 'next generation' implementation includes delivery of combinatorial cell populations exerting synergistic effects. Concurrent isolation and expansion of three distinct cardiac-derived interstitial cell types from human heart tissue, previously reported by our group, prompted design of a 3D structure that maximizes cellular interaction, allows for defined cell ratios, controls size, enables injectability, and minimizes cell loss. Herein, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and c-Kit+ cardiac interstitial cells (cCICs) when cultured together spontaneously form scaffold-free 3D microenvironments termed CardioClusters. scRNA-Seq profiling reveals CardioCluster expression of stem cell-relevant factors, adhesion/extracellular-matrix molecules, and cytokines, while maintaining a more native transcriptome similar to endogenous cardiac cells. CardioCluster intramyocardial delivery improves cell retention and capillary density with preservation of cardiomyocyte size and long-term cardiac function in a murine infarction model followed 20 weeks. CardioCluster utilization in this preclinical setting establish fundamental insights, laying the framework for optimization in cell-based therapeutics intended to mitigate cardiomyopathic damage.


Assuntos
Microambiente Celular , Miocárdio/patologia , Cicatrização , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Capilares/patologia , Agregação Celular , Morte Celular , Linhagem da Célula , Tamanho Celular , Citoproteção , Células Progenitoras Endoteliais/citologia , Feminino , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Ventrículos do Coração/patologia , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Recém-Nascido , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/citologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Comunicação Parácrina , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transcrição Genética
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4034, 2020 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788576

RESUMO

Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is an X-linked primary immunodeficiency with severe platelet abnormalities and complex immunodeficiency. Although clinical gene therapy approaches using lentiviral vectors have produced encouraging results, full immune and platelet reconstitution is not always achieved. Here we show that a CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing strategy allows the precise correction of WAS mutations in up to 60% of human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs), without impairing cell viability and differentiation potential. Delivery of the editing reagents to WAS HSPCs led to full rescue of WASp expression and correction of functional defects in myeloid and lymphoid cells. Primary and secondary transplantation of corrected WAS HSPCs into immunodeficient mice showed persistence of edited cells for up to 26 weeks and efficient targeting of long-term repopulating stem cells. Finally, no major genotoxicity was associated with the gene editing process, paving the way for an alternative, yet highly efficient and safe therapy.


Assuntos
Edição de Genes , Terapia Genética , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/metabolismo , Síndrome de Wiskott-Aldrich/genética , Síndrome de Wiskott-Aldrich/terapia , Animais , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Linhagem da Célula , Códon/genética , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Células HEK293 , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Células Mieloides/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Síndrome de Wiskott-Aldrich/patologia , Proteína da Síndrome de Wiskott-Aldrich/genética
10.
Protein Cell ; 11(10): 740-770, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780218

RESUMO

Age-associated changes in immune cells have been linked to an increased risk for infection. However, a global and detailed characterization of the changes that human circulating immune cells undergo with age is lacking. Here, we combined scRNA-seq, mass cytometry and scATAC-seq to compare immune cell types in peripheral blood collected from young and old subjects and patients with COVID-19. We found that the immune cell landscape was reprogrammed with age and was characterized by T cell polarization from naive and memory cells to effector, cytotoxic, exhausted and regulatory cells, along with increased late natural killer cells, age-associated B cells, inflammatory monocytes and age-associated dendritic cells. In addition, the expression of genes, which were implicated in coronavirus susceptibility, was upregulated in a cell subtype-specific manner with age. Notably, COVID-19 promoted age-induced immune cell polarization and gene expression related to inflammation and cellular senescence. Therefore, these findings suggest that a dysregulated immune system and increased gene expression associated with SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility may at least partially account for COVID-19 vulnerability in the elderly.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/imunologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Análise de Célula Única , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/genética , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Linhagem da Célula , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/etiologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Citocinas/biossíntese , Citocinas/genética , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Rearranjo Gênico , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/citologia , Sistema Imunitário/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Imunocompetência/genética , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/imunologia , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transcriptoma , Adulto Jovem
11.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237885, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853234

RESUMO

Our group has developed two transplantation models for the engraftment of Human Intestinal Organoids (HIOs): the renal subcapsular space (RSS) and the mesentery each with specific benefits for study. While engraftment at both sites generates laminated intestinal structures, a direct comparison between models has not yet been performed. Embryonic stem cells were differentiated into HIOs, as previously described. HIOs from the same batch were transplanted on the same day into either the RSS or mesentery. 10 weeks were allowed for engraftment and differentiation, at which time they were harvested and assessed. Metrics for comparison included: mortality, engraftment rate, gross size, number and grade of lumens, and expression of markers specific to epithelial differentiation, mesenchymal differentiation, and carbohydrate metabolism. Mortality was significantly increased when undergoing mesentery transplantation, however engraftment was significantly higher. Graft sizes were similar between groups. Morphometric parameters were similar between groups, however m-tHIOs presented with significantly fewer lumens than k-tHIO. Transcript and protein level expression of markers specific to epithelial differentiation, mesenchymal differentiation, and carbohydrate metabolism were similar between groups. Transplantation into both sites yields viable tissue of similar quality based on our assessments with enhanced engraftment and a dominant lumen for uniform study benefiting the mesenteric site and survival benefiting RSS.


Assuntos
Intestinos/transplante , Organoides/transplante , Animais , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Linhagem da Célula , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
12.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238076, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32857768

RESUMO

Epidermal lineages and injury induced regeneration are controlled by transcriptional programs coordinating cellular signaling and epigenetic regulators, but the mechanism remains unclear. Previous studies showed that conditional deletion of the transcriptional coactivator Mediator 1 (Med1) changes epidermal lineages and accelerates wound re-epithelialization. Here, we studied a molecular mechanism by which Med1 facilitates these processes, in particular, by focusing on TGFß signaling through genome wide transcriptome analysis. The expression of the TGF ligands (Tgfß1/ß2) and their downstream target genes is decreased in both normal and wounded Med1 null skin. Med1 silencing in cultured keratinocytes likewise reduces the expression of the ligands (TGFß1/ß2) and diminishes activity of TGFß signaling as shown by decreased p-Smad2/3. Silencing Med1 increases keratinocyte proliferation and migration in vitro. Epigenetic studies using chromatin immuno-precipitation and next generation DNA sequencing reveals that Med1 regulates transcription of TGFß components by forming large clusters of enhancers called super-enhancers at the regulatory regions of the TGFß ligand and SMAD3 genes. These results demonstrate that Med1 is required for the maintenance of the TGFß signaling pathway. Finally, we show that pharmacological inhibition of TGFß signaling enhances epidermal lineages and accelerates wound re-epithelialization in skin similar to that seen in the Med1 null mice, providing new insights into epidermal regeneration.


Assuntos
Subunidade 1 do Complexo Mediador/genética , Regeneração/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta2/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem da Célula , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Regulação para Baixo , Epiderme/fisiologia , Queratinócitos/citologia , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Subunidade 1 do Complexo Mediador/antagonistas & inibidores , Subunidade 1 do Complexo Mediador/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/patologia , Proteína Smad3/genética , Proteína Smad3/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta2/genética , Regulação para Cima
13.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(7): e1007731, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649725

RESUMO

High-throughput sequencing of human immunoglobulin genes allows analysis of antibody repertoires and the reconstruction of clonal lineage evolution. The study of antibodies (Abs) affinity maturation is of specific interest to understand the generation of Abs with high affinity or broadly neutralizing activities. Moreover, phylogenic analysis enables the identification of the key somatic mutations required to achieve optimal antigen binding. The Immcantation framework provides a start-to-finish set of analytical methods for high-throughput adaptive immune receptor repertoire sequencing (AIRR-Seq; Rep-Seq) data. Furthermore, Immcantation's Change-O package has developed IgPhyML, an algorithm designed to build specifically immunoglobulin (Ig) phylogenic trees. Meanwhile Phylip, an algorithm that has been originally developed for applications in ecology and macroevolution, can also be used for the phylogenic reconstruction of antibodies maturation pathway. To complement Ig lineages made by IgPhyML or Dnaml (Phylip), we developed AncesTree, a graphic user interface (GUI) that aims to give researchers the opportunity to interactively explore antibodies clonal evolution. AncesTree displays interactive immunoglobulins phylogenic tree, Ig related mutations and sequence alignments using additional information coming from specialized antibody tools. The GUI is a Java standalone application allowing interaction with Ig tree that can run under Windows, Linux and Mac OS.


Assuntos
Genes de Imunoglobulinas/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Imunoglobulinas , Alinhamento de Sequência/métodos , Software , Algoritmos , Linhagem da Célula/genética , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas/química , Imunoglobulinas/classificação , Imunoglobulinas/genética , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos
14.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1250: 141-155, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32601943

RESUMO

Micro-patterned surfaces have been broadly used to control the morphology of stem cells for investigation of the influence of physiochemical and biological cues on stem cell functions. Different structures of micro-patterned surfaces can be prepared by photolithography through designing the photomask features. Cell spreading area, geometry, aspect ratio, and alignment can be regulated by the micro-patterned structures. Their influences on adipogenic, osteogenic, and smooth muscle differentiation of the human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells are compared and investigated in details. Variation of cell morphology can trigger rearrangement of cytoskeleton, generating cytoskeletal mechanical stimulation and consequently inducing differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into different lineages. This chapter summarizes the latest development of regulation of mesenchymal stem cell morphology by micro-patterns and the influence on the behaviors and differentiation of the mesenchymal stem cells.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Linhagem da Célula , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(29): 17041-17048, 2020 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32632001

RESUMO

A central task in developmental biology is to learn the sequence of fate decisions that leads to each mature cell type in a tissue or organism. Recently, clonal labeling of cells using DNA barcodes has emerged as a powerful approach for identifying cells that share a common ancestry of fate decisions. Here we explore the idea that stochasticity of cell fate choice during tissue development could be harnessed to read out lineage relationships after a single step of clonal barcoding. By considering a generalized multitype branching process, we determine the conditions under which the final distribution of barcodes over observed cell types encodes their bona fide lineage relationships. We then propose a method for inferring the order of fate decisions. Our theory predicts a set of symmetries of barcode covariance that serves as a consistency check for the validity of the method. We show that broken symmetries may be used to detect multiple paths of differentiation to the same cell types. We provide computational tools for general use. When applied to barcoding data in hematopoiesis, these tools reconstruct the classical hematopoietic hierarchy and detect couplings between monocytes and dendritic cells and between erythrocytes and basophils that suggest multiple pathways of differentiation for these lineages.


Assuntos
Linhagem da Célula , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico/métodos , Animais , Linhagem da Célula/genética , Linhagem da Célula/fisiologia , Árvores de Decisões , Células Dendríticas/citologia , Eritrócitos/citologia , Hematopoese/genética , Hematopoese/fisiologia , Leucócitos/citologia , Modelos Biológicos , Biologia de Sistemas
16.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0234792, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614850

RESUMO

The Myo/Nog cell lineage was discovered in the chick embryo and is also present in adult mammalian tissues. The cells are named for their expression of mRNA for the skeletal muscle specific transcription factor MyoD and bone morphogenetic protein inhibitor Noggin. A third marker for Myo/Nog cells is the cell surface molecule recognized by the G8 monoclonal antibody (mAb). G8 has been used to detect, track, isolate and kill Myo/Nog cells. In this study, we screened a membrane proteome array for the target of the G8 mAb. The array consisted of >5,000 molecules, each synthesized in their native confirmation with appropriate post-translational modifications in a single clone of HEK-293T cells. G8 mAb binding to the clone expressing brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1 (BAI1) was detected by flow cytometry, re-verified by sequencing and validated by transfection with the plasmid construct for BAI1. Further validation of the G8 target was provided by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The G8 epitope was identified by screening a high-throughput, site directed mutagenesis library designed to cover 95-100% of the 954 amino acids of the extracellular domain of the BAI1 protein. The G8 mAb binds within the third thrombospondin repeat of the extracellular domain of human BAI1. Immunofluorescence localization experiments revealed that G8 and a commercially available BAI1 mAb co-localize to the subpopulation of Myo/Nog cells in the skin, eyes and brain. Expression of the multi-functional BAI1 protein in Myo/Nog cells introduces new possibilities for the roles of Myo/Nog cells in normal and diseased tissues.


Assuntos
Proteínas Angiogênicas/biossíntese , Miofibroblastos/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/biossíntese , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Proteínas Angiogênicas/química , Proteínas Angiogênicas/genética , Proteínas Angiogênicas/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Especificidade de Anticorpos , Reações Antígeno-Anticorpo , Encéfalo/citologia , Proteínas de Transporte/análise , Linhagem da Célula , Epitopos/imunologia , Proteínas do Olho/biossíntese , Proteínas do Olho/química , Proteínas do Olho/genética , Proteínas do Olho/imunologia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Modelos Moleculares , Desenvolvimento Muscular , Proteína MyoD/análise , Especificidade de Órgãos , Conformação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , Coelhos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/química , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/genética , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/imunologia , Sequências Repetitivas de Aminoácidos , Pele/citologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Tatuagem , Adulto Jovem
17.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0234069, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649674

RESUMO

Recent discoveries of at least two heart fields and dynamic nature of cardiac development as well as controversies regarding the participation of heart fields in development of different heart structures led us to investigate the dynamics of incorporation of the first and second heart fields and prospective fate of the straight heart tube by labeling chicken embryos in vivo with the fluorescent lipophilic dye DiI. The cephalic and caudal limits of the anterior and posterior segments of the straight heart tube were labeled in two groups of embryos. Labels were tracked along the "C," "S," and "U" loops up to the tetracavitary or mature heart (n = 30 embryos/group; torsion and looping stage). To determine whether the atria and atrioventricular canal are derived from the first heart field the straight heart tube was cultured in vitro and immunodetection of Sox-9 and troponin I was performed to identify the mesenchymal and myocardial lineages respectively. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunodetection was used to determine the involvement of cell proliferation in heart tube development during torsion and looping. Embryological constitution of the straight heart tube and heart looping (C, S, and U) were not consistent with current descriptions. In fact, right ventricle precursors were absent in the straight heart tube derived from the first heart field. During torsion and looping, the cephalic segment of the straight heart tube gradually shifted into the heart tube until it was located at the myocardial interventricular septum in the tetracavitary heart. In contrast, the caudal segment of the straight heart tube was elongated and remodeled to become the first heart field derived left ventricle and the proximal part of the ventricular inlets. The ventricular outflows, right ventricle, distal part of the ventricular inlets, and atria developed from the second heart field.


Assuntos
Coração/embriologia , Animais , Carbocianinas , Divisão Celular , Linhagem da Célula , Embrião de Galinha , Corantes Fluorescentes , Mesoderma/citologia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Miocárdio/química , Miocárdio/ultraestrutura , Organogênese , Antígeno Nuclear de Célula em Proliferação/análise , Fatores de Transcrição SOX9/análise , Troponina I/análise
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(29): 16969-16975, 2020 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32611816

RESUMO

Understanding to what extent stem cell potential is a cell-intrinsic property or an emergent behavior coming from global tissue dynamics and geometry is a key outstanding question of systems and stem cell biology. Here, we propose a theory of stem cell dynamics as a stochastic competition for access to a spatially localized niche, giving rise to a stochastic conveyor-belt model. Cell divisions produce a steady cellular stream which advects cells away from the niche, while random rearrangements enable cells away from the niche to be favorably repositioned. Importantly, even when assuming that all cells in a tissue are molecularly equivalent, we predict a common ("universal") functional dependence of the long-term clonal survival probability on distance from the niche, as well as the emergence of a well-defined number of functional stem cells, dependent only on the rate of random movements vs. mitosis-driven advection. We test the predictions of this theory on datasets of pubertal mammary gland tips and embryonic kidney tips, as well as homeostatic intestinal crypts. Importantly, we find good agreement for the predicted functional dependency of the competition as a function of position, and thus functional stem cell number in each organ. This argues for a key role of positional fluctuations in dictating stem cell number and dynamics, and we discuss the applicability of this theory to other settings.


Assuntos
Linhagem da Célula , Autorrenovação Celular , Nicho de Células-Tronco , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular , Feminino , Homeostase , Intestinos/citologia , Intestinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rim/citologia , Rim/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/citologia , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Camundongos , Modelos Teóricos , Razão Sinal-Ruído , Células-Tronco/citologia , Células-Tronco/fisiologia
19.
Nature ; 584(7819): 102-108, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32728215

RESUMO

During ontogeny, proliferating cells become restricted in their fate through the combined action of cell-type-specific transcription factors and ubiquitous epigenetic machinery, which recognizes universally available histone residues or nucleotides in a context-dependent manner1,2. The molecular functions of these regulators are generally well understood, but assigning direct developmental roles to them is hampered by complex mutant phenotypes that often emerge after gastrulation3,4. Single-cell RNA sequencing and analytical approaches have explored this highly conserved, dynamic period across numerous model organisms5-8, including mouse9-18. Here we advance these strategies using a combined zygotic perturbation and single-cell RNA-sequencing platform in which many mutant mouse embryos can be assayed simultaneously, recovering robust  morphological and transcriptional information across a panel of ten essential regulators. Deeper analysis of central Polycomb repressive complex (PRC) 1 and 2 components indicates substantial cooperativity, but distinguishes a dominant role for PRC2 in restricting the germline. Moreover, PRC mutant phenotypes emerge after gross epigenetic and transcriptional changes within the initial conceptus prior to gastrulation. Our experimental framework may eventually lead to a fully quantitative view of how cellular diversity emerges using an identical genetic template and from a single totipotent cell.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética , Gástrula/embriologia , Gástrula/metabolismo , Gastrulação/genética , Animais , Linhagem da Célula , Feminino , Gástrula/citologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Masculino , Camundongos , Mutação , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 1/metabolismo , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 2/metabolismo , Análise de Célula Única , Transcrição Genética
20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2807, 2020 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32533074

RESUMO

The nuclear receptor binding SET domain protein 1 (NSD1) is recurrently mutated in human cancers including acute leukemia. We show that NSD1 knockdown alters erythroid clonogenic growth of human CD34+ hematopoietic cells. Ablation of Nsd1 in the hematopoietic system of mice induces a transplantable erythroleukemia. In vitro differentiation of Nsd1-/- erythroblasts is majorly impaired despite abundant expression of GATA1, the transcriptional master regulator of erythropoiesis, and associated with an impaired activation of GATA1-induced targets. Retroviral expression of wildtype NSD1, but not a catalytically-inactive NSD1N1918Q SET-domain mutant induces terminal maturation of Nsd1-/- erythroblasts. Despite similar GATA1 protein levels, exogenous NSD1 but not NSDN1918Q significantly increases the occupancy of GATA1 at target genes and their expression. Notably, exogenous NSD1 reduces the association of GATA1 with the co-repressor SKI, and knockdown of SKI induces differentiation of Nsd1-/- erythroblasts. Collectively, we identify the NSD1 methyltransferase as a regulator of GATA1-controlled erythroid differentiation and leukemogenesis.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular , Células Eritroides/metabolismo , Células Eritroides/patologia , Fator de Transcrição GATA1/metabolismo , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/metabolismo , Leucemia Eritroblástica Aguda/metabolismo , Leucemia Eritroblástica Aguda/patologia , Adulto , Animais , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Antígenos CD34/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Linhagem da Célula , Cromatina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Eritroblastos/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição GATA1/genética , Regulação Leucêmica da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Hematopoese , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Leucemia Eritroblástica Aguda/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Ligação Proteica , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-kit/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Receptores da Transferrina/metabolismo
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