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1.
Food Chem ; 368: 130802, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411866

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the influences of microwave (MV) exposure to flaxseed on the physicochemical stability of oil bodies (OBs) focused on the interface remodeling. The results showed that the intracellular OBs subjected to absolute rupture and then partial dispersion by protein bodies visualized by TEM following MV exposure (1-5 min; 700 W). After aqueous extraction, native flax OBs manifested excellent spherical particles with completely intact surface and wide particle size distribution (0.5-3.0 µm) examined by cryo-SEM. Upon 1-5 min of MV exposure, the defective interface integrity and beaded morphology were successively observed for flax OBs, accompanied by the impaired physical stability and rheological behavior due to the newly assembled phospholipid/protein interface. Notably, the profitable migration of phenolic compounds effectively suppressed the lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation in flax OBs. Thus, MV exposure (1-5 min; 700 W) was unfavorable for improving the physical stability of flax OBs.


Assuntos
Linho , Óleo de Semente do Linho , Gotículas Lipídicas , Micro-Ondas , Fenóis , Fosfolipídeos
2.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246727, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468521

RESUMO

Unavailability of probiotics in fish digestive system fingerlings is unable to digest and absorb their food properly. The current research was conducted to investigate the influence of probiotics added Linseed meal based (LMB) diet on hematology and carcass composition of Labeo rohita juveniles. Hematological parameters are essential diagnostics used to estimate the health status of fish. The usage of probiotics for fish health improvement is becoming common due to the higher demand for environment-friendly culture system in water. Linseed meal was used as a test ingredient to prepare six experimental test diets by adding probiotics (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 g/kg) and 1% indigestible chromic oxide for seventy days. According to their live wet weight, five percent feed was given to fingerlings twice a day. Fish blood and carcass samples (Whole body) were taken for hematological and carcass analysis at the end of the experiment. The highest carcass composition (crude protein; 18.72%, crude fat; 8.80% and gross energy; 2.31 kcal/g) was observed in fish fed with test diet II supplemented with probiotics (2 g/kg). Moreover, maximum RBCs number (2.62× 106mm-3), WBCs (7.84×103mm-3), PCV (24.61), platelets (63.85) and hemoglobin (7.87) had also been reported in the fish fingerlings fed on 2 g/kg of probiotics supplemented diet. Results indicated that probiotics supplementation has a critical role in improvement of fingerlings' body composition and hematological indices. Present findings showed that probiotics supplementation at 2 g/kg level in linseed by-product-based diet was very useful for enhancing the overall performance of L. rohita fingerlings.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae , Linho , Probióticos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária
3.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500623

RESUMO

Lignans are the main secondary metabolites synthetized by Linum species as plant defense molecules. They are also valuable for human health, in particular, for their potent antiviral and antineoplastic properties. In this study, the adventitious root cultures of three Linum species (L. flavum, L. mucronatum and L. dolomiticum) were developed to produce aryltetralin lignans. The effect of two elicitors, methyl jasmonate and coronatine, on aryltetralin lignans production was also evaluated. The adventitious root cultures from L. dolomiticum were obtained and analyzed for the first time and resulted as the best producer for all the aryltetralins highlighted in this system: Podophyllotoxin, 6-methoxypodophyllotoxin and 6-methoxypodophyllotoxin-7-O-ß-glucoside, the last showing a productivity of 92.6 mg/g DW. The two elicitors differently affected the production of the 6-methoxypodophyllotoxin and 6-methoxypodophyllotoxin-7-O-ß-glucoside.


Assuntos
Linho/metabolismo , Lignanas/biossíntese , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Acetatos/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/biossíntese , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Indenos , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Podofilotoxina/análogos & derivados , Podofilotoxina/biossíntese
4.
Plant Sci ; 311: 111014, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482917

RESUMO

Flax (Linum usitatissimum) seed oil is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), particularly linolenic acid, which is converted from linoleic acid. Studies have indicated that the biosynthesis of linoleic acid and linolenic acid is controlled by FAD2 and FAD3, respectively. However, the functional distinctions of different LuFAD2 and LuFAD3 copies from L. usitatissimum in governing the biosynthesis of linoleic acid or linolenic acid, respectively, remain unclear. In this study, five LuFAD2 and three LuFAD3 cDNAs were cloned from the L. usitatissimum cultivar 'Longya 10', and GC-MS results demonstrated that LuFAD2A and LuFAD3A play predominant roles in the accumulation of linoleic acid and linolenic acid, respectively. Their simultaneous overexpression in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds led to a significant increase in fatty acid contents, especially PUFAs. Additionally, LuFAD2A and LuFAD3A promoted the biosynthesis of jasmonic acid by increasing the levels of linolenic acid, which, in turn, enhanced plant cold tolerance. When the amount of linolenic acid is not sufficient, plants adapt to low temperature via the accumulation of anthocyanins. These findings provide insights into the higher accumulation of PUFAs in L. usitatissimum seeds, and provide potential targets for improving oil quality of other oil-producing crops through molecular manipulation.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Temperatura Baixa , Ácidos Graxos/biossíntese , Linho/genética , Plântula/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/genética , Linho/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de Proteína
5.
Nat Plants ; 7(9): 1200-1206, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34518667

RESUMO

Flax has a long and fascinating history. This plant was domesticated around 8,000 BCE1 in the Fertile Crescent area2, first for its seeds and then for its fibres1,3. Although its uses existed long before domestication, residues of flax yarn dated 30,000 years ago have been found in the Caucasus area4. However, Ancient Egypt laid the foundations for the cultivation of flax as a textile fibre crop5. Today flax fibres are used in high-value textiles and in natural actuators6 or reinforcements in composite materials7. Flax is therefore a bridge between ages and civilizations. For several decades, the development of non- or micro-destructive analysis techniques has led to numerous works on the conservation of ancient textiles. Non-destructive methods, such as optical microscopy8 or vibrational techniques9,10, have been largely used to investigate archaeological textiles, principally to evaluate their degradation mechanisms and state of conservation. Vibrational spectroscopy studies can now benefit from synchrotron radiation11 and X-ray diffraction measurement in the archaeometric study of historical textiles12,13. Conservation of mechanical performance and the ultrastructural differences between ancient and modern flax varieties have not been examined thus far. Here we examine the morphological, ultrastructural and mechanical characteristics of a yarn from an Egyptian mortuary linen dating from the early Middle Kingdom (Eleventh Dynasty, ca. 2033-1963 BCE) and compare them with a modern flax yarn to assess the quality and durability of ancient flax fibres and relate these to their processing methods. Advanced microscopy techniques, such as nano-tomography, multiphoton excitation microscopy and atomic force microscopy were used. Our findings reveal the cultural know-how of this ancient civilization in producing high-fineness fibres, as well as the exceptional durability of flax, which is sometimes questioned, demonstrating their potential as reinforcements in high-technology composites.


Assuntos
Arqueologia/história , Linho/química , Linho/ultraestrutura , Têxteis/história , Egito , História Antiga , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura
6.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371804

RESUMO

Functional clinical nutrition is an integrative science; it uses dietary strategies, functional foods and medicinal plants, as well as combinations thereof. Both functional foods and medicinal plants, whether associated or not, form nutraceuticals, which can bring benefits to health, in addition to being included in the prevention and treatment of diseases. Some functional food effects from Avena sativa L. (oats), Linum usitatissimum L. (brown flaxseed), Glycine max L. (soya) and Moringa oleifera have been proposed for nutritional disorders through in vitro and in vivo tests. A formulation called a bioactive food compound (BFC) showed efficiency in the association of oats, flaxseed and soy for dyslipidemia and obesity. In this review, we discuss the effects of BFC in other nutritional disorders, as well as the beneficial effects of M. oleifera in obesity, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus type 2, metabolic syndrome, intestinal inflammatory diseases/colorectal carcinogenesis and malnutrition. In addition, we hypothesized that a BFC enriched with M. oleifera could present a synergistic effect and play a potential benefit in nutritional disorders. The traditional consumption of M. oleifera preparations can allow associations with other formulations, such as BFC. These nutraceutical formulations can be easily accepted and can be used in sweet preparations (fruit and/or vegetable juices, fruit and/or vegetable vitamins, porridges, yogurt, cream, mousses or fruit salads, cakes and cookies) or savory (vegetable purees, soups, broths and various sauces), cooked or not. These formulations can be low-cost and easy-to-use. The association of bioactive food substances in dietary formulations can facilitate adherence to consumption and, thus, contribute to the planning of future nutritional interventions for the prevention and adjuvant treatment of the clinical conditions presented in this study. This can be extended to the general population. However, an investigation through clinical studies is needed to prove applicability in humans.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Alimento Funcional , Transtornos Nutricionais/terapia , Terapia Nutricional/métodos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Avena , Linho , Humanos , Moringa oleifera , Soja
7.
Food Res Int ; 147: 110488, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399484

RESUMO

Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) is of interest as functional food because of the presence of compounds in its composition with potential health benefits, such as fatty acid omega-3, fiber, lignans and flavonoids. The bioactivity of lignans and flavonoids depends greatly on bacterial metabolism. Previously, lactobacilli and bifidobacteria strains were described to produce enterolignans and bioactive flavonoids (herbacetin, quercetin, quercetagetin, kaempferol, naringenin and eriodictyol) from flaxseed extracts and/or from secoisolariciresinol (SECO) in culture medium. In this work, cow's milk and soy beverage were supplemented with flaxseed extracts and fermented with selected lactobacilli and bifidobacteria strains. Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus INIA P224, Limosilactobacillus mucosae INIA P508 and Lactiplantibacillus plantarum ESI 144 were capable of producing enterolactone (ENL) in both beverages supplemented with flaxseed, in addition to matairesinol and the flavonoids daidzein, genistein, glycitein, quercetin, naringenin, kaempferol and eriodictyol. On the other hand, Bifidobacterium breve INIA P367, Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum INIA P815 and Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum INIA P946 were able to produce quercetin, quercetagetin and high concentrations of herbacetin and SECO, in addition to pinoresinol, matairesinol, daidzein, genistein, naringenin, kaempferol and eriodictyol. The co-incubation of Lacticaseibacillus paracasei INIA P74 and Ligilactobacillus salivarius INIA P183 with Lactococcus lactis MG1363 harboring the food grade vector pLEB590.gly913, facilitated the production of ENL in soy beverage enriched with flaxseed. In this work, it is demonstrated how lactobacilli and bifidobacteria strains can improve the nutritional properties of flaxseed-enriched beverages, providing metabolites of great interest for human health.


Assuntos
Linho , Lignanas , Animais , Bebidas , Bifidobacterium , Bovinos , Flavonoides , Humanos , Lactobacillus , Lignanas/análise
8.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444919

RESUMO

Flaxseed is an oilseed (45-50% oil on a dry-weight basis) crop. Its oil has demonstrated multiple health benefits and industrial applications. The goal of this research was to evaluate the antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory potential of the free polyphenol fraction of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seeds (PLU), based on their use in traditional medicine. Mice with alloxan-induced diabetes were used to study the antidiabetic activity of PLU in vivo, with an oral administration of 25 and 50 mg/kg over 28 days. Measurements of body weight and fasting blood glucose (FBG) were carried out weekly, and biochemical parameters were evaluated. An oral glucose tolerance test was also performed. Inhibitory activities of PLU on α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities were evaluated in vitro. The anti-inflammatory was evaluated in vivo in Wistar rats using the paw edema induction Test by carrageenan, and in vitro using the hemolysis ratio test. PLU administration to diabetic mice during the study period improved their body weight and FBG levels remarkably. In vitro inhibitory activity of digestive enzymes indicated that they may be involved in the proposed mode of action of PLU extract. Qualitative results of PLU revealed the presence of 18 polyphenols. These findings support daily consumption of flaxseed for people with diabetes, and suggest that polyphenols in flaxseed may serve as dietary supplements or novel phytomedicines to treat diabetes and its complications.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/terapia , Linho/química , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sementes/química , Animais , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Camundongos , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
9.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361665

RESUMO

In vitro cultures of scarlet flax (Linum grandiflorum L.), an important ornamental flax, have been established as a new possible valuable resource of lignans and neolignans for antioxidant and anti-inflammatory applications. The callogenic potential at different concentrations of α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and thidiazuron (TDZ), alone or in combinations, was evaluated using both L. grandiflorum hypocotyl and cotyledon explants. A higher callus induction frequency was observed on NAA than TDZ, especially for hypocotyl explants, with a maximum frequency (i.e., 95.2%) on 1.0 mg/L of NAA. The presence of NAA (1.0 mg/L) in conjunction with TDZ tended to increase the frequency of callogenesis relative to TDZ alone, but never reached the values observed with NAA alone, thereby indicating the lack of synergy between these two plant growth regulators (PGRs). Similarly, in terms of biomass, NAA was more effective than TDZ, with a maximum accumulation of biomass registered for medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/L of NAA using hypocotyls as initial explants (DW: 13.1 g). However, for biomass, a synergy between the two PGRs was observed, particularly for cotyledon-derived explants and for the lowest concentrations of TDZ. The influence of these two PGRs on callogenesis and biomass is discussed. The HPLC analysis confirmed the presence of lignans (secoisolariciresinol (SECO) and lariciresinol (LARI) and neolignan (dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol [DCA]) naturally accumulated in their glycoside forms. Furthermore, the antioxidant activities performed for both hypocotyl- and cotyledon-derived cultures were also found maximal (DPPH: 89.5%, FRAP 866: µM TEAC, ABTS: 456 µM TEAC) in hypocotyl-derived callus cultures as compared with callus obtained from cotyledon explants. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory activities revealed high inhibition (COX-1: 47.4% and COX-2: 51.1%) for extract of hypocotyl-derived callus cultures at 2.5 mg/L TDZ. The anti-inflammatory action against COX-1 and COX-2 was supported by the IC50 values. This report provides a viable approach for enhanced biomass accumulation and efficient production of (neo)lignans in L. grandiflorum callus cultures.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Butileno Glicóis/análise , Cotilédone/química , Linho/química , Furanos/análise , Hipocótilo/química , Lignanas/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Biomassa , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Cotilédone/metabolismo , Meios de Cultura/química , Técnicas de Cultura/métodos , Linho/metabolismo , Hipocótilo/metabolismo , Ácidos Naftalenoacéticos/farmacologia , Fenóis/análise , Compostos de Fenilureia/farmacologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Tiadiazóis/farmacologia
10.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(suppl 3): e20190443, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378632

RESUMO

This study evaluated the presence of polyunsaturated fatty acids in circulating blood and in the ovarian follicular fluid of mares, after supplementation of the diet with linseed oil. Six Mangalarga Marchador mares, weighing 397.00±31.89 kg, were kept on native pasture, and assigned to the current study. In a switch over design, mares were randomly allocated to receive 150 ml of vegetable oil daily, containing polyunsaturated fatty acids n3 (62.23 g ALA, 20.34 g LA, 2.27 g EPA, 2.32 g DHA), (n=3) or no supplementation (n=3) in two replicates. Blood and follicular fluid samples were taken on the first day (D0) and every 30 days until the end of the supplementation period (D60). After 60 days of supplementation, mares were switched across the treatments. Plasma concentrations of linolenic acid in total fatty acids were higher (P=0.006) in the supplemented compared to the control group (1.89±0.13 vs. 1.49±0.13%). There were positive correlations between plasma linoleic acid and follicular fluid arachidonic acid (P=0.0106; r2=0.13) and between plasma alpha linolenic acid and follicular fluid EPA (P=0.0004; r2=0.2544). Data indicated a low to moderate relationship between the dietary linseed-based oil supplementation studied and circulating and follicular fluid polyunsaturated fatty acids contents in mares.


Assuntos
Linho , Óleo de Semente do Linho , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Ácidos Graxos , Feminino , Óleos de Peixe , Líquido Folicular , Cavalos
11.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e245807, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378664

RESUMO

Linum usitatissimum L is a widely used traditionally for multiple ailments. The present research was carried out to explore the antimicrobial, and anti-biofilm activity of crude extract of Linum usitatissimum L (Lu. Cr). Phytochemical and proximate analyses were performed. The bandages of diabetic foot patients were collected from the various hospitals. The bandages were cultured to isolate the bacterial strains present on it. The disc diffusion method was used to identify the antimicrobial potential whereas the minimum inhibitory concentration of the Lu.Cr were also determined. Proximate analysis confirms moisture content 8.33%, ash content 4.33%, crude protein 21.20%, crude fat 49.2% and crude fiber 5.63%. It was revealed that Gram-positive bacteria are most prevalent among all study groups. Lu.Cr possess significant bactericidal potential against S. aureus among all other microbes. Owing to this potential, linseed coated bandages can be used alternatively for the treatment of diabetic foot.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Pé Diabético , Linho , Biofilmes , Pé Diabético/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Metanol , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus
12.
Molecules ; 26(14)2021 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299474

RESUMO

Lignocellulosic fibers extracted from plants are considered an interesting raw material for environmentally friendly products with multiple applications. This work investigated the feasibility of using hemp- and flax-based materials in the form of felts as biosorbents for the removal of metals present in aqueous solutions. Biosorption of Al, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn from a single solution by the two lignocellulosic-based felts was examined using a batch mode. The parameters studied were initial metal concentration, adsorbent dosage, contact time, and pH. In controlled conditions, the results showed that: (i) the flax-based felt had higher biosorption capacities with respect to the metals studied than the hemp-based felt; (ii) the highest removal efficiency was always obtained for Cu ions, and the following order of Cu > Cd > Zn > Ni > Co > Al > Mn was found for both examined biosorbents; (iii) the process was rapid and 10 min were sufficient to attain the equilibrium; (iv) the efficiency improved with the increase of the adsorbent dosage; and (v) the biosorption capacities were independent of pH between 4 and 6. Based on the obtained results, it can be considered that plant-based felts are new, efficient materials for metal removal.


Assuntos
Cannabis/química , Linho/química , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/isolamento & purificação , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/isolamento & purificação , Purificação da Água/métodos , Adsorção , Lignina/química , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
13.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 4579-4596, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34267514

RESUMO

Introduction: The aim of current study was to prepare Linum usitatissimum mucilage (LUM) based nanoparticles, capable of encapsulating hydrophobic drug ezetimibe as nanocarriers. Methods: Solvent evaporation and nanoprecipitation techniques were used to develop nanoparticles by encapsulating ezetimibe in the articulated matrix of polysaccharide fractions. Developed nanoparticles were characterized to determine the particle size, zeta potential, polydispersibility index (PDI), and entrapment efficiency (EE). Morphology and physicochemical characterization were carried out through SEM, FTIR, PXRD and thermal analysis. Saturation solubility and in vitro release studies were also performed. Safety assessment of ezetimibe loaded nanoparticles was evaluated via oral acute toxicity study. Results: The mean particle size, zeta potential, PDI and EE for emulsion solvent evaporation were 683.6 nm, -28.3 mV, 0.39, 63.7% and for nanoprecipitation were 637.7 nm, 0.07, -27.1 mV and 80%, respectively. Thermal analysis confirmed enhanced thermal stability, whereas PXRD confirmed amorphous nature of drug. Saturation solubility (p-value <0.05) demonstrated improved solubility of drug when enclosed in linseed nanoparticles. Nanoprecipitation surpasses emulsion solvent evaporation in dissolution test by possessing smaller size. Acute oral toxicity study indicated no significant changes in behavioral, clinical or histopathological parameters of control and experimental groups. Conclusion: The in vitro release of ezetimibe was augmented by enhancing aqueous solubility through devised nanoparticles. Thus, linseed mucilage could act as biopolymer in the fabrication of nanoparticle formulation. The acute oral toxicological investigations provided evidence that LUMNs were safe after oral administration.


Assuntos
Portadores de Fármacos/química , Ezetimiba/química , Linho/química , Nanopartículas/química , Mucilagem Vegetal/química , Administração Oral , Ezetimiba/administração & dosagem , Tamanho da Partícula , Solubilidade
14.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205177

RESUMO

Fibrous Ti/Ce oxide photocatalysts were prepared for the first time by a biomimetic solution process using short flax fibers (flax straw processing waste) as a biotemplate. Titanium polyhydroxy complex solutions with 3% and 5% cerium were used as precursors. Flax fibers were impregnated in an autoclave under hydrothermal conditions. Ti/Ce oxides were obtained from the biotemplate by annealing at 600 °C. The photocatalytic activity of the Ti/Ce oxides was studied by the adsorption and decomposition of the dye rhodamine B under UV irradiation. The photocatalytic decomposition of the dye was 50% and 75% faster for Ti/Ce oxides with 3% and 5% Ce, respectively, than for the analogous undoped fibrous TiO2. The morphologies, textures, and structures of the photocatalysts were studied by scanning electron microscopy, low temperature N2 adsorption/desorption, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and X-ray and XPS analytical methods. It was shown that the introduction of Ce into the precursor solution increased the surface irregularity of the Ti/Ce oxide crystallites compared to pure TiO2. This effect scaled with the Ce concentration. Ce improved the UV light absorption of the material. The Ti/Ce oxides contained Ce4+/Ce3+ pairs that played an important role in redox processes and intensified the photocatalytic activity.


Assuntos
Cério/química , Linho/química , Rodaminas/análise , Titânio/química , Adsorção , Catálise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Fotoquímica , Espectroscopia Fotoeletrônica
15.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(10): e14592, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34227198

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Flaxseed may be beneficial for the management of obesity due to its high content of alpha-linolenic acid, fibre, and lignans. OBJECTIVE: We aim to evaluate the effect of flaxseed consumption on serum lipids, adiponectin, leptin, and anthropometric indices in overweight or obese women. METHODS: This randomised controlled clinical trial involved 60 overweight or obese women. Participants were randomly allocated into two groups: (a) a balanced diet plus 30 g/day milled flaxseed (as treatment group) and (b) a balanced diet plus 30 g/day milled rice (as control group). Anthropometric indices, serum lipids, leptin, and adiponectin level were measured at baseline and at the end of intervention after 12 weeks. RESULTS: After 12 weeks of intervention, there was significantly higher reduction rate in waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (both P < .05) in the flaxseed-consuming group compared with the control group. Moreover, adiponectin level was significantly increased from (12.11 ± 7.1) to (17.15 ± 6.1) in the flaxseed-consuming group compared with the control group from (12.48 ± 4.7) to (12.01 ± 5.8) (P = .002). However, no significant difference was observed in serum lipid level in the study groups before and after the intervention (all P > .05). CONCLUSION: Flaxseed consumption may improve adiposity markers, such as adiponectin level. Thus, flaxseed consumption could be an adjunctive therapy to attenuate central obesity. Serum lipid profile has not changed meaningfully after flaxseed consumption.


Assuntos
Linho , Obesidade Abdominal , Adiponectina , Humanos , Lipídeos , Obesidade , Sobrepeso
16.
Poult Sci ; 100(9): 101299, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34271229

RESUMO

Choline is an essential nutrient in laying hen diets and is needed for the formation of phosphatidylcholine (PC), that serves as a rich source of long chain (≥20 C) n-3 fatty acids (FA) in eggs. Methionine (Met) is the first limiting amino acid in layer hen diets and serves as a lipotropic agent with antioxidant properties. The objectives of the current study is based on the hypothesis that choline and Met supplementation will enhance egg PC and n-3 FA status, lipid stability, and production indices in layer hens fed flaxseed. Ninety-six, 40-wk-old laying hens (W-36 White Leghorns) were randomly allocated to 4 treatment groups, with 6 replicates containing four hens per cage. Hens were fed corn-soybean meal-based diet containing 0% flaxseed (Control), 15/100 g flaxseed (Flax), Flax+50% more methionine requirement for W-36 White Leghorns (Flax+Met), or Flax+0.15g/100g choline chloride (Cho) (Flax+Cho). All experimental diets were isocaloric and isonitrogenous and fed for a period of 120 d. Egg production and egg mass (g/hen/d) was higher for Flax+Met and Flax+Cho when compared to Flax and Control (P < 0.05). Egg weight was greater (P < 0.05) among hens fed the Control and Flax+Cho diets compared to Flax diet. Feeding flaxseed to hens led to over 6-fold increase in total n-3 FA. Choline supplementation increased egg α-tocopherol content (P < 0.05) while reducing lipid oxidation products measured as thiobarituric acid reactive substances in egg yolk (P < 0.05). Neither Met nor Cho had any impact on docosahexaenoic (22:6 n-3) acid concentration in eggs from hens fed flaxseed. However, addition of Met and Cho to layer diets increased docosapentaenoic acid (22:5 n-3) levels in eggs from hens fed flaxseed (P < 0.05). The PC content was lower in Control and Flax+Met (P < 0.05) when compared to Flax+Cho group. No difference was found in total lipid or phosphatidylethanolamine content of eggs (P > 0.05). The results from the current study suggest that n-3 FA content of egg yolk can be greatly increased by feeding flaxseed but reduced egg production. However, dietary Met and Cho can improve production performance in hens fed flaxseed-containing diets. Addition of Cho to flaxseed increased in egg weight, yolk α-tocopherol levels, PC content and oxidative stability of eggs when compared to hens fed flaxseed. Met and choline could be used in flaxseed (>15%) to increase egg production and egg mas.


Assuntos
Linho , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas , Colina , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Gema de Ovo , Ovos , Ácidos Graxos , Metionina , Estresse Oxidativo , Tocoferóis
17.
Poult Sci ; 100(8): 101276, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34229219

RESUMO

The present study investigated the effect of dietary soluble flaxseed oil (SFO), as a source of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, on the fatty acid composition of egg yolk and various indices including laying performance, egg quality, nutrient composition of eggs, egg stability upon storage, and serum characteristics in laying hens. A total of 210 52-week-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens were assigned to one of 5 experimental diets. A corn-soybean meal-based control diet was mixed without or with SFO to reach the concentrations of 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8% in diets and fed for 4 wk. Dietary SFO did not affect laying performance and egg quality. Increasing dietary SFO linearly increased the pH of yolk at 7, 14, and 28 d following storage at room temperature (P < 0.05). Malondialdehyde contents in egg yolks were quadratically increased (P < 0.05) at 0, 7, and 21 d following storage as the inclusion levels of SFO increased in diets. A significant increase (P < 0.05) in total omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and docosahexaenoic acid, but not α-linolenic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, was deposited in egg yolks at 2 and 4 wk following the SFO feeding. Finally, dietary SFO did not affect serum parameters such as total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and nitric oxide. It is concluded that adding SFO into the diets of laying hens can be an efficient strategy to enrich the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, including docosahexaenoic acid in eggs.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3 , Linho , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Gema de Ovo , Ácidos Graxos , Feminino , Óvulo
18.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 76(3): 292-296, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34169469

RESUMO

Obesity is known to be partially influenced by low-grade inflammation caused by pro-inflammatory cytokines and excess adipose tissue. Flaxseed contains secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) and α-linolenic acid (ALA) that have been shown to prevent pro-inflammatory cytokine production and secretion. This study determined flaxseed effects on inflammation regulatory gene expressions and their relationships with weight gain in an obese animal model. C57BL/6J mice were fed with whole flaxseed, defatted flaxseed, or flaxseed oil supplemented high-fat diet for eight weeks. After eight weeks of dietary treatment, NF-κB, IκBα, IKKß, IL-6, TNF-α, Akt2, and adiponectin gene expressions were measured. The result shows how health-promoting compounds in flaxseed assist in alleviating and preventing obesity-induced low-grade inflammation by actively working against IKKß/NF-κB pathway.


Assuntos
Linho , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Expressão Gênica , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade/genética
19.
Poult Sci ; 100(7): 101118, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077850

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of inclusion of micronized full-fat camelina, flax, or sunflower seeds in the diet for broiler chickens on the performance productivity, nutrient utilization, and composition of intestinal microbial populations and to assess the possibility of modification of the resistance of isolated bacteria to chemotherapeutic agents with different mechanisms of action. The use of micronized oilseeds improved the broiler chicken body weight (P = 0.035) and the FCR value (P = 0.045) in the final rearing stage by enhancement of the utilization of total protein and organic matter. Lactobacillus-Enterococcus spp., Bifidobacterium spp., Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp. were isolated from small intestinal contents, and Enterobacteriaceae taxa were detected in the cecum and cloaca of the broiler chickens. The addition of micronized camelina seeds (CAM.IR) contributed to an increase in the Bifidobacterium counts in the small intestine, compared with the control treatment (P < 0.050). Escherichia coli bacteria were not isolated only in the CAM.IR treatment. Nitrofurantoin and chloramphenicol were the most effective agents against the isolates from the cecum and cloaca in all oilseed treatments, whereas streptomycin exhibited the lowest efficacy. In the CAM.IR and micronized sunflower seed (SUN.IR) treatments, there were higher counts of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole-resistant Enterobacteriaceae strains than in the control and micronized flax seed (FLA.IR) treatments (P < 0.05). There was a difference between strains isolated from the cecum and cloaca only in the FLA.IR treatment, i.e., increased tetracycline sensitivity was exhibited by strains isolated from the cloaca (13% vs. 50%), also in comparison with the control treatments (P = 0.054). In comparison with the CAM.IR and control treatments, reduced numbers of multi-resistant strains were found in the cloaca isolates from the for FLA.IR and SUN.IR variants. Micronized camelina, flax, and sunflower seeds can be used as part of an effective nutritional strategy focused on optimization of the efficiency of rearing broiler chickens, as they positively modify intestinal microbial populations and increase bacterial sensitivity to the analyzed chemotherapeutic agents.


Assuntos
Linho , Helianthus , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Galinhas , Dieta , Nutrientes , Sementes
20.
J Biotechnol ; 337: 80-89, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34111457

RESUMO

Crop plants have an innate capacity to acclimatize and survive myriad stresses in field conditions. This acclimatization to stress enhances crop stand in field and productivity of plant. Inter alia field crops withstand drought stress (hydropenia) by inducing synthesis or accumulation of osmolytes such as (i) proline and other amino acids, (ii) glycine betaine (GB), (iii) soluble carbohydrates, and (iv) reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging system as intrinsic drought antagonizing molecules. Precise in vivo induction of osmolytes and their effect on ROS scavenging system in flax/linseed has not been elucidated. The investigation was carried out to identify a tolerant and susceptible cultivar of flax from a core collection of 53 core accessions and evaluate the role of compatible osmolytes in Linum usitatissimum under hydropenia. We screened eight morphometrically diverse flax genotypes in field under irrigated and un-irrigated condition and classified them as tolerant and susceptible genotypes. Further, we examined the effect of ex-foliar glycine betaine application - a signature molecule involved in drought tolerance, on selected tolerant and susceptible varieties. Our results showed stimulatory impact of glycine betaine on accumulation of ROS scavenging antioxidants, total soluble protein and on its own accumulation. While the ex-foliar application had no inhibitory effect on the growth of plants; accumulation of free proline, amino acids and carbohydrates are inhibited par se in flax. Our findings reveal, flax is a non-accumulator of glycine betaine and exogenous application of glycine betaine enhances its own levels during drought stress.


Assuntos
Secas , Linho , Betaína , Carboidratos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio
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