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1.
Food Chem ; 404(Pt A): 134607, 2023 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36272303

RESUMO

This research assessed the influence of pickling, fermentation, germination, and tea brewing on lignan content of a variety of food highly consumed in Malaysia. Lignans have been measured by a validated LC-MS/MS method. Secoisolariciresinol (SECO) was the most abundant compound in fermented and germinated samples. Pickling significantly decreased larisiresinol content by approximately 86 %. Fermentation increased lignan content in a mixture of flaxseed and mung beans (799.9 ± 67.4 mg/100 g DW) compared to the unfermented counterpart (501.4 ± 134.6 mg/100 g DW), whereas the fermentation of soybeans and mung beans did not significantly affect the SECO content. Germination increased lignan content, which reached its peak on day 6 of germination for all the tested matrixes. In tea brew, lignans concentration increased with brewing time reaching its highest concentration at 10 min of brewing. The results of this study expand the knowledge on the effect of processing on lignan content in food.


Assuntos
Fabaceae , Linho , Lignanas , Cromatografia Líquida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Lignanas/análise , Butileno Glicóis/análise , Chá
2.
Food Chem ; 403: 134320, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36162267

RESUMO

A novel film composed of Polygonatum cyrtonema extracts (PCE), xanthan gum (XG), flaxseed gum (FG) and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) was prepared (XFCP). Addition of PCE has decreased the light transmittance, while enhanced the UV blocking performance, antioxidant activity, tensile strength and elongation at break of XFCP due to polysaccharides, polyphenols, and flavonoid in PCE. Structural analyses by FTIR and XRD indicated the hydrogen-bonding interaction between PCE, XG, FG and CMC. It was found that compared with the control sample, XFCP2.5% with the lowest WVTR was able to prolong the shelf life of mango. The overall quality of mango was also improved in terms of lower decay rate, weight loss rate, total soluble solid, and polyphenol oxidase, higher titratable acidity, Vc, and superoxide dismutase than control mango upon 8 days of storage. This effectively expanded the application of PCE into food packaging in addition to merely as Chinese traditional medicine herbs.


Assuntos
Linho , Mangifera , Polygonatum , Carboximetilcelulose Sódica/química , Antioxidantes/química , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/química , Embalagem de Alimentos , Extratos Vegetais
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245807, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285613

RESUMO

Abstract Linum usitatissimum L is a widely used traditionally for multiple ailments. The present research was carried out to explore the antimicrobial, and anti-biofilm activity of crude extract of Linum usitatissimum L (Lu. Cr). Phytochemical and proximate analyses were performed. The bandages of diabetic foot patients were collected from the various hospitals. The bandages were cultured to isolate the bacterial strains present on it. The disc diffusion method was used to identify the antimicrobial potential whereas the minimum inhibitory concentration of the Lu.Cr were also determined. Proximate analysis confirms moisture content 8.33%, ash content 4.33%, crude protein 21.20%, crude fat 49.2% and crude fiber 5.63%. It was revealed that Gram-positive bacteria are most prevalent among all study groups. Lu.Cr possess significant bactericidal potential against S. aureus among all other microbes. Owing to this potential, linseed coated bandages can be used alternatively for the treatment of diabetic foot.


Resumo Linum usitatissimum L é amplamente utilizado tradicionalmente para doenças múltiplas. O presente trabalho foi realizado para explorar a atividade antimicrobiana e antibiofilme do extrato bruto de Linum usitatissimum L (Lu.Cr). Foram realizadas análises fitoquímicas e aproximadas. As ataduras de pacientes diabéticos com pé foram recolhidas nos vários hospitais. As bandagens foram cultivadas para isolar as cepas bacterianas presentes nas mesmas. O método de difusão em disco foi utilizado para identificar o potencial antimicrobiano e a concentração inibitória mínima do Lu.Cr também foi determinada. A análise aproximada confirma o teor de umidade 8,33%, teor de cinzas 4,33%, proteína bruta 21,20%, gordura bruta 49,2% e fibra bruta 5,63%. Foi revelado que as bactérias Gram-positivas são mais prevalentes entre todos os grupos de estudo. Lu.Cr possui potencial bactericida significativo contra S. aureus entre todos os outros micróbios. Devido a esse potencial, as ligaduras revestidas com linhaça podem ser utilizadas alternativamente para o tratamento do pé diabético.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pé Diabético/tratamento farmacológico , Linho , Diabetes Mellitus , Staphylococcus aureus , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Biofilmes , Metanol
4.
Food Chem ; 404(Pt A): 134579, 2023 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36244064

RESUMO

Roasting flaxseed significantly improves the antioxidant activities and flavor of its oil; however, the effect of roasting on phospholipid molecules in flaxseed oil is limited. Herein, on the basis of phospholipidomics and quantum chemistry calculation, phospholipidome in raw, light, and dark roasted flaxseed oils and their changes were systematically explored and compared. Seventy individual phospholipid molecules were detected in raw and roasted flaxseed oils. After light roasting, major classes of phospholipid molecules including phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, and phosphatidylinositol increased 11.43-, 36.62-, and 67.88-fold, respectively. PE exhibited 92.06 % reduction after dark roasting. The model reaction showed that the main reaction of PE was the Maillard reaction during roasting. Quantum chemistry calculation demonstrated that the reaction energy barriers of the Maillard reaction (96.81 kJ/mol) was much lower than the hydrolysis (188.84 kJ/mol) for PE. The study is expected to provide new insight into the change mechanism of PE during flaxseed processing.


Assuntos
Linho , Óleo de Semente do Linho , Óleo de Semente do Linho/análise , Fosfolipídeos/análise , Sementes/química , Reação de Maillard
5.
Food Chem ; 403: 134441, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36358077

RESUMO

Flaxseed is categorized as a functional food due to its abundance in oil, α-linolenic acid, dietary fibre, and lignan. However, flaxseed contains cyanogenic glycosides (CGs). Ingestion of CGs can influence nutrient absorption and induce adverse health effects. Due to the presence of CGs in flaxseed many countries prohibit the import and sale of flaxseed and flaxseed-based foods. In this study, whole flaxseed was fermented with a mixed culture of Lactobacillaceae (i.e., Lactobacillus sp., Limosilactobacillus sp., and Lactiplantibacillus sp.) and the concentration of CGs was determined. This process succeeded in completely removing CGs within 72 h in both bench-scale and scale-up studies. In addition, fatty acid composition in flaxseed remained unchanged and concentrations of flaxseed oil, and SDG in flaxseed were increased after fermentation. CG-free flaxseed products are beneficial, as they can be sold as health product ingredients, or as animal feed in markets that currently restrict the use of materials that contain CGs.


Assuntos
Linho , Animais , Fermentação , Lactobacillaceae , Glicosídeos
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36362031

RESUMO

High-quality genome sequences help to elucidate the genetic basis of numerous biological processes and track species evolution. For flax (Linum usitatissimum L.)-a multifunctional crop, high-quality assemblies from Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT) data were unavailable, largely due to the difficulty of isolating pure high-molecular-weight DNA. This article proposes a scheme for gaining a contiguous L. usitatissimum assembly using Nanopore data. We developed a protocol for flax nuclei isolation with subsequent DNA extraction, which allows obtaining about 5 µg of pure high-molecular-weight DNA from 0.5 g of leaves. Such an amount of material can be collected even from a single plant and yields more than 30 Gb of ONT data in two MinION runs. We performed a comparative analysis of different genome assemblers and polishers on the gained data and obtained the final 447.1-Mb assembly of L. usitatissimum line 3896 genome using the Canu-Racon (two iterations)-Medaka combination. The genome comprised 1695 contigs and had an N50 of 6.2 Mb and a completeness of 93.8% of BUSCOs from eudicots_odb10. Our study highlights the impact of the chosen genome construction strategy on the resulting assembly parameters and its eligibility for future genomic studies.


Assuntos
Linho , Nanoporos , Linho/genética , Genoma de Planta , Genômica , DNA
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 70(46): 14600-14612, 2022 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36355404

RESUMO

Linusorbs (LOs) and peptides from flaxseed protein have documented biological activity, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition, antioxidant, anticancer, and immunosuppressive activities, but their mechanism and structure-related bioactivity have not been summarized previously. Therefore, this study reviews the structure, composition, bioavailability, and health benefits of flaxseed peptides and LOs as well as peptide generation and LO modification. However, these peptides and LOs are long linear and cyclic structures, which affect the absorption and bioavailability of these substances in living beings and, thus, impair their overall efficiency and pharmacological effectiveness. Therefore, the development of novel strategies for optimizing the bioavailability of these peptide compounds is critical to ensure their successful application and delivery to the target sites via specially designed methods that will significantly improve their in vivo concentration and also investigate the structure-related activity of distinct amino acid and functional groups in physiological activity. Additionally, these native peptides and their analogues can be used as scaffolds for the production of antibodies.


Assuntos
Linho , Linho/química , Proteômica , Peptídeos Cíclicos/farmacologia , Peptídeos Cíclicos/química , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química
8.
Zhongguo Gu Shang ; 35(11): 1087-94, 2022 Nov 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36415197

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of different concentrations of linolenin on inhibiting apoptosis of chondrocytes in the growth plate, and to screen the optimal concentration of linolenin, so as to provide theoretical support for delaying epiphyseal closure and promoting long bone growth in rats. METHODS: Two 4-week-old male SD rats (SPF grade) with a body mass of 80 g were selected. The growth plate cartilage of rat tibia and femur was dissected and isolated in vitro to obtain growth plate chondrocytes for culture. The chondrocytes were observed and identified by inverted phase contrast microscope and typeⅡ collagen immunofluorescence test, and then 20 ng/ml IL-1ß was used to induce apoptosis of growth plate chondrocytes as model group, and added with 1, 10, 20, 40 µM linolenin as the experimental group, and 5 µM letrozole as the positive control group. The cells were cultured for 24 and 48 hours respectively. The drug promoted cell proliferation was observed by MTT method, and the drug inhibited cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry. RESULTS: Contents 1, 10, 20, 40 µM could promote cell proliferation in varying degrees, and the principle was that the drug inhibits IL-1ß induced chondrocyte apoptosis in the growth plate, and the optimal concentration of drugs to inhibit apoptosis was 20 µM. CONCLUSION: The appropriate concentration of linseed lignans can significantly inhibit the apoptosis of chondrocytes in the growth plate of rats, and the optimal drug concentration is 20 µM. It provides possibility for delayed bone closure and longer growth time to promote bone growth during development.


Assuntos
Linho , Lignanas , Masculino , Ratos , Animais , Lâmina de Crescimento , Condrócitos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Apoptose , Lignanas/farmacologia
9.
Front Immunol ; 13: 882455, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36238310

RESUMO

Omega-3 fatty acids support cardiometabolic health and reduce chronic low-grade inflammation. These fatty acids may impart their health benefits partly by modulating the endocannabinoidome and the gut microbiome, both of which are key regulators of metabolism and the inflammatory response. Whole hemp seeds (Cannabis sativa) are of exceptional nutritional value, being rich in omega-3 fatty acids. We assessed the effects of dietary substitution (equivalent to about 2 tablespoons of seeds a day for humans) of whole hemp seeds in comparison with whole linseeds in a diet-induced obesity mouse model and determined their effects on obesity and the gut microbiome-endocannabinoidome axis. We show that whole hemp seed substitution did not affect weigh gain, adiposity, or food intake, whereas linseed substitution did, in association with higher fasting glucose levels, greater insulin release during an oral glucose tolerance test, and higher levels of liver triglycerides than controls. Furthermore, hemp seed substitution mitigated diet-induced obesity-associated increases in intestinal permeability and circulating PAI-1 levels, while having no effects on markers of inflammation in epididymal adipose tissue, which were, however, increased in mice fed linseeds. Both hemp seeds and linseeds were able to modify the expression of several endocannabinoidome genes and markedly increased the levels of several omega-3 fatty acid-derived endocannabinoidome bioactive lipids with previously suggested anti-inflammatory actions in a tissue specific manner, despite the relatively low level of seed substitution. While neither diet markedly modified the gut microbiome, mice on the hemp seed diet had higher abundance of Clostridiaceae 1 and Rikenellaceae than mice fed linseed or control diet, respectively. Thus, hemp seed-containing foods might represent a source of healthy fats that are not likely to exacerbate the metabolic consequences of obesogenic diets while producing intestinal permeability protective effects and some anti-inflammatory actions.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3 , Linho , Insulinas , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos , Linho/metabolismo , Glucose , Humanos , Inflamação , Camundongos , Obesidade/metabolismo , Inibidor 1 de Ativador de Plasminogênio , Sementes/metabolismo , Sacarose , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
10.
Ultrason Sonochem ; 90: 106197, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36242791

RESUMO

This paper proposes the use of modified biochar, derived from Sawdust (SD) biomass using sonication (SSDB) and Ozonation (OSDB) processes, as an additive for biogas production from green algae Cheatomorpha linum (C. linum) either individually or co-digested with natural diet for rotifer culture (S. parkel). Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR), thermal-gravimetric (TGA), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were used to characterize the generated biochar. Ultrasound (US) specific energy, dose, intensity and dissolved ozone (O3) concentration were also calculated. FTIR analyses proved the capability of US and ozonation treatment of biochar to enhance the biogas production process. The kinetic model proposed fits successfully with the data of the experimental work and the modified Gompertz models that had the maximum R2 value of 0.993 for 150 mg/L of OSDB. The results of this work confirmed the significant impact of US and ozonation processes on the use of biochar as an additive in biogas production. The highest biogas outputs 1059 mL/g VS and 1054 mL/g VS) were achieved when 50 mg of SSDB and 150 mg of OSDB were added to C. linum co-digested with S. parkle.


Assuntos
Clorófitas , Linho , Ozônio , Biocombustíveis , Carvão Vegetal , Anaerobiose
11.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(10)2022 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36292789

RESUMO

Soil salinity constrains agricultural development in arid regions. Flax is an economically important crop in many countries, and screening or breeding salinity-resistant flax cultivars is necessary. Based on the previous screening of flaxseed cultivars C71 (salt-sensitive) and C116 (salt-tolerant) as test materials, flax seedlings stressed with different concentrations of NaCl (0, 100, 150, 200, and 250 mmol/L) for 21 days were used to investigate the effects of salt stress on the growth characteristics, osmotic regulators, and antioxidant capacity of these flax seedlings and to reveal the adaptive responses of flax seedlings to salt stress. The results showed that plant height and root length of flax were inhibited, with C116 showing lower growth than C71. The concentrations of osmotic adjustment substances such as soluble sugars, soluble proteins, and proline were higher in the resistant material, C116, than in the sensitive material, C71, under different concentrations of salt stress. Consistently, C116 showed a better rapid scavenging ability for reactive oxygen species (ROS) and maintained higher activities of antioxidant enzymes to balance salt injury stress by inhibiting growth under salt stress. A transcriptome analysis of flax revealed that genes related to defense and senescence were significantly upregulated, and genes related to the growth and development processes were significantly downregulated under salt stress. Our results indicated that one of the important adaptations to tolerance to high salt stress is complex physiological remediation by rapidly promoting transcriptional regulation in flax.


Assuntos
Linho , Linho/genética , Linho/metabolismo , Plântula , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/genética , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Estresse Salino , Solo , Prolina/metabolismo , Açúcares/metabolismo
12.
Food Microbiol ; 108: 104116, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36088121

RESUMO

Carvacrol is a natural antimicrobial with excellent antimicrobial properties against several foodborne pathogens. Encapsulation can increase carvacrol stability and solubility, and mask its pronounced odor. Mucilages have been studied as wall material for nanoparticles due to their high retention capacity of bioactive compounds and ease of chemical modifications to improve their stability. In this study, 1.67 mg/mL of carvacrol encapsulated into chia mucilage nanoparticles (CMNP) and flaxseed mucilage nanoparticles (FMNP) were produced by high-energy emulsification technique and tested against Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella. Encapsulation efficiency around 98% of carvacrol was obtained for both formulations. CMNP showed a diameter size of 179 nm and zeta potential of -11.4 mV. Bacterial Inactivation Concentration (BIC) of CMNP was 0.42 mg/mL against Salmonella and 0.83 mg/mL against L. monocytogenes. FMNP showed diameter size of 165.3 nm and zeta potential of -12.6 mV. BIC of FMNP was 0.83 mg/mL against both microorganisms. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that the nanoparticles are spherically shaped. Concentrations of BIC and ½ BIC were used to evaluate the kinetics of bacterial growth in the presence of antimicrobials (CMNP, FMNP and carvacrol solution). The results of this test showed that viable counts of Salmonella and L.monocytogenes were below the detection limit (1.69 log CFU/mL) after 2 h incubation (37 °C) using CMNP at the BIC. The wall material, rehydrated chia and flaxseed mucilages, reduced L. monocytogenes growth during 24 h. However, unloaded nanoparticles kept the viable counts of both microorganisms 2-5 log CFU/mL below the control curve of microbial growth during the 48 h experiment, suggesting that nanostructured mucilages potentiate antimicrobial properties. The results indicate that CMNP and FMNP have potential for use as food preservatives.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Linho , Listeria monocytogenes , Nanopartículas , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Cimenos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Polissacarídeos , Salmonella
13.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 14823, 2022 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36050344

RESUMO

The potential for climate change to exacerbate the burden of human infectious diseases is increasingly recognized, but its effects on infectious diseases of plants have received less attention. Understanding the impacts of climate on the epidemiological dynamics of plant pathogens is imperative, as these organisms play central roles in natural ecosystems and also pose a serious threat to agricultural production and food security. We use the fungal 'flax rust' pathogen (Melampsora lini) and its subalpine wildflower host Lewis flax (Linum lewisii) to investigate how climate change might affect the dynamics of fungal plant pathogen epidemics using a combination of empirical and modeling approaches. Our results suggest that climate change will initially slow transmission at both the within- and between-host scales. However, moderate resurgences in disease spread are predicted as warming progresses, especially if the rate of greenhouse gas emissions continues to increase at its current pace. These findings represent an important step towards building a holistic understanding of climate effects on plant infectious disease that encompasses demographic, epidemiological, and evolutionary processes. A core result is that neglecting processes at any one scale of plant pathogen transmission may bias projections of climate effects, as climate drivers have variable and cascading impacts on processes underlying transmission that occur at different scales.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Linho , Ecossistema , Linho/microbiologia , Humanos , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Plantas/microbiologia
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(18)2022 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36142392

RESUMO

In antiquity, flax was used as a dressing for healing wounds. Currently, work is underway on the genetic modification of flax fibers to improve their properties. Genetic modifications have resulted in an increased content of antioxidants and more favorable mechanical properties. The works published so far have presented independent tests of fibers and dressings after appropriate technological treatments in cell cultures. This study aimed to compare the properties of the fibers and the dressing produced in cell cultures-hamster fibroblasts-V79. The research material was traditional NIKE fibers; genetically modified M, B, and MB fibers; and linen dressings obtained from these fibers. The extract from 48-h incubation of 40 mg of fiber in the culture medium, which was desolved into 10, 20, and 30 mg, was administered to the cell culture. On the other hand, a linen dressing was placed on cells with an area of 0.5 cm2, 1 cm2, 1.5 cm2, and 2 cm2. Cells with fiber or dressing were incubated for 48 h, and then, biological tests were performed, including cell viability (in propidium iodide staining), cell proliferation (in the SRB assay), evaluation of the intracellular free radical level (in the DCF-DA assay), genotoxicity (in the comet assay), assessment of the apoptotic and necrotic cells (in staining anexin-V and iodide propidium), the course of the cell cycle, and the scratch test. The correlation between apoptosis and genotoxicity and the levels of free radicals and genotoxicity were determined for the tested linen fibers and fabrics. The tests presented that the fibers are characterized by the ability to eliminate damaged cells in the elimination phase. However, the obtained fabrics gain different properties during the technological processing of the fibers into linen dressings. Linen fabrics have better regenerative properties for cells than fibers. The linseed dressing made of MB fiber has the most favorable regenerative properties.


Assuntos
Linho , Iodetos , Animais , Bandagens , Roupas de Cama, Mesa e Banho , Cricetinae , Linho/genética , Iodetos/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Propídio
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(18)2022 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36142393

RESUMO

Flaxseeds are typically consumed either as whole flaxseed, ground flaxseed, flaxseed oil, partially defatted flaxseed meal, or as a milk alternative. They are considered a rich source of vitamins, minerals, proteins and peptides, lipids, carbohydrates, lignans, and dietary fiber, which have shown hypolipidemic, antiatherogenic, anticholesterolemic, and anti-inflammatory property activity. Here, an in vitro batch culture model was used to investigate the influence of whole milled flaxseed and partially defatted milled flaxseed press cake on the gut microbiota and the liberation of flaxseed bioactives. Microbial communities were profiled using 16S rRNA gene-based high-throughput sequencing with targeted mass spectrometry measuring lignan, cyclolinopeptide, and bile acid content and HPLC for short-chain fatty acid profiles. Flaxseed supplementation decreased gut microbiota richness with Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes becoming the predominant phyla. Secoisolariciresinol, enterodiol, and enterolactone were rapidly produced with acetic acid, butyric acid, and propionic acid being the predominant acids after 24 h of fermentation. The flaxseed press cake and whole flaxseed were equivalent in microbiota changes and functionality. However, press cake may be superior as a functional additive in a variety of foods in terms of consumer acceptance as it would be more resistant to oxidative changes.


Assuntos
Linho , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Lignanas , Anti-Inflamatórios , Ácidos e Sais Biliares , Ácido Butírico , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Linho/metabolismo , Humanos , Lignanas/química , Óleo de Semente do Linho , Metaboloma , Propionatos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/metabolismo , Vitaminas/análise
16.
Nutrients ; 14(18)2022 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36145115

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postprandial glycemic excursions are associated with impairment control of diabetes mellitus. Long-term consumption of flaxseed can lower blood glucose levels; however, its effects on the postprandial glycemic response remain unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the acute effects of raw flaxseed consumption on the 2 h postprandial glycemic curve in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: This was a randomized crossover clinical trial. Nineteen men with T2DM were randomly assigned a standardized breakfast without (control) or with a previous intake of 15 g of ground raw golden flaxseed (flax). Glycemia was measured at fasting and postprandial at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min. Palatability markers (visual appeal, smell, and pleasantness of taste) and taste intensity (sweetness, saltiness, bitterness, sourness, and creaminess) were evaluated. RESULTS: The peak glucose rise and the 2 h AUC glycemic response reduced in the flax group by 17% (p = 0.001) and 24% (p < 0.001), respectively. The glucose peak time, palatability, and taste parameters did not differ between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Ingestion of 15 g of ground raw golden flaxseed before breakfast decreases the 2 h postprandial glycemic response in men with T2DM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Linho , Glicemia , Estudos Cross-Over , Glucose , Índice Glicêmico , Humanos , Insulina , Masculino , Período Pós-Prandial
17.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr ; 31(3): 371-377, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36173209

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) have garnered scholarly attention for their roles in weight management and glycemic control. Flaxseed is a good source of fiber, lignans, and omega-3 fatty acids. This study evaluated healthy individuals' acute glycemic response and satiety following the consumption of flaxseed-enriched snack bars. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Nineteen healthy men and women consumed flaxseed bars or a glucose solution containing 50 g of available carbohydrates. Capillary blood glucose concentrations were obtained through the finger-prick test. The GI and GL values of the flaxseed bars were calculated using incremental area under the glucose response curve. Over 2 h, subjective satiety was examined at 0 (fasting), 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120min following the consumption of flaxseed bars or saltine crackers containing 300 kcal by using a visual analogue scale (VAS). RESULTS: Compared with that of the glucose solution, the glucose concentrations of the flaxseed bars (15-90 min) were significantly lower (p<0.001). The GI and GL values of the flaxseed bars were 30.0±23.0 and 2.3±0.2, respectively. Compared with saltine cracker consumption, flaxseed bars consumption resulted in lower hunger and higher satiety. The satiety index score of the flaxseed bars was 1.6 times higher than that of the saltine crackers. CONCLUSIONS: Although further studies are warranted to evaluate the long-term effects of flaxseed-enriched snacks on glycemia and energy balance, our findings suggest that the incorporation of flaxseed into snack bars is a viable strategy for the management of obesity and diabetes.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3 , Linho , Lignanas , Glicemia , Estudos Cross-Over , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/farmacologia , Feminino , Linho/metabolismo , Glucose , Índice Glicêmico/fisiologia , Humanos , Lignanas/farmacologia , Masculino , Lanches
18.
Food Funct ; 13(20): 10737-10747, 2022 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36178118

RESUMO

This research assessed the influence of fermentation and germination as well as of particle size on lignan bioaccessibility from flaxseed by simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. In vitro simulated colonic fermentation was used to study lignan release and its conversion into enterolignans. In addition, tea was included as a representative sample to investigate the stability of lignans in the gastrointestinal tract. Only secoisolariciresinol (SECO) was detected in flaxseed samples. SECO bioaccessibility in fermented flaxseed was highest among all matrices but limited to ≈1% (P < 0.001). Lignan bioaccessibility was significantly influenced by particle size too (P < 0.001 for both). In the colon, fermented flaxseed produced the highest SECO release among all flaxseed samples (≈65%), and the highest conversion of enterolignan (≈1.0%), whereas the conversion of lignans in tea brew was relatively high (≈15%). Lignan conversion varies greatly among donors due to inter-individual differences in microbiota activity. Food fermentation could be a viable strategy for increasing lignan release and conversion to enterolignan.


Assuntos
Linho , Lignanas , Butileno Glicóis , Colo/química , Fermentação , Trato Gastrointestinal/química , Lignanas/análise , Chá
19.
Curr Biol ; 32(20): 4360-4371.e6, 2022 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36087578

RESUMO

Supergenes govern multi-trait-balanced polymorphisms in a wide range of systems; however, our understanding of their origins and evolution remains incomplete. The reciprocal placement of stigmas and anthers in pin and thrum floral morphs of distylous species constitutes an iconic example of a balanced polymorphism governed by a supergene, the distyly S-locus. Recent studies have shown that the Primula and Turnera distyly supergenes are both hemizygous in thrums, but it remains unknown whether hemizygosity is pervasive among distyly S-loci. As hemizygosity has major consequences for supergene evolution and loss, clarifying whether this genetic architecture is shared among distylous species is critical. Here, we have characterized the genetic architecture and evolution of the distyly supergene in Linum by generating a chromosome-level genome assembly of Linum tenue, followed by the identification of the S-locus using population genomic data. We show that hemizygosity and thrum-specific expression of S-linked genes, including a pistil-expressed candidate gene for style length, are major features of the Linum S-locus. Structural variation is likely instrumental for recombination suppression, and although the non-recombining dominant haplotype has accumulated transposable elements, S-linked genes are not under relaxed purifying selection. Our findings reveal remarkable convergence in the genetic architecture and evolution of independently derived distyly supergenes, provide a counterexample to classic inversion-based supergenes, and shed new light on the origin and maintenance of an iconic floral polymorphism.


Assuntos
Linho , Linho/genética , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis , Flores/genética , Genômica , Loci Gênicos , Evolução Molecular
20.
Pharm Biol ; 60(1): 1491-1501, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35943855

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Linum is the largest genus of the Linaceae family; the species of this genus are known to have anticancer activity. OBJECTIVE: In this study, ethyl acetate extracts of L. numidicum Murb. (EAELN) and L. trigynum L. (EAELT) were examined, for the first time, for their anticancer capacity. The secondary metabolites compositions were analysed by LC-HRMS/MS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The antiproliferative effect of EAELN and EAELT (0-10.000 µg/mL) against PC3 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines were evaluated by the MTT assay after 72 h of treatment. Flow cytometer analysis of apoptosis (Annexin V-FITC/PI) and cell cycle (PI/RNase) was also performed after treatment with EAELN and EAELT at 250, 500, and 1000 µg/mL, for 24 h. RESULTS: EAELN had the highest antiproliferative activity against PC3 (IC50 133.2 ± 5.73 µg/mL) and MDA-MB-231 (IC50 156.9 ± 2.83 µg/mL) lines, EAELN had also shown better apoptotic activity with 19 ± 2.47% (250 µg/mL), 87.5 ± 0.21% (500 µg/mL), and 92 ± 0.07% (1000 µg/mL), respectively, causing cell cycle arrest of PC3 cells in G2/M phase, whereas arrest in G0/G1 and G2/M phases was observed after treatment with EAELT. LC-HRMS/MS profiling of the extracts revealed the presence of known compounds that might be responsible for the observed anticancer activity such as chicoric acid, vicenin-2, vitexin and podophyllotoxin-ß-d-glucoside. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: We have shown, for the first time, that EAELN and EAELT exert anticancer activity through cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis. EAELN can be considered as a source to treat cancer. Further studies will be required to evaluate the effect of the active compounds, once identified, on other cancer cell lines.


Assuntos
Linho , Apoptose , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
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