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1.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 4895-4909, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456636

RESUMO

Introduction: Insulin is given by injection, because when administered orally, it would be destroyed by enzymes in the digestive system, hence only about 0.1% reaches blood circulation. The purpose of the present study was to use pH sensitive polyelectrolyte methyl methacrylate (MMA)/itaconic acid (IA) nanogels as carriers in an attempt to improve absorption of insulin administered orally. Methods: Insulin (Ins) was incorporated into the MMA/IA nanogels (NGs) using the polyelectrolyte complexation (PEC) method to form Ins/NGs-PEC. Several parameters, including Ins:NGs ratio, pH, incubation time and stirring rate were optimized during preparation of InsNGs-PEC. The prepared formulations were characterized in terms of particle size (PS), polydispersity index (PdI), zeta potential (ZP) and percent entrapment efficiency (% EE). Results: The optimized InF12 nanogels had a PS, PdI, ZP and %EE of 190.43 nm, 0.186, -16.70 mV and 85.20%, respectively. The InF12 nanogels were lyophilized in the presence of different concentrations of trehalose as cryoprotectant. The lyophilized InF12 containing 2%w/v trahalose (InF12-Tre2 nanogels) was chosen as final formulation which had a PS, PdI, ZP and %EE of 430.50 nm, 0.588, -16.50 mv and 82.10, respectively. The in vitro release of insulin from InF12-Tre2 nanogels in the SGF and SIF were 28.71% and 96.53%, respectively. The stability study conducted at 5±3°C for 3 months showed that lnF12-Tre2 nanogels were stable. The SDS-PAGE assay indicated that the primary structure of insulin in the lnF12-Tre2 nanogels was intact. The in-vivo study in the diabetic rats following oral administration of InF12-Tre2 nanogels at a dose of 100 IU/kg body weight reduced blood glucose level significantly to 51.10% after 6 hours compared to the control groups. Conclusions: The pH sensitive MMA/IA nanogels are potential carriers for oral delivery of insulin as they enhanced the absorption of the drug.


Assuntos
Liofilização , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Polieletrólitos/química , Polietilenoglicóis/administração & dosagem , Polietilenoimina/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Animais , Crioprotetores/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Ponto Isoelétrico , Masculino , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Temperatura Ambiente , Fatores de Tempo
2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(33): 9203-9209, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369261

RESUMO

With the monitoring of hundreds of pesticides in food and feed, the comminution step is equally crucial as any other to achieve valid results. However, sample processing is often underestimated in its importance and practical difficulty to produce consistent test portions for analysis. The scientific literature is rife with descriptions of microextraction methods, but ironically, sample comminution is often ignored or dismissed as being prosaic, despite it being the foundation upon which the viability of such techniques relies. Cryogenic sample processing using dry ice (-78 °C) is generally accepted in practice, but studies have not shown it to yield representative test portions of <1 g. Remarkably, liquid nitrogen has rarely been used as a cryogenic agent in pesticide residue analysis, presumably as a result of access, cost, and safety concerns. However, real-world implementation of blending unfrozen bulk food portions with liquid nitrogen (-196 °C) using common food processing devices has demonstrated this approach to be safe, simple, fast, and cost-effective and yield high-quality results for various commodities, including increased stability of labile or volatile analytes. For example, analysis of dithiocarbamates as carbon disulfide has shown a significant increase of thiram recoveries (up to 95%) using liquid nitrogen during sample comminution. This perspective is intended to allay concerns among working laboratories about the practical use of liquid nitrogen for improved sample processing in the routine monitoring of pesticide residues in foods and feeds, which also gives promise for feasible test sample size reduction in high-throughput miniaturized methods.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Liofilização/métodos , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Gelo-Seco , Liofilização/instrumentação , Frutas/química , Nitrogênio/química
3.
Food Chem ; 299: 125117, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288164

RESUMO

This work evaluated nutritional and organoleptic properties of murta, a Chilean native berry, impregnated with Lactobacillus casei var. rhamnosus and dehydrated by different methods: freeze- (FD), convective- (CD) and vacuum- (VD) drying. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that L. casei localized at the peduncle and near the peduncle of the impregnated fruit. Murta enriched with probiotics contained higher L. casei viable counts after dehydration with FD compared to CD and VD methods. Overall, drying resulted in a decrease in crude fibre and phenolic compounds, which was attributed to L. casei metabolic activity suggesting that murta berries could act as prebiotics for L. casei. Among drying methods, L. casei enriched FD murta presented less alterations in the microstructure, less drying-induced damage and obtained a higher sensory acceptability score than CD and VD murta. Taken together, these results will contribute to the development of functional foods from regional products improving local economy.


Assuntos
Frutas/química , Lactobacillus rhamnosus , Myrtaceae/química , Chile , Dessecação , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Liofilização , Frutas/microbiologia , Humanos , Lactobacillus rhamnosus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Myrtaceae/microbiologia , Fenóis/análise , Prebióticos , Probióticos , Sensação , Vácuo
4.
Food Chem ; 298: 124971, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260997

RESUMO

The BRS Violeta grape presents pulp and skin with high content of phenolic compounds (PCs) and intense purplish color. It was used as raw material for the production of juice and dehydrated products using foam mat drying at 60, 70 and 80 °C and freeze drying (control). HLPC-DAD-ESI-MSn allowed the evaluation of the quantitative and qualitative changes of the main PCs (anthocyanins, flavonols and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives (HCAD)) present in the grapes during the processing. The use of the steam extraction method to obtain grape juice allowed a greater extraction of flavonols and, mainly derivatives of hydroxycinnamic acids, when compared with anthocyanins. Drying at 70 °C was the most suitable for the preservation of the PCs and, at the same time, for the reduction of the processing time. The powdered products presented considerable concentrations of total PCs (3-5 mg/g) and antioxidant activity (32-79 (DPPH) or 17-27 (FRAP) mg/g).


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos/métodos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Fenóis/análise , Vitis/química , Antocianinas/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cor , Ácidos Cumáricos/análise , Flavonóis/análise , Liofilização , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Pós , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Temperatura Ambiente
5.
Food Chem ; 298: 125062, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280088

RESUMO

The industrial transformation of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) produces processed foods, such as dried tomatoes. In this study two varieties (SaAb and PerBruzzo), grown in three cropping systems (one conventional and two organic ones), were processed by two types of small-scale drying (oven or sun drying), over two years of production. The dried samples were analyzed for their non-volatile and volatile composition, relating the results with sensory analysis. The multivariate analysis performed on collected data allowed a detailed comparison of the effects of processing, year-to year variation and cropping systems. Results indicated that drying methods mainly influenced the composition and flavor profile, also affected by the production year. The cropping system significantly influenced some quality indices, such as the acid and sugar amounts, and the aldehydes, respectively higher and lower in organic samples. The comprehensive PCA analysis allowed discrimination of drying methods and, to a lesser extent, cropping systems.


Assuntos
Aromatizantes/química , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Nariz Eletrônico , Aromatizantes/análise , Liofilização , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Agricultura Orgânica , Análise de Componente Principal , Estações do Ano , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química
6.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(10): 1974-1977, 2019 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31355549

RESUMO

The aim of this paper was to compare the influence of freeze-drying and sun-drying on six main nucleosides and nucleobases of Cordyceps sinensis by HPLC. Hypoxanthine,xanthine,uridine,inosine,guanosine and adenosine were reference substances. HPLC analysis was performed on a GL Inertsustain AQ-C_(18) column( 4. 6 mm×250 mm,5 µm),with mobile phase consisting of water( A)-acetonitrile( B) at the flow rate of 1. 0 mL·min~(-1)( 0-10 min,0-1% B; 10-65 min,1%-3% B). The detection wavelength was 260 nm,the column temperature was controlled at 30 ℃,and the injection volume was 5 µL. The linear ranges of hypoxanthine,xanthine,uridine,inosine,guanosine and adenosine were 1. 025-20. 50( r = 0. 999 8),0. 545-10. 90( r = 0. 999 9),4. 051-81. 02( r = 0. 999 8),4. 044-80. 88( r= 0. 999 9),2. 075-41. 50( r= 0. 999 9),4. 032-80. 64( r = 0. 999 9) mg·L~(-1),respectively. The average recoveries of them( n = 6)were as follows: 102. 3%( RSD 2. 1%),101. 1%( RSD 2. 4%),97. 80%( RSD 1. 7%),101. 8%( RSD 1. 8%),98. 90%( RSD2. 0%) and 98. 10%( RSD 1. 4%),respectively. Each sample was processed by freeze-drying and sun-drying so as to compare the difference between the two drying methods. The contents of six index ingredients were significantly different between freeze-drying and sun-drying sample of C. sinensis. The total contents of six index ingredients in sun-drying sample were higher than that in the corresponding freeze-drying sample. This research results provide the scientific basis for the drying methods and quality evaluation of C. sinensis.


Assuntos
Cordyceps/química , Dessecação , Liofilização , Nucleosídeos/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão
7.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(14): 6572-6581, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31325328

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As a pretreatment before drying, the purpose of osmotic dehydration (OD) is to reduce the initial water content of samples and shorten the drying time. When OD is combined with pulse vacuum, the mass transfer is enhanced. Furthermore, the properties of materials, which affect the absorption and dissipation of microwaves, can be changed by OD. In this work, pulsed vacuum osmotic dehydration (PVOD) with sucrose solution was adopted before microwave freeze-drying (MFD). The effects of PVOD on the drying characteristics and quality of dried products were studied. RESULTS: Results showed that the unfrozen water content was increased by PVOD, which made the dielectric constant and loss factor of Chinese yam larger than that of untreated samples, and the difference amplified with the increasing temperature. Thus, the shortened drying time (up to 38.5%) and increased average drying rate (up to 16.8%) were achieved by MFD combined with PVOD. While in traditional freeze-drying, PVOD resulted in slightly shortened drying time but decreased drying rate. The mechanism of PVOD on improving drying rate of MFD was analyzed from the perspective of unfrozen water content and dielectric properties. Furthermore, the quality assessments indicated that PVOD treatment retained a better color and improved the total phenolic content of dried yams compared to untreated and dried samples. CONCLUSION: PVOD using sucrose solution was an effective method to change the characteristics of yam, enhancing the MFD rate and improving the product qualities. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Dessecação/métodos , Dioscorea/química , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Tubérculos/química , Água/análise , Cor , Dessecação/instrumentação , Conservação de Alimentos/instrumentação , Liofilização , Micro-Ondas , Osmose , Fenóis/análise
8.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 20(6): 244, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286296

RESUMO

Cyclodextrin (CD) inclusions are generally used to increase the solubility of poorly soluble drugs. In this study, magnolol (MAG) was used as a model drug for exploring the effects of CD on the degradation of pharmaceutical drugs by intestinal microflora. MAG/ß-cyclodextrin (ß-CD) and MAG/hydroxypropyl-ß-CD (HP-ß-CD) inclusion complexes were successfully prepared by the saturated aqueous solution and freeze-drying methods, respectively. Structural characterisation along with analyses of solubility, residual water content and drug content of the inclusion complexes was performed. The intestinal microflora of male rats was used to study MAG degradation in vitro. At three concentrations, the degradation of both the inclusion complexes was slower than that of the MAG monomer, MAG and CD mixtures and the MAG-poloxamer 188 micelle. There were no statistically significant differences in the degradation of the MAG/ß-CD and MAG/HP-ß-CD inclusion complexes. A simulation first-order equation of the degradation parameters revealed that the degradation of the inclusion complexes was slower and pronounced, judging by slope. The experimental findings were verified by molecular docking for predicting the stable molecular structure of the inclusion complexes. In conclusion, the inclusion complexes partially protected MAG from degradation by the intestinal bacteria.


Assuntos
2-Hidroxipropil-beta-Ciclodextrina/química , Bactérias/metabolismo , Compostos de Bifenilo/metabolismo , Intestinos/microbiologia , Lignanas/metabolismo , beta-Ciclodextrinas/química , Animais , Liofilização , Masculino , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Solubilidade
9.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 20(7): 255, 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31321570

RESUMO

The main principles of green chemistry and engineering were extended to pharmaceutical formulations to prepare eco-friendly surfactant-free dry emulsion tablets (SFDETs) devoid of solvents or synthetic surfactants. Surfactant-free emulsions were stabilized by in situ cyclodextrins/sweet almond oil inclusion complexes and assessed for creaming stability. Formulation variables' effects on the emulsion droplet size and tadalafil solubility were studied using 22 × 3 factorial design. The emulsions exhibited nanometric and micrometric droplet sizes. The optimized nanoemulsion was loaded with tadalafil, morphologically evaluated, and utilized for preparing lyophilized SFDETs using different gelatin/Pearlitol® ratios. The tablets were characterized and the selected formulation was subjected to storage for 6 months. The emulsions prepared using ß-cyclodextrin or higher concentrations of α-cyclodextrin showed little or no phase separation. Statistical analysis revealed significant influence of cyclodextrin type and amount on droplet size, while cyclodextrin type and oil volume exhibited significant effect on drug solubility. Morphological examination revealed non-aggregated spherical emulsion droplets. The prepared tablets showed satisfactory mechanical strength, short disintegration times, and enhanced drug dissolution. The selected tablet formulation (gelatin/Pearlitol®, 4:2 w/w) showed acceptable stability at 25°C/60% relative humidity. An overall conclusion claims that the absence of surfactants is expected to minimize the proposed tablets' in vivo toxicity and environmental concerns.


Assuntos
Ciclodextrinas/química , Emulsões/química , Tensoativos/química , Comprimidos , Tadalafila/química , Dessecação , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Liofilização , Umidade , Solventes
10.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 20(7): 256, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332631

RESUMO

Designing scaffolds with optimum properties is an essential factor for tissue engineering success. They can be seeded with isolated cells or loaded with drugs to stimulate the body ability to repair or regenerate the injured tissues by acting as centers for new tissue formation. Recently, scaffolds gained a significant interest as principal candidates for tissue engineering due to overcoming the autograft or allograft's associated problems. The advancement of the tissue engineering field relies mainly on the introduction of new biomaterials for scaffolds' fabrication. This review presents and criticizes different scaffolds' fabrication techniques with particular emphasis on the fibrous, injectable in situ forming, foam, 3D freeze-dried, 3D printed, and 4D scaffolds. This article highlights on scaffolds' composition which would be beneficial for developing scaffolds that could potentially help to meet the demand for both drug delivery and tissue regeneration.


Assuntos
Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Tecidos Suporte , Materiais Biocompatíveis , Liofilização , Humanos , Impressão Tridimensional , Regeneração
11.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 20(7): 258, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332638

RESUMO

Febuxostat suffers from relatively low bioavailability owing to the poor drug solubility and hepatic first-pass effect. This study aimed to prepare highly drug-loaded self-nanoemulsifying self-nanosuspension systems (SNESNS). SNESNS were designed to improve febuxostat's oral bioavailability by enhancing its solubility. Different oil and surfactant/co-surfactant mixtures were used for the preparation of SNESNS. The prepared SNESNS were estimated for their particle size, in vitro drug release and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results revealed that the oil mixture of Capryol™ 90:Miglyol® 812 (1:1 w/w) with surfactant/co-surfactant mixture of Cremophor® RH 40/Transcutol® HP loaded with drug in 4-fold greater concentration than its saturated solubility resulted in the formation of SNESNS by dilution under the effect of magnetic stirring. SNESNS were freeze-dried using trehalose as a cryoprotectant. TEM images and the bimodal particle size curve confirmed the formation of the biphasic nanosystems after dilution (nanoemulsion and nanosuspension). Higher Cmax and AUC0-48 values compared to those of the market product Feburic® tablets confirmed the success of the SNESNS as a promising carrier for drugs suffering from poor water solubility like febuxostat.


Assuntos
Formas de Dosagem , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Emulsões , Liofilização , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Feminino , Camundongos , Tamanho da Partícula , Solubilidade , Tensoativos/administração & dosagem
12.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 20(7): 263, 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31338714

RESUMO

Modeling of the lyophilization process, based on the steady-state heat and mass transfer, is a useful tool in understanding and optimizing of the process, developing an operating design space following the quality-by-design principle, and justifying occasional process deviations during routine manufacturing. The steady-state model relies on two critical parameters, namely, the vial heat transfer coefficient, Kv, and the cake resistance, Rp. The classical gravimetric method used to measure Kv is tedious, time- and resource-consuming, and can be challenging and costly for commercial scale dryers. This study proposes a new approach to extract both Kv and Rp directly from an experimental run (e.g., temperature and Pirani profiles). The new methodology is demonstrated using 5% w/v mannitol model system. The values of Kv obtained using this method are comparable to those measured using the classic gravimetric method. Application of the proposed approach to process scale-up and technology transfer is illustrated using a case study. The new approach makes the steady-state model a simple and reliable tool for model parameterization, thus maximizes its capability and is particularly beneficial for transfer products from lab/pilot to commercial manufacturing.


Assuntos
Liofilização/métodos , Transferência de Tecnologia , Tecnologia Farmacêutica/métodos , Temperatura Ambiente
13.
Food Chem ; 296: 17-22, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202301

RESUMO

The aim of the present study is to encapsulate structured lipids (SLs) by complex coacervation of gelatin and gum arabic with or without using transglutaminase enzymes and to develop a functional kefir product via the addition of encapsulated SLs in the form of suspension and freeze-dried coacervates. Encapsulated SLs were evaluated for their oxidative stability during 30 days of cold storage. The data showed that coacervate solutions were more sensitive to lipid oxidation compared to freeze-dried capsules. Traditionally produced kefir samples that were fortified with complex coacervation products were stored for 10 days at 4 °C. The pH values of the samples decreased, whereas titratable acidity consistently increased during the storage period. Moreover, an in vitro controlled release study was conducted with a fortified kefir sample containing freeze-dried capsules. According to the results, kefir had no significant matrix effect on oil release from the freeze-dried capsules (p > 0.05).


Assuntos
Cápsulas/química , Kefir/análise , Lipídeos/química , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Liofilização , Gelatina/química , Goma Arábica/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Oxirredução , Probióticos , Temperatura Ambiente , Transglutaminases/metabolismo
14.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 74(3): 328-333, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31172349

RESUMO

Rutin possesses a wide range of application prospects with various bioactivities. However, its bitter and water-insoluble properties restrict its application in the field of functional foods. A new complex of rutin and chitooligosaccharide (Rutin-COS) was prepared via spray-drying method (100 °C, 1 L/h) and freeze-drying method (-80 °C, 24 h), respectively. The water solubility, bitterness, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Rutin-COS were evaluated, and the complexation of Rutin-COS was characterized by SEM, 1H-NMR and ROESY. Compared to freeze-drying method, spray-drying method was more effective for preparing stable Rutin-COS complex. The spray-dried Rutin-COS showed increased water solubility, weakened bitterness, enhanced antioxidant and antibacterial activity compared to rutin. The Rutin-COS complex was demonstrated to be formed through hydrogen bonds between the A, B rings of rutin and COS.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Quitina/análogos & derivados , Dessecação/métodos , Rutina/química , Quitina/química , Quitina/farmacologia , Liofilização/métodos , Ligações de Hidrogênio , Rutina/farmacologia , Solubilidade , Paladar , Água/química
15.
Food Chem ; 295: 423-431, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174778

RESUMO

Effects of natural phenolics on the shelf life of dried scallop adductor muscle predicted by accelerated shelf life testing (ALST) combined with Arrhenius model were investigated. This allows the food industries to reliably and rapidly determine the shelf life of dried shellfish species treated with antioxidants. The shelf life of dried scallop adductor muscle treated with antioxidants of bamboo leaves (AOB) and tea polyphenols (TP) was more than 1.70-fold that of dried control scallop adductor muscle. Thus, the highly nutritional value of dried scallop adductor muscle, based on its lipid constituents, is maintained during storage. OXITEST method further confirmed the improvement of lipid stability of antioxidant treated dried scallop adductor muscle by protecting polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, against autoxidation. Moreover, the natural phenolics employed effectively limited lipid oxidation by breaking the autoxidative chain reaction and/or inhibiting free radical formation in dried scallop adductor muscle during storage.


Assuntos
Armazenamento de Alimentos , Lipídeos/química , Pectinidae/química , Polifenóis/química , Frutos do Mar , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Camellia sinensis/química , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/química , Liofilização , Músculo Esquelético/química , Valor Nutritivo , Oxirredução , Folhas de Planta/química , Carbamilação de Proteínas , Sasa/química
16.
Food Chem ; 295: 466-474, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174783

RESUMO

Physicochemical properties and emulsion stability of octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA)-modified partial waxy rice Baegjinju starches which were made with different OSA additions and the color stability of the encapsulated paprika pigment powder using the OSA starch were investigated. The DSs of the OSA starches ranged from 0.0152 to 0.0269. The band at 3303 cm-1 reduced as the OSA levels increased, but the A-type crystallinity was maintained. The oil absorption and emulsion stability, the short chain (DP6-12) amylopectin, the resistant starch levels, and the peak and final viscosities increased as the OSA levels increased. The encapsulated pigment powder with freeze-drying had higher color stability and better emulsion, and heating stabilities occurred with spray drying and the native pigment. From these results, it is suggested that the OSA-modified Baegjinju rice starch is a good wall material to protect lipophilic carotenoids. The encapsulated pigment powders could be used as stable natural colorants.


Assuntos
Capsicum/química , Oryza/química , Pigmentos Biológicos/química , Amido/análogos & derivados , Amilopectina , Emulsões/química , Liofilização , Extratos Vegetais/química , Pós/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Amido/química , Viscosidade
17.
J Food Sci ; 84(7): 1776-1783, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31218715

RESUMO

Citrus pectin hydrolysates (Citrus paradisi [Mafc.]) from "Foster," "Red Shambar," "Tangelo Orlando," and "Citrumelo Swingle" cultivars were obtained by partial chemical hydrolysis and their properties as culture media (sole carbon/nutrient source) and encapsulating agents of Lactobacillus plantarum CIDCA 83114 were evaluated. The concentration of neutral sugars was maximal after 2-hour hydrolysis. All hydrolysates were rich in glucose >xylose >galactose >galacturonic acid >mannose >arabinose. "Citrumelo Swingle" cultivar was the one with the highest concentration of xylose. After 24 hr of fermentation with L. plantarum CIDCA 83114, bacterial viability increased from 6.76 ± 0.14 to almost 9 log CFU/mL, and lactic acid concentration, from 2.63 ± 0.41 to 7.82 ± 0.15 mmol/L in all hydrolysates. Afterwards, bacteria were entrapped in pectate-calcium beads by ionotropic gelation. Bacterial viability did not significantly decrease after freeze-drying and storage the beads at 4 °C for 45 days. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Pectin hydrolysates were adequate culture media for microorganisms, as determined by the viabililty and lactic acid production. Considering that citrus peels are agro-wastes obtained in large quantities, their use as encapsulating materials provides a solution to overcome the environmental problem they entail.


Assuntos
Citrus paradisi/química , Meios de Cultura/metabolismo , Lactobacillus plantarum/química , Pectinas/química , Citrus paradisi/metabolismo , Meios de Cultura/química , Fermentação , Liofilização , Hidrólise , Ácido Láctico/análise , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Lactobacillus plantarum/classificação , Lactobacillus plantarum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lactobacillus plantarum/metabolismo , Pectinas/metabolismo , Açúcares/análise , Açúcares/metabolismo
18.
Food Chem ; 295: 172-179, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174747

RESUMO

The effects of 10 and 20 days of fermentation followed by freeze-drying on the vitamin C and fatty acids contents, chemical conversions and overall chemical composition of Jerusalem artichoke were studied. Fermentation between the 10th and 20th days increased content of all saturated fatty acids and two of the four unsaturated fatty acids. The only fatty acid content that decreased was that of C18:1 cis 9 acid, which was suggested to be converted to other fatty acids. The experimental data, which were supported by energetical feasibility, suggested the reaction pathways of the mutual conversions of fatty acids and confirmed the decreased vitamin C content during fermentation. Discriminant modelling of the spectral data successfully distinguished the fresh, 10 days and 20 days fermented samples. The correlation of the spectral and reference data allowed to construct reference models for predicting the content of vitamin C and C18:1 cis 9 fatty acid.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Helianthus/química , Silagem , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Fermentação , Análise de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Liofilização , Helianthus/metabolismo , Modelos Estatísticos , Silagem/análise , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
Food Chem ; 297: 124951, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253340

RESUMO

The shelf lives of hot-air-dried (HD) and freeze-dried (FD) Penaeus vannamei were predicted by accelerated storage testing combined with Arrhenius Equation. Meanwhile, the changes in lipid profiles and colour of the dried shrimps during storage were investigated. The predicted shelf life of FD shrimp was more than 1.47-fold than that of HD shrimp. Compared to HD shrimp, FD shrimp had lower levels of oxidation parameters such as peroxide value (POV) and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances value (TBARS) during storage. In addition, FD shrimp had less reduction in lipid components such as triacylglycerol (TAG), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and all fatty acids including saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) after storage. Moreover, FD shrimp showed a less significant decrease in redness value and increase in yellowness value. Therefore, FD shrimps have better quality stability during storage and then possess longer shelf life than HD shrimp.


Assuntos
Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Lipídeos/química , Penaeidae/química , Frutos do Mar/análise , Animais , Cor , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Graxos/química , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Radicais Livres/análise , Radicais Livres/química , Liofilização , Lipídeos/análise , Valor Nutritivo , Oxirredução , Fosfatidilcolinas/análise , Fosfatidilcolinas/química , Triglicerídeos/análise , Triglicerídeos/química , Xantofilas/análise
20.
Food Chem ; 297: 124994, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253277

RESUMO

Improving the extraction efficiency and stability of red beet compounds has gained the attention of researchers due to their high nutritional and health benefits. In this study, ß-cyclodextrin (ß-CD) enhanced ultrasound assisted extraction was used for the extraction of red beet extract, and lyophilized extracts were characterized with FTIR and DSC analyses. The samples extracted with aqueous 5% ß-CD solutions revealed the highest content of betanin (2.243 ±â€¯0.04 mg) and total phenolic compounds (20.03 ±â€¯1.28 mg GAE/g DW), and the highest DPPH inhibition activity (59.87 ±â€¯4.94%). Additionally, complexation with ß-CD significantly enhanced the stability of betanin, phenolic compounds and antiradical activity in the stored beverage and gummy candy models at various pH and temperature conditions during 28 days. In conclusion, ß-CD-enhanced ultrasound assisted extraction is a suitable approach to extracting and stabilizing the red beet compounds for application in food, nutraceutical, and medical fields.


Assuntos
Beta vulgaris/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Sonicação , beta-Ciclodextrinas/química , Antioxidantes/química , Beta vulgaris/metabolismo , Betacianinas/análise , Betacianinas/isolamento & purificação , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Liofilização , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Temperatura Ambiente
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