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1.
J Cell Sci ; 135(5)2022 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33975358

RESUMO

Lipid droplets (LDs) are lipid-rich organelles universally found in most cells. They serve as a key energy reservoir, actively participate in signal transduction and dynamically communicate with other organelles. LD dysfunction has been associated with a variety of diseases. The content level, composition and mobility of LDs are crucial for their physiological and pathological functions, and these different parameters of LDs are subject to regulation by genetic factors and environmental inputs. Coherent Raman scattering (CRS) microscopy utilizes optical nonlinear processes to probe the intrinsic chemical bond vibration, offering label-free, quantitative imaging of lipids in vivo with high chemical specificity and spatiotemporal resolution. In this Review, we provide an overview over the principle of CRS microscopy and its application in tracking different parameters of LDs in live cells and organisms. We also discuss the use of CRS microscopy in genetic screens to discover lipid regulatory mechanisms and in understanding disease-related lipid pathology.


Assuntos
Microscopia , Análise Espectral Raman , Biologia , Gotículas Lipídicas , Lipídeos
2.
J Cell Sci ; 135(5)2022 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33912962

RESUMO

Membrane contact sites (MCSs) between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and late endosomes/lysosomes (LE/lys) are emerging as critical hubs for diverse cellular events, and changes in their extents are linked to severe neurological diseases. While recent studies show that the synaptotagmin-like mitochondrial-lipid-binding (SMP) domain-containing protein PDZD8 may mediate the formation of ER-LE/lys MCSs, the cellular functions of PDZD8 remain largely elusive. Here, we attempt to investigate the lipid transfer activities of PDZD8 and the extent to which its cellular functions depend on its lipid transfer activities. In accordance with recent studies, we demonstrate that PDZD8 is a protrudin (ZFYVE27)-interacting protein and that PDZD8 acts as a tether at ER-LE/lys MCSs. Furthermore, we discover that the SMP domain of PDZD8 binds glycerophospholipids and ceramides both in vivo and in vitro, and that the SMP domain can transport lipids between membranes in vitro. Functionally, PDZD8 is required for LE/lys positioning and neurite outgrowth, which is dependent on the lipid transfer activity of the SMP domain.


Assuntos
Retículo Endoplasmático , Endossomos , Lipídeos , Lisossomos , Crescimento Neuronal
3.
JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc ; 59(240): 783-786, 2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508474

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Thyroid hormones have a major influence on synthesis, mobilization and metabolism of lipids. Hypothyroidism accounts for a notable cause of secondary dyslipidemia. This can increase the risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This study was performed to find out the prevalence of lipid profile abnormalities in newly diagnosed primary hypothyroid states. METHODS: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 71 patients in the context of newly diagnosed primary hypothyroidism patients visiting outpatient department of internal medicine from 9th December 2018 to 30th June 2020 after taking ethical clearance from Institutional Review Committee. Case screening for lipid profile changes was performed at the time of diagnosis of primary hypothyroidism. A convenience sampling method was used. Data entry and descriptive analysis were done in Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16.0. Point estimate at 95% Confidence Interval was calculated along with frequency and proportion for binary data. RESULTS: In this study including 71 cases of newly diagnosed primary hypothyroidism, 49 (69.0%) (95% Confidence Interval= 58.24-79.76) had abnormal lipid profiles. Among them, 5 (38.5%) out of 13 (18.3%) cases of subclinical hypothyroidism and 44 (75.9%) out of 58 (81.7%) cases of overt hypothyroidism had abnormal lipid profiles. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of abnormal lipid profile parameters was similar to the study done in various studies in similar settings except for high-density lipid which showed both similarity and dissimilarity with other studies. Our study suggested that all newly diagnosed cases of primary hypothyroidism are to be investigated for dyslipidemia thus ensuring early treatment and prevention of complications.


Assuntos
Hipotireoidismo , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Hipotireoidismo/diagnóstico , Hipotireoidismo/epidemiologia , Lipídeos , Nepal/epidemiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária
4.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 23(8): 828-834, 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511173

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To study the expression of adipokines in children with primary nephrotic syndrome (PNS) before and after treatment and its correlation with blood lipids, as well as the role of adipokines in PNS children with hyperlipidemia. METHODS: A total of 90 children who were diagnosed with incipient PNS or recurrence of PNS after corticosteroid withdrawal for more than 6 months were enrolled as subjects. Thirty children who underwent physical examination were enrolled as the control group. Venous blood samples were collected from the children in the control group and the children with PNS before corticosteroid therapy (active stage) and after urinary protein clearance following 4 weeks of corticosteroid therapy (remission stage). ELISA was used to measure the levels of adipokines. An automatic biochemical analyzer was used to measure blood lipid levels. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the children with PNS had a significantly lower level of omentin-1 in both active and remission stages, and their level of omentin-1 in the active stage was significantly lower than that in the remission stage (P<0.001). For the children with PNS, the level of chemerin in the active stage was significantly higher than that in the remission stage, and the children with PNS in the active stage had a significantly higher level of chemerin than the control group (P<0.001). For the children with PNS, atherogenic index of plasma, atherogenic coefficient (AC), castelli risk index-1 (CRI-1), castelli risk index-2 (CRI-2), and non-high-density lipoprotein in the active stage were significantly higher than those in the remission stage (P<0.001), and these indices in the children with PNS in the active stage were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.001). The children with PNS in the remission stage had significantly higher atherogenic index of plasma, AC, CRI-1, and non-high-density lipoprotein than the control group (P<0.001). Compared with the control group, the children with PNS in the remission stage had significantly higher serum levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, apolipoprotein B, and apolipoprotein A (P<0.01). In the children with PNS, the ratio of omentin-1 before and after corticosteroid therapy was positively correlated with that of high-density lipoprotein, 24-hour urinary protein excretion, and high-density lipoprotein/apolipoprotein A before and after treatment, and it was negatively correlated with the ratio of AC and CRI-1 before and after treatment (P<0.05). The PNS children with low omentin-1 levels in the active stage had significantly higher levels of CRI-1, CRI-2, AC, and apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A ratio than those with high omentin-1 levels (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Omentin-1 may be associated with disease activity, dyslipidemia, and proteinuria in children with PNS. Blood lipid ratios may be more effective than traditional blood lipid parameters in monitoring early cardiovascular risk in children with PNS.


Assuntos
Hiperlipidemias , Síndrome Nefrótica , Adipocinas , Quimiocinas , Criança , Humanos , Lipídeos , Síndrome Nefrótica/tratamento farmacológico , Proteinúria
5.
Curr Microbiol ; 78(10): 3770-3781, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487210

RESUMO

Enhanced biofuel production strategies from microalgae by employing affordable bio-waste usage are fetching significance, nowadays. This study examines the effect of VWE for enhanced biomass from new indigenous microalgal isolates, Asterarcys sp. SPC, Scenedesmus sp. KT-U, Scenedesmus sp. KTWL-A, Coelastrum sp. T-E, and Chlorella sp. TWL-B. The growth of microalgae in VWE-treated growth media showed considerable increase (1.14-2.3 folds) than control medium (without VWE). Further, two effective native microalgae were selected based on growth in VWE treatment, biomass productivity, and TAG accumulation through statistical clustering analysis. Mixotrophic batch cultivation of Scenedesmus sp. KT-U and Asterarcys sp. SPC cultivated using VWE treatment in the optimum concentration had produced significant average increase in BP (1.8 and 1.4 folds, respectively) than control (without VWE). Whereas in the lipid production phase, there was a noticeable increase in lipid yield in VWE-treated cells of lipid phase (231.8 ± 17.9 mg/L and 243.5 ± 25 mg/L) in Scenedesmus sp. KT-U and Asterarcys sp. SPC, respectively, than in control (140.5 ± 28 mg/L and 166.4 ± 23 mg/L) with considerable TAG accumulation. Thus, this study imparts strain selection process of native microalgae based on vegetable waste usage for improved yield of biomass and lipid amenable for cost-effective biodiesel production.


Assuntos
Chlorella , Microalgas , Scenedesmus , Biocombustíveis , Biomassa , Lipídeos , Verduras , Águas Residuárias
6.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 108: 58-69, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465437

RESUMO

Under ultra-high cadmium (Cd) stress, large amounts of glutathione are produced in Auxenochlorella protothecoides UTEX 2341, and the lipid content increases significantly. Glutathione is the best reductant that can effectively remove Cd, but the relationship between lipid accumulation and the cellular response to Cd stress has not been ascertained. Integrating analyses of the transcriptomes and lipidomes, the mechanism of lipid accumulation to Cd tolerance were studied from the perspectives of metabolism, transcriptional regulation and protein glutathionylation. Under Cd stress, basic metabolic pathways, such as purine metabolism, translation and pre-mRNA splicing process, were inhibited, while the lipid accumulation pathway was significantly activated. Further analysis revealed that the transcription factors (TFs) and genes related to lipid accumulation were also activated. Analysis of the TF interaction sites showed that ABI5, MYB_rel and NF-YB could further regulate the expression of diacylglycerol acyltransferase through glutathionylation/deglutathionylation, which led to increase of the triacylglycerol (TAG) content. Lipidomes analysis showed that TAG could help maintain lipid homeostasis by adjusting its saturation/unsaturation levels. This study for the first time indicated that glutathione could activate TAG synthesis in microalga A. protothecoides, leading to TAG accumulation and glutathione accumulation under Cd stress. Therefore, the accumulation of TAG and glutathione can confer resistance to high Cd stress. This study provided insights into a new operation mode of TAG accumulation under heavy metal stress.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Clorófitas , Cádmio/toxicidade , Glutationa , Lipídeos , Triglicerídeos
7.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 37(8): 2658-2667, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472286

RESUMO

Lipids are important components of living organisms that participate in and regulate a variety of life activities. Lipids in plants also play important physiological functions in response to a variety of abiotic stresses (e.g. salt stress, drought stress, temperature stress). However, most research on lipids focused on animal cells and medical fields, while the functions of lipids in plants were overlooked. With the rapid development of "omics" technologies and biotechnology, the lipidomics has received much attention in recent years because it can reveal the composition and function of lipids in a deep and comprehensive way. This review summarizes the recent advances in the functions and classification of lipids, the development of lipidomics technology, and the responses of plant lipids against drought stress, salt stress and temperature stress. In addition, challenges and prospects were proposed for future lipidomics research and further exploration of the physiological functions of lipids in plant stress resistance.


Assuntos
Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Lipídeos , Plantas , Estresse Fisiológico
8.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 37(8): 2753-2764, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472293

RESUMO

Biodiesel is an alternative fuel to addressing the energy shortage problem. Microbial lipids have attracted widespread attention as one of the potential feed-stocks for cost-effective and efficient biodiesel production. However, the large-scale production of microbial lipids is hampered by the complexity and the high cost of aseptic culturing approach. Metschnikowia pulcherrima is an oleaginous yeast with strong environmental adaptability. It is capable of utilizing a wide spectrum of substrates, and can be cultured under non-sterile conditions. Therefore, this yeast has great potential to replace the traditional oleaginous microorganisms, particularly in the area of recycling wastewater and solid waste for the production of biodiesel. Based on the analysis of lipid production and application conditions of M. pulcherrima, this review summarized the unique advantages of M. pulcherrima and the key factors affecting lipids production. We further discussed the feasibility of cultivating M. pulcherrima on various organic wastes under non-sterile conditions for lipids production. Moreover, we analyzed the challenges associated with M. pulcherrima's in the yield and mechanism for lipids production, and proposed perspectives for how to achieve efficient biodiesel production using this yeast.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Lipídeos , Candida , Metschnikowia , Leveduras
9.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1325: 61-102, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495530

RESUMO

Glycosphingolipids are amphiphilic plasma membrane components formed by a glycan linked to a specific lipid moiety. In this chapter we report on these compounds, on their role played in our cells to maintain the correct cell biology.In detail, we report on their structure, on their metabolic processes, on their interaction with proteins and from this, their property to modulate positively in health and negatively in disease, the cell signaling and cell biology.


Assuntos
Glicoesfingolipídeos , Lipídeos , Membrana Celular , Transdução de Sinais
10.
Nanoscale ; 13(31): 13231-13240, 2021 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477731

RESUMO

Although artemisinin (ART) has shown initial promise in cancer therapy, its therapeutic efficacy is limited by its low tumor inhibitory efficacy and unfavorable distribution. Considering the important role of heme in the specific parasite-killing effect of ART, we designed a liposomal nanostructure self-assembled from hemin-lipid (Hemesome) to co-deliver ART and hemin for cancer therapy. The synergistic chemotherapeutic and immunotherapeutic effects of hemin and ART were demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo. The liposome-like structure was relatively stable in the blood circulation and gastrointestinal tract environment, but dissociated in the tumor cell environment. The folic acid (FA) modification not only increased their efficiency for transport across the epithelium, but also increased their tumor accumulation. In mouse models, following oral administration of FA-Hemesome-ART nanoparticles (5 mg kg-1 ART in total) every other day and intraperitoneal injection with a programmed death-ligand 1 antibody (aPD-L1, 70 µg per mouse in total), MC38 tumors were completely inhibited within 30 days. The cured mice remained tumor-free 30 days after rechallenging them with another inoculation of MC38 cells due to the strong immune memory effect.


Assuntos
Artemisininas , Nanopartículas , Neoplasias , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Hemina , Imunoterapia , Lipídeos , Camundongos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico
11.
Nanoscale ; 13(30): 12916-12928, 2021 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477775

RESUMO

One of the most realistic approaches for delivering actives (pharmaceuticals/cosmetics) deep into skin layers is encapsulation into nanoparticles (NPs). Nonetheless, molecular-level mechanisms related to active delivery from NPs to the skin have scarcely been studied despite the large number of synthesis and characterization studies. We herein report the underlying mechanism of active translocation and permeation through the outermost layer of skin, the stratum corneum (SC), via molecular dynamics (MD) simulations complemented by experimental studies. A SC molecular model is constructed using current state-of-the-art methodology via incorporating the three most abundant skin lipids: ceramides, free fatty acids, and cholesterol. As a potent antioxidant, ferulic acid (FA) is used as the model active, and it is loaded into Gelucire 50/13 NP. MD simulations elucidate that, first, FA-loaded NP approaches the skin surface quickly, followed by slight penetration and adsorption onto the upper skin surface; FA then translocates from the NP surface to the skin surface due to stronger NP-skin interactions compared to the FA-NP interactions; then, once FA is released onto the skin surface, it slowly permeates deep into the skin bilayer. Both the free energy and resistance to permeation not only indicate the spontaneous transfer of FA from the bulk to the skin surface, but they also reveal that the main barrier against permeation exists in the middle of the lipid hydrophobic tails. Significantly lower diffusion of FA is obtained in the main barrier region compared to the bulk. The estimated permeability coefficient (log P) values are found to be higher than the experimental values. Importantly, the permeation process evaluated via MD simulations perfectly matches with experiments. The study suggests a molecular simulation platform that provides various crucial insights relating to active delivery from loaded NP to skin, and it could facilitate the design and development of novel NP-based formulations for transdermal delivery and the topical application of drugs/cosmetics.


Assuntos
Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Nanopartículas , Administração Cutânea , Bicamadas Lipídicas , Lipídeos , Permeabilidade , Pele
12.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1178: 338809, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482865

RESUMO

We present a new analytical approach for the analysis of triacylglycerol fatty acyls distribution by normal phase liquid chromatography (NPLC) coupled with APPI+-HRMS. The NPLC method used allows the separation of more than 30 classes of lipids. The energy of the APPI+ source enables the formation of low-intensity ions B fragments ([RC = O+74]+ <3%), characteristic of lipids with a glycerol esterified by one or more fatty acyls. We found the relative intensities of ions B were close to the fatty acyl distribution. To establish the proof of concept, we decided to focus on the triacylglycerols (TGs) class, the major component of plant oils. By either NPLC or FIA, the TGs class appeared as a single peak. In our experimental conditions, ions B are always present in the mass spectra of TGs and each ion B is specific to a fatty acyl group. The Orbitrap mass spectrometer featured high enough resolution and accuracy to identify ions B and distinguish them from other TG fragment ions. A further adjustment of the fatty acyls relative quantities calculation from ions B intensities was computed using weighting coefficients of ions B response. The methodology was developed and validated using plant oils characterized by a GC-FID reference method. NPLC-APPI+-HRMS method offers the advantage of analyzing the fatty acyl composition of complex lipid extracts without the need for sample preparation.


Assuntos
Pressão Atmosférica , Monoglicerídeos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Lipídeos , Espectrometria de Massas , Triglicerídeos
13.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1177: 338751, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482888

RESUMO

Electrochemical method capable of detecting specific nucleic acids in complex fluid will undoubtedly advance the diagnosis of many kinds of diseases. Herein, by coupling lipid membrane with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), we develop a new electrochemical method for sensitive and reliable detection of nucleic acids in biological fluids. The advantages of lipid membrane especially its excellent antifouling ability is employed to enhance the applicability of the method in complex environment; while the significant solid-state Ag/AgCl response of AgNPs is used to ensure the detection sensitivity of the method. The core of this method's workflow is the target-induced Y-shape structure formation, which results in the recruitment of AgNPs to the electrode surface, producing considerable electrochemical responses used for target nucleic acid detection. Taking highly upregulated in liver cancer (HULC), a liver cancer-related long non-coding RNA as a model target, the method exhibits high sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility with a detection limit of 0.42 fM. Moreover, the method displays desirable usability in biological fluids such as serum, which will be of great potential in clinical diagnosis.


Assuntos
Incrustação Biológica , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Ácidos Nucleicos , Incrustação Biológica/prevenção & controle , Limite de Detecção , Lipídeos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Prata
14.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 22(1): 759, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488720

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are 2 major public health problems. Osteoporosis and CVDs may be linked but the association between lipid profile and osteoporosis is still controversial. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) with osteoporosis. METHODS: Using inpatients' and outpatients' electronic medical records (EMR) and dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) database stored at The Second Hospital of Jilin University, we included 481 individuals with complete and valid lipid and bone mineral density (BMD) data in 2017. Serum samples were used to measure TC, LDL-C, HDL-C and TG. Femoral neck and total hip BMD were measured by DXA; osteoporosis was defined as femoral neck or total hip T-score ≤ -2.5. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to test the associations of TC, LDL-C, HDL-C and TG with osteoporosis. RESULTS: The mean age for included individuals was 62.7 years (SD = 8.6 years); 60.1 % of them were female. Each standard deviation (SD) increase in TC (Odds Ratio [OR]: 1.48; 95 % Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.06-2.07) and TG (OR: 1.67; 95 % CI: 1.16-2.39) were associated with increased risk of osteoporosis; LDL-C and HDL-C levels were not associated with osteoporosis. Age, sex and body mass index (BMI) did not interact with the relationships of TC and TG with osteoporosis (all P > 0.10). CONCLUSIONS: Higher TC and TG levels were associated with greater risk of osteoporosis in this cross-sectional study.


Assuntos
Lipídeos/sangue , Osteoporose , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Triglicerídeos/sangue
15.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 90, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34466192

RESUMO

Introduction: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a prominent compressive neuropathy. There are a number of risk factors for creating CTS but the effect of these factors on the severity of CTS is unclear. In this study, we aimed to assess the correlation of serum lipid profile and obesity with the severity of CTS. Methods: this cross-sectional study was conducted on 118 patients with idiopathic CTS. Blood samples were obtained for determining the serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) after 12 hours of overnight fasting. The participants were then divided into two groups of normal and abnormal serum lipids. Body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2 was considered as obesity. The severity of CTS was determined based on the electrophysiological results and Boston CTS Questionnaire (BCTSQ) that evaluates symptoms severity (SSS) and functional status (FSS) of patients. Results: out of 118 participants, 108 patients performed lipid profile test that 41.17%, 50.42%, 25.21%, and 20.16% of them had TC ≥ 200, TG ≥ 150, LDL-C ≥ 130, and HDL-C < 60 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dl), respectively. The mean scores of SSS in patients with dyslipidemia including the high level of TC, TG, LDL-C, and low level of LDL-C were 34.59±7.86, 34.05±8.73, 34.93±8.21, and 33.48±7.56, respectively. There was no significant association between lipid profile and the symptom severity scale of CTS (p-value > 0.05). The mean BMI of participants was 31.35±5.35 kg/m2, and 58.5% of them had a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2. The mean score of SSS and FSS was 33.18±8.24 and 24.43±7.12 in obese patients (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2), and was 34.06±7.85 and 23.06±7.67 in patients with BMI < 30 kg/m2. We found no significant association between obesity with the SSS and FSS (p-value = 0.53 and 0.32, respectively). In terms of the relationship between electrophysiological grading with obesity, 44 (63.8%) of patients with BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 and 22 (45.8%) patients with BMI < 30 kg/m2 had severe to extreme severe CTS. There was no significant association between obesity and the severity of CTS (p-value = 0.054). Conclusion: the results of this study did not demonstrate an association between serum lipid profile and obesity with the severity of carpal tunnel syndrome. The findings of this study may not be extrapolated to other populations. Further studies with more samples are needed to investigate this association.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Túnel Carpal/fisiopatologia , Lipídeos/sangue , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Síndrome do Túnel Carpal/etiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Chemosphere ; 283: 131204, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467947

RESUMO

To overcome the bottlenecks of waste resource utilization and energy shortage that restrict the commercial production of microalgae biodiesel, volatile fatty acids (VFAs) derived from activated sludge were used as the sole carbon source to culture oleaginous microalgae Chlorella pyrenoidosa FACHB-1216 and Scenedesmus quadricauda FACHB-1297 under the mixotrophic and heterotrophic cultivation. Four VFAs ratios (acetic acids (AA): propionic acids (PA): butyric acids (BA)) were tested to determine the effects and mechanisms of the VFAs on the two microalgae. The highest lipid content (29.54%) and lipid production (71.10 mg L-1) were achieved by S. quadricauda at the VFAs ratio of 6: 1: 3 under heterotrophic condition, with 46.27% and 67.52% removal efficiencies of total nitrogen and phosphorus, respectively. The assimilation efficiency of AA was the highest at 73.37%, followed by that of PA and BA. For C. pyrenoidosa, VFAs promoted the rapid reproduction within 2 days under the heterotrophic condition at different initial inoculation densities. At the optimal VFA ratio, algae achieved the highest biomass concentration (0.14 ± 0.02 g L-1), with a specific growth rate of 0.91 d-1 and biomass productivity of 125.17 mg L-1 d-1. The removal rates of total nitrogen and phosphorus were 47.03% and 74.40%, respectively, and the assimilation efficiency of AA was the best (61.06%). High AA assimilation efficiency under the heterotrophic condition was beneficial for the algal growth and lipid accumulation. These results simultaneously produced microalgae-based bioenergy and recycled VFAs in anaerobically digested effluent.


Assuntos
Chlorella , Microalgas , Biomassa , Ácidos Graxos , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Processos Heterotróficos , Lipídeos , Nitrogênio
17.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444644

RESUMO

Polar lipids, which are found in human milk, serve essential functions within biological membranes, hence their importance in brain development and cognition. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the longitudinal effects on brain macrostructural and microstructural development and recognition memory of early-life polar lipid supplementation using the translational pig model. Twenty-eight intact (i.e., not castrated) male pigs were provided either a control diet (n = 14) or the control diet supplemented with polar lipids (n = 14) from postnatal day 2 until postnatal week 4. After postnatal week 4, all animals were provided the same nutritionally-adequate diets until postnatal week 24. Pigs underwent magnetic resonance imaging at 8 longitudinal time-points to model brain macrostructural and microstructural developmental trajectories. The novel object recognition task was implemented at postnatal weeks 4 and 8 to evaluate recognition memory. Subtle differences were observed between groups in hippocampal absolute brain volumes and fractional anisotropy, and no differences in myelin water fraction developmental patterns were noted. Behavioral outcomes did not differ in recognition memory, and only minimal differences were observed in exploratory behaviors. Our findings suggest that early-life dietary supplementation of polar lipids has limited effect on brain developmental patterns, object recognition memory, and exploratory behaviors.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Lipídeos/administração & dosagem , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Comportamento Exploratório , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Suínos , Ganho de Peso
18.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361825

RESUMO

Lipid-based nanocarriers (LNs) have made it possible to prolong corneal residence time and improve the ocular bioavailability of ophthalmic drugs. In order to investigate how the LNs interact with the ocular mucosa and reach the posterior eye segment, we have formulated lipid nanocarriers that were designed to bear a traceable fluorescent probe in the present work. The chosen fluorescent probe was obtained by a conjugation reaction between fluoresceinamine and the solid lipid excipient stearic acid, forming a chemically synthesized adduct (ODAF, N-(3',6'-dihydroxy-3-oxospiro [isobenzofuran-1(3H),9'-[9H] xanthen]-5-yl)-octadecanamide). The novel formulation (LN-ODAF) has been formulated and characterized in terms of its technological parameters (polydispersity index, mean particle size and zeta potential), while an in vivo study was carried out to assess the ability of LN-ODAF to diffuse through different ocular compartments. LN-ODAF were in nanometric range (112.7 nm ± 0.4), showing a good homogeneity and long-term stability. A TEM (transmission electron microscopy) study corroborated these results of characterization. In vivo results pointed out that after ocular instillation, LN ODAF were concentrated in the cornea (two hours), while at a longer time (from the second hour to the eighth hour), the fluorescent signals extended gradually towards the back of the eye. From the results obtained, LN-ODAF demonstrated a potential use of lipid-based nanoparticles as efficient carriers of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) involved in the management of retinal diseases.


Assuntos
Córnea/metabolismo , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Lipídeos/química , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Segmento Posterior do Olho/metabolismo , Compostos de Espiro/administração & dosagem , Animais , Córnea/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Nanopartículas/química , Segmento Posterior do Olho/efeitos dos fármacos , Coelhos , Compostos de Espiro/química
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360733

RESUMO

Mesoporous silica nanomaterials have emerged as promising vehicles in controlled drug delivery systems due to their ability to selectively transport, protect, and release pharmaceuticals in a controlled and sustained manner. One drawback of these drug delivery systems is their preparation procedure that usually requires several steps including the removal of the structure-directing agent (surfactant) and the later loading of the drug into the porous structure. Herein, we describe the preparation of mesoporous silica nanoparticles, as drug delivery systems from structure-directing agents based on the kidney-protector drug cilastatin in a simple, fast, and one-step process. The concept of drug-structure-directing agent (DSDA) allows the use of lipidic derivatives of cilastatin to direct the successful formation of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs). The inherent pharmacological activity of the surfactant DSDA cilastatin-based template permits that the MSNs can be directly employed as drug delivery nanocarriers, without the need of extra steps. MSNs thus synthesized have shown good sphericity and remarkable textural properties. The size of the nanoparticles can be adjusted by simply selecting the stirring speed, time, and aging temperature during the synthesis procedure. Moreover, the release experiments performed on these materials afforded a slow and sustained drug release over several days, which illustrates the MSNs potential utility as drug delivery system for the cilastatin cargo kidney protector. While most nanotechnology strategies focused on combating the different illnesses this methodology emphasizes on reducing the kidney toxicity associated to cancer chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Cilastatina , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Lipídeos , Nanopartículas/química , Cilastatina/química , Cilastatina/farmacocinética , Cilastatina/farmacologia , Humanos , Rim , Lipídeos/química , Lipídeos/farmacocinética , Lipídeos/farmacologia , Dióxido de Silício
20.
Bioresour Technol ; 340: 125736, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426245

RESUMO

Astaxanthin is one of the secondary carotenoids involved in mediating abiotic stress of microalgae. As an important antioxidant and nutraceutical compound, astaxanthin is widely applied in dietary supplements and cosmetic ingredients. However, most astaxanthin in the market is chemically synthesized, which are structurally heterogeneous and inefficient for biological uptake. Astaxanthin refinery from Haematococcus pluvialis is now a growing industrial sector. H. pluvialis can accumulate astaxanthin to ∼5% of dry weight. As productivity is a key metric to evaluate the production feasibility, understanding the biological mechanisms of astaxanthin accumulation is beneficial for further production optimization. In this review, the biosynthesis mechanism of astaxanthin and production strategies are summarized. The current research on enhancing astaxanthin accumulation and the potential joint-production of astaxanthin with lipids was also discussed. It is conceivable that with further improvement on the productivity of astaxanthin and by-products, the algal-derived astaxanthin would be more accessible to low-profit applications.


Assuntos
Clorofíceas , Microalgas , Lipídeos , Xantofilas
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