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1.
BMC Dermatol ; 20(1): 6, 2020 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867747

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Specific species of ceramides (Cer), major constituents of lipids in the stratum corneum (SC), are decreased and are correlated with SC barrier and water-holding functions in the skin of patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) or psoriasis (Pso). However, possible correlations between Cer subclass ratios and skin properties in barrier-disrupted skin and in healthy skin remain unclear. The objective of this study was to identify a new marker to evaluate skin properties and epidermal differentiation in SC not only in barrier-disrupted skin but also in healthy skin. METHODS: The Cer subclass ratios in the SC of healthy control subjects and in patients with AD or Pso were evaluated. Correlations with candidate markers and facial skin features of healthy Japanese females (20-74 years old, n = 210) were investigated. Variations of markers during epidermal differentiation were studied in human epidermis and in cultured keratinocytes. RESULTS: The ratios of Cer [NP]/[NS], Cer [NH]/[NS], Cer [NP]/[AS], Cer [NH]/[NS], Cer [NDS]/[AS], Cer [AH]/[AS] and Cer [EOP]/[AS] showed significant differences between non-lesional skin of AD patients and normal skin of healthy control subjects, as well as Pso patients and their healthy control subjects. The Cer [NP]/[NS] ratio was correlated with SC functional parameters (transepidermal water loss and capacitance) and with skin appearance (texture, scaling and color) even in the cheek skin of healthy female subjects. The Cer [NP]/[NS] ratio in the SC was approximately 18-times higher than in living keratinocytes, and it increased as they differentiated. CONCLUSIONS: The Cer [NP]/[NS] ratio in the SC is a potential marker for skin properties and epidermal differentiation in barrier-disrupted skin as well as in healthy skin.


Assuntos
Ceramidas/análise , Dermatite Atópica/patologia , Epiderme/química , Psoríase/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/análise , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diferenciação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Dermatite Atópica/diagnóstico , Epiderme/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Queratinócitos/química , Queratinócitos/citologia , Lipídeos/análise , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psoríase/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
2.
PLoS Med ; 17(9): e1003302, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A number of epidemiological and genetic studies have attempted to determine whether levels of circulating lipids are associated with risks of various cancers, including breast cancer (BC). However, it remains unclear whether a causal relationship exists between lipids and BC. If alteration of lipid levels also reduced risk of BC, this could present a target for disease prevention. This study aimed to assess a potential causal relationship between genetic variants associated with plasma lipid traits (high-density lipoprotein, HDL; low-density lipoprotein, LDL; triglycerides, TGs) with risk for BC using Mendelian randomization (MR). METHODS AND FINDINGS: Data from genome-wide association studies in up to 215,551 participants from the Million Veteran Program (MVP) were used to construct genetic instruments for plasma lipid traits. The effect of these instruments on BC risk was evaluated using genetic data from the BCAC (Breast Cancer Association Consortium) based on 122,977 BC cases and 105,974 controls. Using MR, we observed that a 1-standard-deviation genetically determined increase in HDL levels is associated with an increased risk for all BCs (HDL: OR [odds ratio] = 1.08, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.04-1.13, P < 0.001). Multivariable MR analysis, which adjusted for the effects of LDL, TGs, body mass index (BMI), and age at menarche, corroborated this observation for HDL (OR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.03-1.10, P = 4.9 × 10-4) and also found a relationship between LDL and BC risk (OR = 1.03, 95% CI = 1.01-1.07, P = 0.02). We did not observe a difference in these relationships when stratified by breast tumor estrogen receptor (ER) status. We repeated this analysis using genetic variants independent of the leading association at core HDL pathway genes and found that these variants were also associated with risk for BCs (OR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.06-1.16, P = 1.5 × 10-6), including locus-specific associations at ABCA1 (ATP Binding Cassette Subfamily A Member 1), APOE-APOC1-APOC4-APOC2 (Apolipoproteins E, C1, C4, and C2), and CETP (Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein). In addition, we found evidence that genetic variation at the ABO locus is associated with both lipid levels and BC. Through multiple statistical approaches, we minimized and tested for the confounding effects of pleiotropy and population stratification on our analysis; however, the possible existence of residual pleiotropy and stratification remains a limitation of this study. CONCLUSIONS: We observed that genetically elevated plasma HDL and LDL levels appear to be associated with increased BC risk. Future studies are required to understand the mechanism underlying this putative causal relationship, with the goal of developing potential therapeutic strategies aimed at altering the cholesterol-mediated effect on BC risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Lipídeos/análise , Lipídeos/sangue , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Colesterol/análise , Colesterol/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco , Triglicerídeos/sangue
3.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237608, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817620

RESUMO

The application of biomolecular techniques to archaeological materials from the Balkans is providing valuable new information on the prehistory of the region. This is especially relevant for the study of the neolithisation process in SE Europe, which gradually affected the rest of the continent. Here, to answer questions regarding diet and subsistence practices in early farming societies in the central Balkans, we combine organic residue analyses of archaeological pottery, taxonomic and isotopic study of domestic animal remains and biomolecular analyses of human dental calculus. The results from the analyses of the lipid residues from pottery suggest that milk was processed in ceramic vessels. Dairy products were shown to be part of the subsistence strategies of the earliest Neolithic communities in the region but were of varying importance in different areas of the Balkan. Conversely, milk proteins were not detected within the dental calculus. The molecular and isotopic identification of meat, dairy, plants and beeswax in the pottery lipids also provided insights into the diversity of diet in these early Neolithic communities, mainly based on terrestrial resources. We also present the first compound-specific radiocarbon dates for the region, obtained directly from absorbed organic residues extracted from pottery, identified as dairy lipids.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Cerâmica/química , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Dieta , Lipídeos/análise , Proteínas do Leite/análise , Leite/química , Animais , Arqueologia , Península Balcânica , Fazendeiros , Humanos , Ceras
4.
Analyst ; 145(17): 5725-5732, 2020 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32696763

RESUMO

The SARS-CoV-2 virus is known as the causal agent for the current COVID-19 global pandemic. The majority of COVID-19 patients develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), while some experience a cytokine storm effect, which is considered as one of the leading causes of patient mortality. Lipids are known to be involved in the various stages of the lifecycle of a virus functioning as receptors or co-receptors that controls viral propagation inside the host cell. Therefore, lipid-related metabolomics aims to provide insight into the immune response of the novel coronavirus. Our study has focused on determination of the potential metabolomic biomarkers utilizing a Teslin® Substrate in paper spray mass spectrometry (PS-MS) for the development of a rapid detection test within 60 seconds of analysis time. In this study, results were correlated with PCR tests to reflect that the systemic responses of the cells were affected by the COVID-19 virus.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/fisiologia , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Análise Discriminante , Humanos , Lipídeos/análise , Nasofaringe/virologia , Pandemias , Papel , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/virologia
5.
Food Chem ; 332: 127384, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615384

RESUMO

Dairy polar lipids (PL) seem to exhibit antiplatelet effects. However, it is not known what molecular species may be responsible. In this study, we confirmed using C30 reversed-phase (C30RP) ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to high resolution accurate mass tandem mass spectrometry (HRAM-MS/MS) that fermentation of yoghurts from ovine milk using specific starter cultures altered the PL composition. These lipid alterations occurred concomitant with increased antithrombotic properties of the yoghurts PL fractions against platelet-activating factor (PAF) and thrombin-induced platelet aggregation. Specifically, elevation in phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), sphingomyelin (SM), phosphatidylcholine (PC) and their molecular species were observed following yoghurt fermentation. Furthermore, PC(18:0/18:1), PE(18:1/18:2), SM(d18:0/22:0) and several other molecular species were significantly inversely correlated with the inhibition of PAF and thrombin. These molecular species were abundant in the most bioactive yoghurts fermented by S. thermophilus and L. acidophilus, which suggest that fermentation by these microorganisms increases the antithrombotic properties of ovine milk PL.


Assuntos
Lipídeos/análise , Leite/metabolismo , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/análise , Iogurte/análise , Animais , Plaquetas/efeitos dos fármacos , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Fermentação , Lipídeos/farmacologia , Fosfatidilcolinas/metabolismo , Fosfatidiletanolaminas/metabolismo , Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/farmacologia , Ovinos , Esfingomielinas/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Trombina/farmacologia
6.
Food Chem ; 332: 127385, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32623125

RESUMO

A promising way of processing Baltic herring, Clupea harengus membras, is turning the fish into boneless mince. However, Baltic herring is prone to lipid oxidation, which possesses a challenge for industrial applications. The aim of this work was to study the efficacy of press cakes from Finnish berries and a supercritical CO2 plant extract to limit lipid oxidation during frozen storage of Baltic herring mince and to determine the impact of these additions on consumer acceptance in a fish product. Peroxide value, formation of volatile oxidation products and loss of polyunsaturated fatty acids showed that the tested natural additives decreased oxidation to a greater or similar extent as conventional antioxidants during 10-month storage. While potential of berry press cakes and plant extracts as "green label antioxidants" was shown, consumer study indicated need for further research to reach both optimal antioxidative efficacy and sensory properties.


Assuntos
Cromatografia com Fluido Supercrítico/métodos , Produtos Pesqueiros/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Dióxido de Carbono/química , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/análise , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/análise , Peixes , Congelamento , Lipídeos/análise , Fenóis/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
7.
Clín. investig. arterioscler. (Ed. impr.) ; 32(3): 87-93, mayo-jun. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-193352

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Post-prandial lipaemia (PL), oxidative stress (OS), and complement component C3 (C3) values are related to the atherosclerosis process. The post-prandial response of C3 after an oral fat load test (OFLT) using unsaturated fat is poorly addressed. The aim of this study was to analyze and compare the post-prandial response of OS markers and C3 values in men and women after an OFLT using unsaturated fat. METHODS: The study included a total of 22 healthy subjects with normal lipids and normal blood glucose (11 men and 11 pre-menopausal women). An oral unsaturated fat load test (OFLT: 50g fat per m2 body surface) was performed using a commercial liquid preparation of long chain triglycerides (Supracal®). OS markers and C3 were measured using standardized methods at fasting state and every 2h up to 8h after the OFLT. RESULTS: Men showed statistically significant higher C3, oxidized glutathione (GSSG), and oxidized-reduced glutathione (GSSG/GSH) ratio values at fasting state compared to that obtained in women. In addition, post-prandial C3 values and GSSG/GSH ratios were significantly higher in men compared to women. The GSSG value and GSSG/GSH ratio significantly decreased in men after the OFLT compared to fasting values. In contrast, the post-prandial OS markers decrease observed in women was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: In fasting state, men showed higher statistically significant C3 values and OS markers than women. The post-prandial OS markers (GSSG and GSSG/GSH ratio) significantly decrease after the OFLT with unsaturated fat in men compared to women


OBJETIVO: Los valores de lipemia postprandial (PL), estrés oxidativo (OS) y componente C3 del complemento (C3) están relacionados con el proceso de aterosclerosis. La respuesta postprandial de C3 tras una sobrecarga oral de grasa (OFLT) utilizando grasa insaturada no es completamente conocida. Nuestro objetivo fue analizar y comparar la respuesta postprandial de los marcadores de OS y los valores de C3 en hombres y mujeres después de una OFLT utilizando grasa insaturada. MÉTODOS: Estudiamos 22 sujetos normolipidémicos y normoglicémicos (11 hombres y 11 mujeres premenopáusicas). Se realizó una sobrecarga oral con grasa insaturada (OFLT: 50g de grasa por m2 de superficie corporal) utilizando una preparación líquida comercial de triglicéridos de cadena larga (Supracal®). Los marcadores OS y C3 se midieron utilizando métodos estandarizados en estado de ayuno y cada 2 horas hasta 8 horas después de OFLT. RESULTADOS: Los hombres mostraron valores significativamente mayores de C3, glutatión oxidado (GSSG) y glutatión reducido (GSSG/GSH) en estado de ayuno en comparación con los obtenidos en mujeres. Además, los valores de C3 postprandiales y la relación GSSG/GSH fueron significativamente más altos en los hombres que en las mujeres. El valor GSSG y la relación GSSG/GSH disminuyeron significativamente en los hombres después de OFLT en comparación con los valores de ayuno. En contraste, la disminución de marcadores postprandiales de OS observada en mujeres no fue estadísticamente significativa. CONCLUSIONES: En ayunas, los hombres muestran valores estadísticamente mayores de C3 y marcadores OS que las mujeres. Los marcadores OS postprandial (GSSG y GSSG/GSH ratio) disminuyen significativamente tras OFLT con grasa insaturada en los hombres en comparación con las mujeres


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Complemento C3/efeitos dos fármacos , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico , Gorduras Insaturadas/administração & dosagem , Biomarcadores , Glutationa/sangue , Gorduras Insaturadas/farmacologia , Glutationa/análise , Glutationa Peroxidase/análise , Pré-Menopausa/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Antropometria , Lipoproteínas/análise , Lipídeos/análise , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem
8.
Gene ; 754: 144850, 2020 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505844

RESUMO

Obesity is associated with germ cell apoptosis, spermatogenesis arrest, and testicular endocrine suppression. The aim of the present study was to investigate the crosstalk between germ cell apoptosis and cell cycle machinery in sedentary and obese rats after moderate-intensity continuous (MICT), high-intensity continuous (HICT) and High-intensity interval (HIIT) exercise trainings. Male Wistar rats (n = 30) were randomly divided into 5 groups; the control, sedentary high-fat diet (HFD)-received (HFD-sole), MICT, HICT and HIIT-induced HFD-received groups. The serum levels of LDL-C, HDL-C, triglyceride, and testosterone, mRNA and protein levels of Cyclin D1, Cdk4, p21, apoptotic cell number/mm2 of testicular tissue and testicular DNA fragmentation ratio were investigated. The obese animals in HFD-sole group represented a significant (p < 0.05) reduction in serum HDL-C and testosterone levels, Cyclin D1, Cdk4 expressions, and exhibited a remarkable (p < 0.05) increment in LDL-C, triglyceride, p21 expression, apoptotic cell number and DNA fragmentation ratio versus control animals. However, the animals in MICT, HICT, HIIT groups exhibited a significant (p < 0.05) increment in serum HDL-C and testosterone, Cyclin D1 and Cdk4 expressions and showed a significant (p < 0.05) reduction in serum LDL-C and triglyceride, p21 expression, apoptotic cell number and DNA fragmentation versus the HFD-sole group. In conclusion, a crosslink between cell cycle machinery and apoptosis of germ cells was revealed in the testicles of HFD-sole animals, and MICT, HICT and HIIT could ameliorate the obesity-induced impairments, respectively. This effect may be attributed to the effect of exercise training protocols on maintaining Cyclin D1 and Cdk4 and suppressing p21 expression levels in the testicles.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/métodos , Obesidade/terapia , Condicionamento Físico Animal/métodos , Testículo/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Lipídeos/análise , Masculino , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Testosterona/sangue
9.
Food Chem ; 329: 127191, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505985

RESUMO

The awareness of the functional and nutraceutical properties of olives and olive oil bioactive constituents contributed to oliviculture recent increase. Olives' metabolism and nutritional quality are determined by how the olive-tree is coping to climate change-related episodes, which increasingly occur in the Mediterranean. We characterize the most relevant lipophilic and phenolic compounds of olives from Olea europaea cultivars [Cobrançosa, Cordovil de Castelo Branco and Cordovil de Serpa (C.Serpa)] exposed to drought + heat. Olives from the three cultivars presented a similar qualitative profile but differed in their relative richness. Cobrançosa olives are richer in organic acids, esters and carbohydrates, while C.Serpa olives have higher levels of phenolic compounds, particularly under control conditions. Drought + heat changed the quantitative profile of olives, in a way dependent on the cultivar, and C.Serpa olives showed the highest stress susceptibility. Climate change-related conditions stimulate the accumulation of relevant bioactive compounds in olives, contributing to increasing its nutritional value.


Assuntos
Secas , Lipídeos/análise , Olea/química , Azeite de Oliva/análise , Fenóis/análise , Mudança Climática , Flavonoides/análise , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Iridoides/análise , Limite de Detecção , Olea/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo , Análise de Componente Principal , Temperatura
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(26): 14688-14693, 2020 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541039

RESUMO

Traces of lipids, absorbed and preserved for millennia within the inorganic matrix of ceramic vessels, act as molecular fossils and provide manifold information about past people's subsistence, diet, and rituals. It is widely assumed that lipids become preserved after adsorption into nano- to micrometer-sized pores, but to this day the distribution of these lipids in the ceramics was virtually unknown, which severely limits our understanding about the process of lipid preservation. Here we use secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) imaging for direct in situ analysis of lipids absorbed in 700- to 2,000-y-old archaeological pottery. After sectioning from larger sherds, wall cross-sections of smaller fragments were used for SIMS analysis. Lipids were found in relatively large zones of 5- to 400-µm diameter, which does not support the notion of absorption only into individual nanometer-scale pores but indicates that more macroscopic structures in the ceramics are involved in lipid preservation as well. Furthermore, lipids were found concentrated on calcium carbonate inclusions in the ceramics, which suggests that precipitation of fatty acids as calcium salts is an important aspect of lipid preservation in archaeological samples. This has important implications for analytical methods based on extraction of lipids from archaeological ceramics and needs to be considered to maximize the yield and available information from each unique sample.


Assuntos
Arqueologia/métodos , Cerâmica/química , Argila/química , Lipídeos , Espectrometria de Massa de Íon Secundário/métodos , Cerâmica/história , Culinária/história , História Antiga , Humanos , Lipídeos/análise , Lipídeos/química , Imagem Molecular , Reino Unido
11.
Life Sci ; 256: 117995, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574666

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Differential diagnosis between IPF and fibrotic HP (fHP) can be challenging: these two ILDs share many common features but call for different therapeutic approaches. In the present study, differential lipid mediator profiles were analysed by a new method in BAL and serum from HP and IPF patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 76 patients were enrolled retrospectively in the study. Median age (IQR) was 67 years (51-74); 63% were males, 30 had fHP and 46 had IPF. Serum and BAL samples were collected at initial diagnosis. For quantification of serum and BAL lipid mediators was used bead-based multiplex LEGENDPlex™ analysis (Biolegend). RESULTS: Serum Apo A1 levels were significantly higher in IPF than fHP patients (p = 0.314); indeed, serum levels of CCL2 and Apo C3 were lower in HP than in IPF patients (p = 0.013 and p = 0.041, respectively). BAL concentrations of Apo A1, adipsin, Apo C3 and APN were significantly lower in IPF than in fHP patients (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001, p = 0.007 and p = 0.023, respectively). In the logistic regression, IPF was tested as dependent variable. Serum levels of Apo A1, CCL2 and Apo C3 were tested as independent variables and ROC curve analysis of model performance showed AUC 93% (p < 0.0001); on the other hand, BAL concentrations of Apo A1, adipsin, Apo C3 and APN showed AUC 81% (p < 0.0001). DISCUSSION: Lipid biomarkers evaluated in BAL in our study confirm the hypothesis that fHP and IPF have different lung fibrosis phenotypes. The former is a post-inflammatory cell-regulated ILD and the second is more related to tissue remodeling and repair.


Assuntos
Alveolite Alérgica Extrínseca/diagnóstico , Lavagem Broncoalveolar/métodos , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/diagnóstico , Lipídeos/análise , Idoso , Alveolite Alérgica Extrínseca/fisiopatologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234096, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484830

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate changes of fat in bone marrow (BM) and paraspinal muscle (PSM) associated with the degree of fatty liver in pediatric patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in consideration of age and body mass index (BMI). METHODS: Hepatic fat, BM fat, and PSM fat from proton density fat fraction of liver MRI between June 2015 and April 2019 were quantitatively evaluated on axial images of the fat map at the mid-level of T11-L2 vertebral bodies for BM fat and at the mid-level of L2 for PSM fat. Age, height, and weight at the time of MRI were recorded and BMI was calculated. Correlation analysis was performed. RESULTS: A total of 147 patients (114 male) were included with a mean age of 13.3 ± 2.9 years (range 7-18 years). The mean fat fractions were 24.3 ± 13.0% (2-53%) in liver, 37.4 ± 8.6% (17.3-56%) in vertebral BM, and 2.7 ± 1.1% (1.0-6.9%) in PSM. Age, height, weight, and BMI were not correlated with liver fat or BM fat. However, weight (ρ = 0.174, p = 0.035) and BMI (ρ = 0.247, p = 0.003) were positively correlated with PSM fat. Liver fat showed positive correlation with BM fat when adjusting age and BMI (ρ = 0.309, p<0.001), but not with PSM fat. CONCLUSIONS: BM fat positively correlates with liver fat, but not with age or BMI in pediatric NAFLD patients.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Medula Óssea/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Lipídeos/análise , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Músculos Paraespinais/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234110, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530916

RESUMO

Sediments from stratified marine environments often show an enhanced preservation of organic matter (OM) which is attributed to the limitation, or absence, of oxygen in the bottom waters and surface sediments. Yet there is still a limited knowledge about the changes that the associated biomarker signals undergo in the different parts of a stratified environment, and as to which extent the situation in the productive upper parts of the water column is eventually reflected in the sedimentary record. To better understand these processes we studied particulate matter samples from the stratified, partly anoxic Eastern Gotland Basin (EGB, Central Baltic Sea) during a strong cyanobacterial bloom in August 2016. Endmember samples representing the main biomass producers within the phytoplankton (cyanobacteria) and mesozooplankton (copepods) were obtained from different levels of the water column. Major extractable lipids (fatty acids, n-alcohols, sterols, and selected hydrocarbons) were analysed from the same materials and compared to samples cored from the underlying surface sediments (0-12 cm). Given the annually recurring phenomenon of cyanobacterial blooms we anticipated to find a considerable lipid footprint of the major primary producers in the sedimentary record of the EGB. Unexpectedly, however, lipids in the surface sediments largely derived from the storage lipids (mainly wax esters) of the copepod Pseudocalanus spp. which thrived in deeper, more saline and oxygen-depleted waters. Carbon number and unsaturation patterns suggest that the component n-alcohols of these wax esters are transformed into the corresponding n-fatty acids prior to further degradation in the sediment. In the EGB deposits, most of the plankton-derived lipids studied appear to be degraded on a time scale of decades. In terms of relative abundances, long-chain n-alkyl lipids and C29 sterols from terrestrial plant sources instead become predominant in the deeper sediment layers. Likewise, higher stanol/sterol ratios of C27-sterols vs. C29-sterols indicate a more intense biodegradation of planktonic OM as compared to terrestrial OM. Our observations indicate that primary produced particulate OM is heavily modified by mesozooplankton grazing. This overprint adds on the influence of heterotrophic microorganisms and, in the sediment, preferential preservation of terrestrial biomarkers. Taken together, these factors result in a major decoupling of the biomarker signals between the productive upper mixed layer and the oxygen-depleted bottom waters and sediments of the EGB.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Lipídeos/análise , Zooplâncton/metabolismo , Animais , Países Bálticos , Copépodes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Copépodes/metabolismo , Cianobactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cianobactérias/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Hidrocarbonetos/análise , Esteróis/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Zooplâncton/crescimento & desenvolvimento
14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2980, 2020 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32532986

RESUMO

Proper storage of excessive dietary fat into subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) prevents ectopic lipid deposition-induced insulin resistance, yet the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we identify angiopoietin-2 (Angpt2)-integrin α5ß1 signaling as an inducer of fat uptake specifically in SAT. Adipocyte-specific deletion of Angpt2 markedly reduced fatty acid uptake and storage in SAT, leading to ectopic lipid accumulation in glucose-consuming organs including skeletal muscle and liver and to systemic insulin resistance. Mechanistically, Angpt2 activated integrin α5ß1 signaling in the endothelium and triggered fatty acid transport via CD36 and FATP3 into SAT. Genetic or pharmacological inhibition of the endothelial integrin α5ß1 recapitulated adipocyte-specific Angpt2 knockout phenotypes. Our findings demonstrate the critical roles of Angpt2-integrin α5ß1 signaling in SAT endothelium in regulating whole-body fat distribution for metabolic health and highlight adipocyte-endothelial crosstalk as a potential target for prevention of ectopic lipid deposition-induced lipotoxicity and insulin resistance.


Assuntos
Angiopoietina-2/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Integrina alfa5beta1/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/fisiologia , Gordura Subcutânea/metabolismo , Adulto , Angiopoietina-2/genética , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/citologia , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Integrina alfa5beta1/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Lipídeos/análise , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Transgênicos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transdução de Sinais/genética
15.
Leg Med (Tokyo) ; 46: 101724, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516737

RESUMO

Hypochlorous acid, produced by myeloperoxidase upon neutrophil activation, can oxidize various compounds and exert antimicrobial activity in vivo. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the reactions of the unsaturated phosphatidylcholines, which abound in cell membranes, with hypochlorous acid, we identified and examined phosphatidylcholine chlorination and oxidation products formed under various reaction conditions. We first investigated the products of unsaturated phosphatidylcholine and hypochlorous acid reaction with respect to hypochlorite concentration and reaction time. Next, we examined the lipids extracted postmortem from human abscesses. For all the analyses, we used liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Various compounds, including phosphatidylcholine chlorohydrin and phosphatidylcholine hydroxide/epoxide, were detected. Oxidized phosphatidylcholines were mainly detectable upon reaction with low concentrations of sodium hypochlorite, whereas chlorinated phosphatidylcholines formed in the presence of higher concentrations. In human abscesses, oxidized phosphatidylcholines were detected in the cases with high procalcitonin concentration, whereas chlorinated phosphatidylcholines were undetected. The detections of oxidized phosphatidylcholines in human tissues might indicate previous exposure to hypochlorous acid in septic cases. Our results provide insight into the mechanisms underlying pathogen survival following inflammation associated with neutrophil activation and topical myeloperoxidase release and show postmortem biomarkers candidates for sepsis.


Assuntos
Abscesso/diagnóstico , Abscesso/metabolismo , Ácido Hipocloroso/metabolismo , Lipídeos/análise , Fosfatidilcolinas/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida , Medicina Legal/métodos , Halogenação , Humanos , Ácido Hipocloroso/química , Espectrometria de Massas , Ativação de Neutrófilo , Oxirredução , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Fosfatidilcolinas/química
16.
Nat Methods ; 17(5): 505-508, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371966

RESUMO

Ligands bound to protein assemblies provide critical information for function, yet are often difficult to capture and define. Here we develop a top-down method, 'nativeomics', unifying 'omics' (lipidomics, proteomics, metabolomics) analysis with native mass spectrometry to identify ligands bound to membrane protein assemblies. By maintaining the link between proteins and ligands, we define the lipidome/metabolome in contact with membrane porins and a mitochondrial translocator to discover potential regulators of protein function.


Assuntos
Lipídeos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Proteoma/análise , Humanos , Ligantes
17.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1195: 95-104, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468464

RESUMO

Lipids constitute almost 60% of the brain's dry weight, and they are thought to be involved in inflammation, neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity. The brain mostly contains sphingolipids, glycerophospholipids and cholesterol which are abundant in myelin and neuronal membranes. The recent rise of the promising area of lipidomic data can be used as a diagnosing tool at the early stages of Alzheimer's disease allowing novel therapeutic targets. In this review, altered lipid metabolites as well as the impact of diet in the progress of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are analyzed.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Dieta , Lipidômica , Lipídeos/análise , Doença de Alzheimer/dietoterapia , Glicerofosfolipídeos , Humanos , Esfingolipídeos
18.
Chemosphere ; 256: 127023, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428742

RESUMO

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) methods for foods and animal feeds require sufficient sample intake followed by an extensive removal of interfering matrix components and concentration before a gas chromatographic mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method can be applied. The extraction dissolves associated lipids in animal foods or feeds. Methods must eliminate all co-extracted lipids before determination by GC-MS. A new approach for removing lipids is presented using basic silica gel or metal ion immobilized silica gel (Ag+) in a single step. Absorbent order, adsorbent amounts, and flow rates were found to be essential for consistent results. KOH/silica gel or Ag+ ion (AgNO3) silica gel were both shown to retain 75-85% of the co-extracted lipids without using sulfuric acid. KOH/silica gel method applied to butter fortified at 7.3 pg TEQ/g lipid with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) produced accurate results for all fortified congeners with 20% of predicted (n = 6). Ag+ silica gel incorporated into the Miura GO-EHT automated system produced similar results fortified at 3 pg TEQ/g lipid. During PCDD/F fortifications of butter with PCDD/Fs (n = 6), labeled standard recoveries for PCDD/Fs and planar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were all acceptable (52-99%) averaging 77% using the Miura system. A reduction in the amounts of sulfuric acid silica gel needed was possible in the completion of co-extractant removal. PCDD/F spikes into butter and for a spiked sunflower oil (PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs) were within ± 20% of the predicted using the Miura system; suitable for current methods criteria for foods including criteria in EU legislation.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Animais , Benzofuranos/análise , Manteiga/análise , Dibenzofuranos/análise , Dibenzofuranos Policlorados/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Lipídeos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise
19.
Res Vet Sci ; 131: 254-258, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438068

RESUMO

Intramuscular fat (IMF) contributes significantly to the aroma and tenderness of the meat, therefore playing a key role in quality determination. Yet, IMF determination methods rely on visual inspection or on fat extraction from meat samples after animals' slaughter. The aim of this methodological study was the elaboration of a process capable of predicting IMF% using real-time ultrasound (RTU) images in live beef cattle. The longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle of 26 Charolaise heifers was investigated. In vivo ultrasound images were taken and texture analysis was performed. One week after the animals' slaughter, the whole twelfth rib cut was collected, and IMF% was determined by extraction with petrol ether (Randall) method. Animals were divided in 3 groups depending on their mean lipid content percentage in 100 g meat (Group 1: IMF ≤ 4.24%; Group 2: 4.25% ≤ IMF ≤ 5.75%; Group 3: IMF ≥ 5.76%). Texture parameters were selected by a stepwise linear discriminant analysis using IMF% measured by chemical extraction (IMFqa) as the dependent variable, and the results of the texture analysis as explanatory variables. 6 variables were found predictive and molded into a multiple regression equation, this equation was then validated using IMFqa as ground truth. A high linear correlation between IMFqa and IMFpred was evident (r2 = 0.8504), ROC analysis perfomed on IMFpred comparing it to IMFqa showed a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 93.7%, while results from the Bland-Altman plot were ± 1.96 (±1.11SD).


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/anatomia & histologia , Bovinos/anatomia & histologia , Músculo Esquelético/anatomia & histologia , Ultrassonografia/veterinária , Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Animais , Bovinos/fisiologia , Feminino , Lipídeos/análise , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Ultrassonografia/métodos
20.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233513, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437403

RESUMO

Due to climate change, numerous ice bodies have been lost in the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP). As a consequence, deglaciation is expected to impact the marine environment and its biota at physiological and ecosystem levels. Nuculana inaequisculpta is a marine bivalve widely distributed around Antarctica that plays an important role for ecosystem functioning. Considering that N. inaequisculpta inhabits coastal areas under effect of glacial melt and retreat, impacts on its nutritional condition are expected due to alterations on its physiology and food availability. To test this hypothesis, biochemical composition (lipids, proteins, and fatty acids) and energy content were measured in individuals of N. inaequisculpta collected in a fjord at different distances to the retreating glacier in the WAP. Oceanographic parameters of the top and bottom-water layers (temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, and chlorophyll-a) were measured to investigate how the environment changes along the fjord. Results showed that surface oceanographic parameters displayed a lower temperature and dissolved oxygen, but a higher salinity and chlorophyll-a content at nearest compared to farthest sites to the glacier. In contrast, a lower temperature and chlorophyll-a, and a higher salinity and dissolved oxygen was measured in the bottom-water layer toward the glacier. N. inaequisculpta had a higher amount of lipids (17.42 ± 3.24 vs. 12.16 ± 3.46%), protein (24.34 ± 6.12 vs. 21.05 ± 2.46%) and energy content (50.57 ± 6.97 J vs. 39.14 ± 5.80 J) in the farthest compared to the nearest site to the glacier. No differences were found in total fatty acids among all sites. It seems likely that lower individual fitness related to proximity to the glacier would not be related to nutritional quality of sediment food, but rather to food quantity.


Assuntos
Bivalves/fisiologia , Mudança Climática , Camada de Gelo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Regiões Antárticas , Bivalves/química , Ecossistema , Estuários , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Camada de Gelo/química , Lipídeos/análise , Proteínas/análise
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