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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(3)2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530480

RESUMO

Protein kinases regulate protein phosphorylation, which are involved in fundamental cellular processes such as inflammatory response. In this study, we discovered a novel multi-protein kinase inhibitor, KMU-1170, a derivative of indolin-2-one, and investigated the mechanisms of its inflammation-inhibiting signaling in both THP-1 cells and human osteoarthritic fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS). We demonstrated that in THP-1 cells, KMU-1170 inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and, furthermore, suppressed LPS-induced phosphorylation of transforming growth factor-ß-activated kinase 1, JNK, ERK, inhibitor of NF-κB kinase α/ß (IKKα/ß), and NF-κB p65 as well as nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65. Moreover, KMU-1170 suppressed LPS-induced upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1ß, TNF-α, and IL-6, and, notably, inhibited LPS-induced upregulation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in THP-1 cells. Importantly, KMU-1170 attenuated LPS-mediated inflammatory responses in human osteoarthritic FLS, such as the upregulation of IL-1ß, TNF-α, IL-6, iNOS, and COX-2 and the phosphorylation of IKKα/ß and NF-κB p65. Collectively, these results suggest that KMU-1170 inhibits inflammatory signal transduction and could be developed as a potential anti-inflammatory agent.


Assuntos
Inflamassomos/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinoviócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinoviócitos/metabolismo , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Osteoartrite/etiologia , Osteoartrite/metabolismo , Osteoartrite/patologia , Fosforilação , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Células THP-1
2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(3): 982-991, 2021 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33427450

RESUMO

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced liver injury is the main factor in acute liver failure. The current study aims to investigate the protection of limonin, an antioxidant compound from citrus fruit, against LPS-induced liver toxicity and elucidate the potential mechanisms. We found that limonin elevated cell viability and reduced LDH release in LPS-treated HepG2 cells. Limonin also inhibited LPS-induced pyroptosis by inhibiting membrane rupture, reducing ROS generation, and decreasing gasdermin D activation. Moreover, limonin inhibited the formation of a NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3)/Apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC) complex by reducing the related protein expression and the colocalization cytosolic of NLRP3 and caspase-1 and then suppressed IL-1ß maturation. Ultimately, we established LPS-induced hepatotoxicity in vivo by using C57BL/6 mice administrated LPS (10 mg/kg) intraperitoneally and limonin (50 and 100 mg/kg) orally. We found that limonin dereased the serum ALT and AST activity and LDH release and increased the hepatic GSH amount in LPS-treated mice. Additionally, the liver histological evaluation revealed that limonin protects against LPS-induced liver damage. We further demonstrated that limonin ameliorated LPS-induced hepatotoxicity by inhibiting pyroptosis via the NLRP3/gasdermin D signaling pathway. In summary, this study uncovered the mechanism whereby limonin mitigated LPS-induced hepatotoxicity and documented that limonin might be a promising candidate drug for LPS-induced hepatotoxicity.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a Fosfato/metabolismo , Piroptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Caspase 1/genética , Caspase 1/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Limoninas , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Fosfato/genética
3.
Gene ; 771: 145350, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33333216

RESUMO

Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are ubiquitously expressed antioxidant proteins that can protect aerobic organisms from oxidative stress. Here, we characterized the HaPrx3 homolog at the molecular level from big-belly seahorse (Hippocampus abdominalis) and analyzed its functional activities. The coding sequence of HaPrx3 consists of 726 bp, which encodes 241 amino acids. The predicted molecular weight and theoretical isoelectric point (pI) of HaPrx3 was 26.20 kDa and 7.04, respectively. Multiple sequence alignments revealed that the arrangements of domains, catalytic triads, dimers, and decamer interfaces of HaPrx3 were conserved among Prx sequences of other organisms. According to the phylogenetic analysis, HaPrx3 is clustered with the teleost Prx3 subclade. The highest transcript level of HaPrx3 was detected in the ovary tissue among fourteen healthy fish tissues. The mRNA levels of HaPrx3 in blood and liver tissues were significantly (P < 0.05) upregulated in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), polyinosinic-polycytidylic (poly I:C), Edwardsiella tarda, and Streptococcus iniae, suggesting its involvement in immune responses. Under functional properties, insulin disulfide reduction assay confirmed the oxidoreductase activity of recombinant HaPrx3. A cell viability assay and Hoechst staining indicated cell survival ability and reduction of apoptotic activity, respectively. Moreover, a peroxidase activity assay verified peroxidase activity, while a metal-catalyzed oxidation (MCO) assay indicated the DNA protection ability of HaPrx3. Collectively, it is concluded that HaPrx3 may play a significant role in oxidative stress and immune responses against pathogenic infections in big-belly seahorses.


Assuntos
Peroxirredoxina III/genética , Peroxirredoxina III/metabolismo , Smegmamorpha/metabolismo , Animais , Sequência Conservada , Evolução Molecular , Feminino , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Peso Molecular , Ovário/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Filogenia , Poli I-C/efeitos adversos , Alinhamento de Sequência , Smegmamorpha/genética , Distribuição Tecidual
4.
Gene ; 771: 145340, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33333224

RESUMO

Diabetic patients are always at a higher risk of ischemic diseases like coronary artery diseases. One such ischemic carotid artery disease is Moyamoya disease (MMD) associated with diabetes Type I and II, but the causality was unclear. Ring Finger Protein 213 (RNF213) is the major susceptible gene for MMD. To understand the association between diabetes mellitus and MMD we chose the major players from both of the anomalies: insulin and RNF213. But before establishing the role of RNF213 in the insulin-regulating pathway we had to understand the involvement of RNF213 within different biological systems. For this, we have adopted a preliminary computational approach to find the prominent interactions of RNF213. Our first objective was to construct an interactome for RNF213. We have analyzed several curated databases and adapted a list of RNF213 interacting partners to develop its interactome. Then to understand the involvement of this interactome in biological functions we have analyzed major biological pathways, biological processes, and prominent clusters related to this interactome through a computational approach. Then to develop a pathway that might give clues for RNF213 involvement in the insulin regulatory pathway we have validated the intercluster and intracluster predictions and identified a regulatory pathway for RNF213. RNF213 interactome was observed to be involved in adaptive immunity with 4 major clusters; one of the clusters involved TNFα. The immune system involves several pathways, and therefore at this point, we have chosen an event-based strategy to obtain an explicit target. Immunity is mediated by pro-inflammatory cytokines like TNFα. TNFα-mediated inflammation, obesity, and insulin resistance are associated. Therefore we chose to explore the role of RNF213 in TNFα-mediated inflammation in macrophages and inflammation-mediated insulin-resistance in adipocytes. We have observed an enhancement of RNF213 gene expression by LPS mediated pro-inflammatory stimuli and suppression by PPARγ-mediated anti-inflammatory, insulin-sensitizing stimuli in macrophages, and also in adipocytes. Administration of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNFα was able to impede the reduction in RNF213 expression during adipogenesis and this effect was observed to be mediated by PTP1B. Inactivation of PTP1B abolished RNF213 expression which in turn enhanced the adipogenesis process through enhanced PPARγ. Constitutive expression of RNF213 suppressed the adipocyte differentiation by the inhibition of PPARγ. We could show the regulation of RNF213 by TNFα/PTP1B pathway and PPARγ. The constitutive expression of RNF213 during adipogenesis appears to be an adipostatic measure that obese patients acquire to inhibit further adipogenesis. This is verified in silico by analyzing the gene expression data obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, which showed a higher expression of RNF213 in adipose tissue samples of obese people. Overall this study gives new insights into the TNFα-mediated pathway in adipogenesis and suggests the role of RNF213 in adipogenesis via this pathway.


Assuntos
Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Doença de Moyamoya/metabolismo , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 1/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Células 3T3-L1 , Adenosina Trifosfatases/genética , Adipogenia , Animais , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Humanos , Inflamação/genética , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Camundongos , Doença de Moyamoya/genética , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Células RAW 264.7 , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/farmacologia , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 6343, 2020 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311467

RESUMO

D-mannose is a monosaccharide approximately a hundred times less abundant than glucose in human blood. Previous studies demonstrated that supraphysiological levels of D-mannose inhibit tumour growth and stimulate regulatory T cell differentiation. It is not known whether D-mannose metabolism affects the function of non-proliferative cells, such as inflammatory macrophages. Here, we show that D-mannose suppresses LPS-induced macrophage activation by impairing IL-1ß production. In vivo, mannose administration improves survival in a mouse model of LPS-induced endotoxemia as well as decreases progression in a mouse model of DSS-induced colitis. Phosphomannose isomerase controls response of LPS-activated macrophages to D-mannose, which impairs glucose metabolism by raising intracellular mannose-6-phosphate levels. Such alterations result in the suppression of succinate-mediated HIF-1α activation, imposing a consequent reduction of LPS-induced Il1b expression. Disclosing an unrecognized metabolic hijack of macrophage activation, our study points towards safe D-mannose utilization as an effective intervention against inflammatory conditions.


Assuntos
Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Ativação de Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Manose/metabolismo , Manose/farmacologia , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Colite/metabolismo , Colite/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Manosefosfatos/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolômica , Monócitos/metabolismo
6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 6348, 2020 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311506

RESUMO

Long non-coding RNAs are important regulators of biological processes including immune responses. The immunoregulatory functions of lncRNAs have been revealed primarily in murine models with limited understanding of lncRNAs in human immune responses. Here, we identify lncRNA LUCAT1 which is upregulated in human myeloid cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide and other innate immune stimuli. Targeted deletion of LUCAT1 in myeloid cells increases expression of type I interferon stimulated genes in response to LPS. By contrast, increased LUCAT1 expression results in a reduction of the inducible ISG response. In activated cells, LUCAT1 is enriched in the nucleus where it associates with chromatin. Further, LUCAT1 limits transcription of interferon stimulated genes by interacting with STAT1 in the nucleus. Together, our study highlights the role of the lncRNA LUCAT1 as a post-induction feedback regulator which functions to restrain the immune response in human cells.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Interferons/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Animais , Fenômenos Biológicos , Cromatina/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Retroalimentação , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Camundongos , Células Mieloides/metabolismo , Proteínas , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/metabolismo , Células THP-1
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4561, 2020 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917873

RESUMO

The protein high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is released into the extracellular space in response to many inflammatory stimuli, where it is a potent signaling molecule. Although research has focused on downstream HMGB1 signaling, the means by which HMGB1 exits the cell is controversial. Here we demonstrate that HMGB1 is not released from bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment. We also explore whether HMGB1 is released via the pore-forming protein gasdermin D after inflammasome activation, as is the case for IL-1ß. HMGB1 is only released under conditions that cause cell lysis (pyroptosis). When pyroptosis is prevented, HMGB1 is not released, despite inflammasome activation and IL-1ß secretion. During endotoxemia, gasdermin D knockout mice secrete HMGB1 normally, yet secretion of IL-1ß is completely blocked. Together, these data demonstrate that in vitro HMGB1 release after inflammasome activation occurs after cellular rupture, which is probably inflammasome-independent in vivo.


Assuntos
Proteína HMGB1/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a Fosfato/metabolismo , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Endotoxemia/metabolismo , Feminino , Proteína HMGB1/genética , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Proteínas de Ligação a Fosfato/genética , Piroptose , Transdução de Sinais
8.
J Anim Sci ; 98(8)2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32761212

RESUMO

Acute and subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) are common nutritional problems in both beef and dairy cattle. Therefore, the objective of this review is to describe how ruminal Gram-negative bacteria could contribute to the pathogenesis of ruminal acidoses, by releasing lipopolysaccharides (LPS; a component of their cell wall) in the ruminal fluid. When cattle consume excessive amounts of highly fermentable carbohydrates without prior adaptation, normal fermentation become disrupted. The fermentation of these carbohydrates quickly decreases ruminal pH due to the accumulation of short-chain fatty acids and lactate in the rumen. As a consequence, ruminal epithelium may be damaged and tissue function could be impaired, leading to a possible translocation of pathogenic substances from the rumen into the bloodstream. Such changes in fermentation are followed by an increase in Gram-positive bacteria while Gram-negative bacteria decrease. The lyses of Gram-negative bacteria during ruminal acidosis increase LPS concentration in the ruminal fluid. Because LPS is a highly proinflammatory endotoxin in the circulatory system, past studies have raised concerns regarding ruminal LPS contribution to the pathogenesis of ruminal acidosis. Although animals that undergo these disorders do not always have an immune response, recent studies showed that different Gram-negative bacteria have different LPS composition and toxicity, which may explain the differences in immune response. Given the diversity of Gram-negative bacteria in the rumen, evaluating the changes in the bacterial community during ruminal acidosis could be used as a way to identify which Gram-negative bacteria are associated with LPS release in the rumen. By identifying and targeting ruminal bacteria with possible pathogenic LPS, nutritional strategies could be created to overcome, or at least minimize, ruminal acidosis.


Assuntos
Acidose/veterinária , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Acidose/microbiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Epitélio/metabolismo , Epitélio/microbiologia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fermentação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Rúmen/metabolismo , Rúmen/microbiologia
9.
Life Sci ; 259: 118352, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32860804

RESUMO

AIMS: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces inflammatory cholestasis by impairing expression, localization, and function of carriers involved in bile formation, e.g. bile salt export pump (Bsep) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2). A specific therapy against this disease is still lacking. Therefore, we evaluated the anticholestatic effects of spironolactone (SL), a PXR ligand that regulates bile salt homeostasis, up-regulates Mrp2, and bears anti-inflammatory properties. MAIN METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: Control, SL (83.3 mg/kg/day of SL, i.p., for 3 days), LPS (2.5 mg/kg/day, i.p., at 8 am of the last 2 days, and 1.5 mg/kg/day at 8 pm of the last day), and SL + LPS. Biliary and plasma parameters and the expression, function, and localization of Mrp2 and Bsep were evaluated. KEY FINDINGS: SL partially prevented LPS-induced drop of basal bile flow by normalizing the bile salt-independent fraction of bile flow (BSIBF), via improvement of glutathione output. This was due to a recovery in Mrp2 transport function, the major canalicular glutathione transporter, estimated by monitoring the output of its exogenously administered substrate dibromosulfophthalein. SL counteracted the LPS-induced downregulation of Mrp2, but not that of Bsep, at both mRNA and protein levels. LPS induced endocytic internalization of both transporters, visualized by immunofluorescence followed by confocal microscopy, and SL partially prevented this relocalization. SL did not prevent the increase in IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α plasma levels. SIGNIFICANCE: SL prevents the impairment in Mrp2 expression and localization, and the resulting recovery of Mrp2 function normalizes the BSIBF by improving glutathione excretion.


Assuntos
Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Colestase/tratamento farmacológico , Espironolactona/uso terapêutico , Membro 11 da Subfamília B de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Animais , Bile/metabolismo , Colestase/sangue , Colestase/metabolismo , Citocinas/sangue , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
10.
Anticancer Res ; 40(8): 4457-4464, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727775

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Our previous studies suggested that oral administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) regulates the progression of various diseases via transformation of tissue-resident macrophages (MΦ). Recently, we characterized microglia transformed by repetitive low-dose LPS treatment (REPELL-microglia) in vitro, and this response was similar to that observed in response to oral administration of LPS in vivo. Here, we examined the characteristics of peritoneal tissue-resident MΦ (pMΦ) transformed by repetitive low-dose LPS treatment (REPELL-pMΦ). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Primary pMΦ were treated with low-dose LPS (1 ng/ml) three times; subsequently, phagocytic activity and gene expression were evaluated. RESULTS: REPELL-pMΦ exhibited high phagocytic activity and elevated expression of Arg1, Gipr, Gdnf, and Fpr2. The gene expression profiles observed in REPELL-pMΦ were distinct from those of REPELL-microglia. CONCLUSION: REPELL-pMΦ have the potential to promote clearance of xenobiotics and to suppress inflammation. The present study also demonstrates the diversity of tissue-resident MΦ transformation that reflect their tissue origin.


Assuntos
Arginase/genética , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado de Linhagem de Célula Glial/genética , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Macrófagos Peritoneais/fisiologia , Receptores de Formil Peptídeo/genética , Receptores dos Hormônios Gastrointestinais/genética , Administração Oral , Animais , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipopolissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Macrófagos Peritoneais/citologia , Macrófagos Peritoneais/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Especificidade de Órgãos , Fagocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenótipo , Cultura Primária de Células , Regulação para Cima
11.
J Toxicol Sci ; 45(7): 401-409, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32612008

RESUMO

Dihydropyrazines (DHPs), including 3-hydro-2,2,5,6-tetramethylpyrazine (DHP-3), are glycation products that are spontaneously generated in vivo and ingested via food. DHPs generate various radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can induce the expression of several antioxidant genes in HepG2 cells. However, detailed information on DHP-response pathways remains elusive. To address this issue, we investigated the effects of DHP-3 on the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway, a ROS-sensitive signaling pathway. In lipopolysaccharide-stimulated (LPS-stimulated) HepG2 cells, DHP-3 decreased phosphorylation levels of inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB) and NF-κB p65, and nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65. In addition, DHP-3 reduced the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and the adaptor protein myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88). Moreover, DHP-3 suppressed the mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα), and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1ß). Taken together, these results suggest that DHP-3 acts as a negative regulator of the TLR4-MyD88-mediated NF-κB signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Dicarbetoxi-Di-Hidrocolidina/análogos & derivados , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Dicarbetoxi-Di-Hidrocolidina/efeitos adversos , Dicarbetoxi-Di-Hidrocolidina/toxicidade , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
12.
Exp Anim ; 69(4): 395-406, 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493884

RESUMO

Gender and menopause influence the severity and development manner of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Male p62/Sqstm1 and nuclear factor E2-related factor-2 (p62 and Nrf2) double-knockout (DKO) mice exhibit severe steatohepatitis caused by hyperphagia-induced obesity, overload of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the liver, and potentiation of the inflammatory response in Kupffer cells. However, the pathogenetic phenotype of steatohepatitis in female DKO mice remains unknown. Phenotypic changes of steatohepatitis in DKO mice were compared in terms of gender differences. Compared with DKO male mice, DKO female mice exhibited later onset of steatohepatitis with obesity after 30 weeks of age, as well as milder severity of hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. Serum estradiol was higher in female than male mice, with levels increasing up to 30 weeks of age before decreasing until 50 weeks of age (corresponding to the post-menopausal period). Fecal and serum LPS were lower in female mice than male mice, and inflammatory signaling in the liver was attenuated in female compared with male mice. Correlating with LPS levels, the composition of intestinal microbiota in female mice was different from male mice. Gender differences were observed for the development of steatohepatitis in DKO mice. Low-grade inflammatory hit in the liver under in vivo conditions of high estradiol may be attributable to the milder pathological features of steatohepatitis in female mice.


Assuntos
Estradiol/fisiologia , Fígado Gorduroso/genética , Menopausa/fisiologia , Camundongos Knockout/genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Proteína Sequestossoma-1/genética , Caracteres Sexuais , Animais , Fígado Gorduroso/etiologia , Fígado Gorduroso/patologia , Feminino , Fibromialgia , Hiperfagia/complicações , Inflamação , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Obesidade/complicações
13.
J Nat Med ; 74(4): 788-795, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32533386

RESUMO

Soshiho-tang (SSHT) has traditionally been used to treat gastrointestinal disorders. In this experiment, we investigated the protective effect of SSHT on inflammatory liver injury in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-sensitized mice. Male C57BL/6J mice aged 6 weeks were randomly placed in 6 groups (n = 5): normal mice (CTR), LPS-sensitized mice (LPS), LPS-sensitized mice treated with dexamethasone (DEX) and LPS-sensitized mice treated with 0.05, 0.55, and 5.55 g/kg of SSHT (SSHT 0.05, SSHT 0.55, and SSHT 5.55). Various doses of SSHT was given once a day for 7 days. After 2 h of LPS injection, the liver tissue was collected. SSHT pretreatment recovered hemorrhage of liver tissues in LPS-induced acute liver injury. The expressions of MAP Kinase, NF-κB, IκBα, p-IκBα, COX-2, and iNOS protein levels were markedly decreased by SSHT-treated liver tissues. Additionally, SSHT pretreatment significantly regulated the expressions of MCP-1, TNF-α, and IL-6 cytokines. These results suggest the potential of SSHT on the protection of acute liver injury.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Fígado/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Doença Aguda , Animais , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
14.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 237(8): 2367-2380, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32445052

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Proinflammatory processes have been implicated in alcohol addiction, craving, and relapse, while studies in experimental animals have suggested that activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) inhibits proinflammatory signaling. Accordingly, it is hypothesized that medications with PPARγ activity may have therapeutic potential in alcohol dependence. OBJECTIVES: We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled mechanistic proof of principle study in alcohol-dependent inpatients to investigate the effect of pioglitazone on alcohol craving. METHODS: Participants were treated for withdrawal, if needed, and then randomized to pioglitazone (target dose 45 mg/day) or placebo. Once at target dose, they completed two experimental manipulations: guided imagery, which used personalized auditory scripts to induce alcohol cravings, and a low-dose challenge with i.v. lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0.8 ng/kg) or placebo, on two separate sessions, in counterbalanced order. Behavioral and endocrine responses as well as CSF levels of proinflammatory cytokines were evaluated. RESULTS: The study was prematurely terminated after randomization of 16 subjects, following an independent review that established a high risk of myopathy in the active treatment group. Analysis of those who completed the study indicated that pioglitazone was associated with elevated, rather than suppressed alcohol cravings in response to alcohol-associated stimuli. LPS did not induce cravings for alcohol and thus did not lend itself to evaluating pioglitazone effects; however, pioglitazone increased the neuroendocrine stress response to LPS. CSF levels of IL-6, TNF-α, or MCP-1 were unaffected by pioglitazone treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Both safety and efficacy biomarker data suggest that pioglitazone lacks potential as a medication for the treatment of alcohol dependence. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01631630.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/metabolismo , Fissura/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Musculares/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Musculares/metabolismo , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Pioglitazona/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Alcoolismo/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Fissura/fisiologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Imaginação/efeitos dos fármacos , Imaginação/fisiologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Musculares/diagnóstico , Pioglitazona/efeitos adversos , Estudo de Prova de Conceito , Recidiva , Adulto Jovem
15.
Am J Chin Med ; 48(4): 967-985, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32431178

RESUMO

Inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress have been documented to contribute to the development of atherosclerosis. Ginsenoside Rb2 has been reported to exhibit antidiabetic effects. However, the effects of Rb2 on atherosclerotic responses such as inflammation and ER stress in endothelial cells and monocytes remain unclear. In this study, the expression of inflammation and ER stress markers was determined using a Western blotting method. Concentrations of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF[Formula: see text]) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in culture media were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and apoptosis was evaluated by a cell viability assay and a caspase-3 activity measurement kit. We found that exposure of HUVECs and THP-1 monocytes to Rb2 attenuated inflammation and ER stress, resulting in amelioration of apoptosis and THP-1 cell adhesion to HUVECs under lipopolysaccharide (LPS) condition. Increased AMPK phosphorylation and heme oxygenase (HO)-1 expression, including GPR120 expression were observed in Rb2-treated HUVECs and THP-1 monocytes. Downregulation of both, AMPK phosphorylation and HO-1expression rescued these observed changes. Furthermore, GPR120 siRNA mitigated Rb2-induced AMPK phosphorylation. These results suggest that Rb2 inhibits LPS-mediated apoptosis and THP-1 cell adhesion to HUVECs by GPR120/AMPK/HO-1-associated attenuating inflammation and ER stress. Therefore, Rb2 can be used as a potential therapeutic molecule for treatment of atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/genética , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Ginsenosídeos/uso terapêutico , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Fitoterapia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/genética , Aterosclerose/induzido quimicamente , Aterosclerose/genética , Quimiocina CCL2/genética , Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Heme Oxigenase-1/genética , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Inflamação , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/genética , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo , Células THP-1 , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
16.
Biochim Biophys Acta Proteins Proteom ; 1868(9): 140447, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442521

RESUMO

d-serine is synthesized by serine racemase (SR), a fold type II class of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme. Whereas X-ray crystallography reveals that SR can be monomeric, reversible dimers having the highest racemase activity, or stable SR dimers resistant to both denaturation and reductive treatment, showing reduced racemase activity have been detected in microglia and astrocytes; the latter especially in oxidative or inflammatory environments. The microglial inflammatory environment depends largely on the TGFß1-mediated regulation of inflammatory cytokines such as TNFα and IL1ß. Here we evaluated the participation of TGFß1 in the regulation of SR, and whether that regulation is associated with the induction of stable SR dimers in the microglia from adult mice. In contrast to the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), TGFß1 increased the formation of stable SR dimers and reduced the detection of monomers in microglia in culture. LPS or TGFß1 did not change the amount of total SR. The increase of stable SR dimer was abolished when TGFß1 treatment was done in the presence of the Smad inhibitor SIS3, showing that Smad3 has a role in the induction of stable dimers. Treatment with TGFß1 + SIS3 also reduced total SR, indicating that the canonical TGFß1 pathway participates in the regulation of the synthesis or degradation of SR. In addition, the decrease of IL1ß, but not the decrease of TNFα induced by TGFß1, was mediated by Smad3. Our results reveal a mechanism for the regulation of d-serine through the induction of stable SR dimers mediated by TGFß1-Smad3 signaling in microglia.


Assuntos
Microglia/metabolismo , Racemases e Epimerases/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Proteína Smad3/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Animais , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Linhagem Celular , Cristalografia por Raios X , Citocinas/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Racemases e Epimerases/química , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
17.
J Pharmacol Sci ; 143(3): 209-218, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32414692

RESUMO

In the course of our continuous investigation on the bioactive marine-derived fungal metabolites, terrein was isolated from marine-derived fungal strain Penicillium sp. SF-7181. Terrein inhibited the overproduction of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 and primary microglial cells. This compound also repressed the LPS-induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-1ß and IL-6. These inhibitory effects of terrein were associated with the inactivation of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway through suppression of the translocation of p65/p50 heterodimer into the nucleus, the phosphorylation and degradation of inhibitor kappa B (IκB)-α and the DNA binding activity of the p65 subunit. In addition, terrein induced the protein expression of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 through the activation of nuclear transcription factor erythroid-2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) in BV2 and primary microglial cells. The anti-inflammatory effect of terrein was blocked by pre-treatment with a selective HO-1 inhibitor, suggesting that its anti-neuroinflammatory effect is mediated by HO-1 induction.


Assuntos
Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Ciclopentanos/uso terapêutico , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/genética , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Microglia/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios , Linhagem Celular , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/metabolismo , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/metabolismo , Ratos
18.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 36(5): 74, 2020 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32388765

RESUMO

Probiotics are known to modulate gut microbiota, intestinal barrier function and host immune response, but due to the species and strain specific response their mechanisms are not clearly understood. Thus, the present study was designed to isolate, assess the anti-inflammatory potential and underlying modulatory mechanisms of indigenous probiotics in murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7. Forty lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from different sources and monitored for their anti-inflammatory potential against lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced inflammatory stress employing RAW 264.7 cells. Among these isolates, only four LAB isolates exhibited more than 90% nitric oxide inhibition and possessed the probiotic attributes. Further, these selected LAB isolates reduced the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α, IL-1ß and IL-6, inhibited the phosphorylation of Mitogen Activated Protein Kinases (MAPKs) i.e. p38 MAPK, ERK1/2 and SAPK/JNK and expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. The in vitro analysis suggested that the selected probiotic isolates attenuated the LPS-induced inflammation by downregulating MAPK pathway vis-a-vis inhibiting COX-2 and can be employed as anti-inflammatory agents in various inflammatory diseases.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Probióticos/isolamento & purificação , Probióticos/farmacologia , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Macrófagos/imunologia , Camundongos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Células RAW 264.7/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
19.
BMC Oral Health ; 20(1): 91, 2020 03 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32223750

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pulpal inflammation is known to be mediated by multiple signaling pathways. However, whether melatonin plays regulatory roles in pulpal inflammation remains unclear. This study aimed at elucidating an in situ expression of melatonin and its receptors in human pulpal tissues, and the contribution of melatonin on the antagonism of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-infected pulpal fibroblasts. METHODS: Melatonin expression in pulpal tissues harvested from healthy teeth was investigated by immunohistochemical staining. Its receptors, melatonin receptor 1 (MT1) and melatonin receptor 2 (MT2), were also immunostained in pulpal tissues isolated from healthy teeth and inflamed teeth diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis. Morphometric analysis was subsequently performed. After LPS infection of cultured pulpal fibroblasts, cyclo-oxygenase (COX) and interleukin-1 ß (IL-1 ß) transcripts were examined by using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Analysis of mRNA expression was performed to investigate an antagonism of LPS stimulation by melatonin via COX and IL-1 ß induction. Mann-Whitney U test and One-way ANOVA were used for statistical analysis to determine a significance level. RESULTS: Melatonin was expressed in healthy pulpal tissue within the odontoblastic zone, cell-rich zone, and in the pulpal connective tissue. Furthermore, in health, strong MT1 and MT2 expression was distributed similarly in all 3 pulpal zones. In contrast, during disease, expression of MT2 was reduced in inflamed pulpal tissues (P-value< 0.001), but not MT1 (P-value = 0.559). Co-culturing of melatonin with LPS resulted in the reduction of COX-2 and IL-1 ß expression in primary pulpal fibroblasts, indicating that melatonin may play an antagonistic role to LPS infection in pulpal fibroblasts. CONCLUSIONS: Human dental pulp abundantly expressed melatonin and its receptors MT1 and MT2 in the odontoblastic layers and pulpal connective tissue layers. Melatonin exerted antagonistic activity against LPS-mediated COX-2 and IL-1 ß induction in pulpal fibroblasts, suggesting its therapeutic potential for pulpal inflammation and a possible role of pulpal melatonin in an immunomodulation via functional melatonin receptors expressed in dental pulp.


Assuntos
Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Melatonina/farmacologia , Pulpite , Humanos , Inflamação , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Prostaglandina-Endoperóxido Sintases/genética , RNA Mensageiro , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
20.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(6): 5501-5508, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32307170

RESUMO

Breeding stress-resilient livestock is a potential strategy to help mitigate the negative effect of environmental and pathogenic stressors. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and immune system are activated during stress events and release mediators into the circulation that help restore physiological homeostasis. The purpose of this study was to assess a comprehensive set of circulatory mediators released in response to an acute immune stress challenge to identify candidate biomarkers that can be used for the selection of stress-resilient animals. Fifteen female lambs were stress challenged with an intravenous bolus of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 400 ng/kg), and blood was collected from the jugular vein at 0, 2, 4, and 6 h after LPS challenge to identify and monitor candidate stress biomarkers; temperature was also recorded over time. Biomarker responses were evaluated with a repeated-measures model to compare time points with baseline values. As expected, all sheep had a monophasic febrile response to LPS challenge, and cortisol increased and returned to baseline by 6 h. The cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-6, IFN-γ (proinflammatory), and IL-10 (anti-inflammatory) increased, but only tumor necrosis factor-α returned to baseline during the monitoring period. The cytokines IL-1α, IL-1ß, IL-17α (proinflammatory), and IL-4 (anti-inflammatory) did not respond to LPS challenge. All chemokines (CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CXCL10, and IL-8) responded to LPS challenge; however, only CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, and CXCL10 increased over time, and only CCL3, CCL4, and CXCL10 returned to baseline during the monitoring period. MicroRNA (miR-145, miR-233, and miR-1246) also increased and remained elevated during the study. In summary, the LPS challenge induced a strong stress response in Rideau-Dorset sheep that could be monitored with a distinct profile of circulatory biomarkers.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Citocinas/sangue , Endotoxemia/sangue , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/fisiologia , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/fisiologia , Ovinos/fisiologia , Animais , Cruzamento , Citocinas/genética , Endotoxemia/imunologia , Feminino , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , MicroRNAs/genética , Ovinos/sangue , Ovinos/genética , Ovinos/imunologia , Estresse Fisiológico
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