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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(40): e17126, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577702

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the role of n-acetyl cysteine (NAC) in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated induction of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) synthesis by human periodontal ligament fibroblast cells (hPDLFs). In addition, we aimed to determine the involvement of the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway in any changes in IL-1ß and TNF-α expression observed in response to LPS and NAC. METHODS: HPDLFs were obtained by primary culture. The culture medium used in this experiment was Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM low-glucose). Cells were stimulated with various concentrations of NAC or LPS. Cell proliferation was measured at various time-points with the cell Counting Kit 8 (CCK-8) assay. mRNA levels of IL-1ß and TNF-α were determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analysis. Protein levels of IL-1ß and TNF-α were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Protein and mRNA expression levels of NF-κB were measured by western blot and RT-qPCR. RESULTS: The results showed that LPS treatment in hPDLFs induced mRNA and protein expression of IL-1ß, TNF-α, and NF-κB. However, these effects were eliminated by pretreatment with NAC. Pretreatment with both NAC (1 mmol/L) and BAY11-7082 (10 µmol/L) significantly inhibited the NF-κB activity induced by LPS. CONCLUSION: NAC inhibits the LPS-mediated synthesis of tumor TNF-α and IL-1ß in hPDLFs, through the NF-κB pathway.


Assuntos
Acetilcisteína/farmacologia , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Interleucina-1beta/efeitos dos fármacos , NF-kappa B/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/biossíntese , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Ligamento Periodontal , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
2.
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 35(8): 673-681, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638563

RESUMO

Objective To investigate the impact of the macrophage-derived exosomes on transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1)-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of lung epithelial cells in an inflammatory environment. Methods The morphology of exosomes derived from THP-1 macrophages was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy, and the biochemistry properties of exosomes were identified by accessing exosome-specific markers including tumor susceptibility gene 101 (TSG101), accessory protein ALG-2 interacting protein X (ALIX), CD81 and CD9 protein, and the calnexin, a negative control marker absent in exosomes, using an immunoblotting assay. The EMT of alveolar epithelial A549 cells was induced by TGF-ß1, and the impacts of exosomes on the EMT of A549 cells was ascertained by comparing cells treated with exsomes derived from LPS-primed THP-1 macrophages and naive THP-1 cells. Results We successfully established an A549 cell EMT model by TGF-ß1 induction and isolated exosomes derived from THP-1 macrophages. In comparison with the exosomes derived from untreated naive THP-1 macrophages, exosomes derived from LPS-primed THP-1 cells exhibited an ability to significantly promote TGF-ß-induced EMT of A549 cells, as determined by a significantly down-regulated E-cadherin, and an dramatically increased expression of proteins in EMT-related signaling including vimentin, alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), TGF-ß1/Smad2/3 signaling proteins Smad2/3 protein and phosphorylated Smad2/3 (p-Smad2/3) and type 1 collagen (Col1). Conclusion Exosomes derived from LPS-stimulated macrophages are able to activate TGF-ß/Smad2/3 signaling, which in turn increase the expression of EMT-related proteins vimentin, α-SMA and Col1 in A549 cells, and subsequently promote EMT in A549 cells.


Assuntos
Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Exossomos , Macrófagos , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1 , Células A549 , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/fisiologia , Exossomos/metabolismo , Humanos , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo
3.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 67(9): 1006-1014, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474723

RESUMO

Chlorogenic acid (CGA) has been considered as one of important active components in a number of medicinal herbs. Recently our group demonstrated that caffeoyl salicylate scaffold derived from CGA can be employed for the development of novel anti-inflammatory agents. The most active compound D104 can be a very promising starting point for the further structural optimization. A series of novel caffeoyl salicylate analogs were designed, synthesized, and evaluated by preliminary biological evaluation. The obtained results showed that the two compounds B12 and B13 can not only inhibit production of nitric oxide (NO) in RAW264.7 cells induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) effectively, but also have high safety in in vitro cytotoxic test, which could be comparable with D104. Molecular docking study on the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) protein revealed that compounds B12 and B13 can follow the same binding mode with D104, and the carboxyl group of caffeoyl salicylate scaffold might play a key role in the interaction with protein target, which implied the carboxyl group should be retained in the further optimization.


Assuntos
Ácido Clorogênico/química , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Ácido Salicílico/química , Células A549 , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Clorogênico/farmacologia , Humanos , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , PPAR gama/química , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Células RAW 264.7
4.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 68(10): 1605-1619, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531696

RESUMO

The main effectors in tumor control are the class I MHC molecule-restricted CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). Tumor-specific CTL induction can be regulated by dendritic cells (DCs) expressing both tumor-derived epitopes and co-stimulatory molecules. Immunosuppressive tolerogenic DCs, having down-regulated co-stimulatory molecules, are seen within the tumor mass and can suppress tumor-specific CTL induction. The tolerogenic DCs expressing down-regulated XCR1+CD141+ appear to be induced by tumor-derived soluble factors or dexamethasone, while the immunogenic DCs usually express XCR1+CD141+ molecules with a cross-presentation function in humans. Thus, if tolerogenic DCs can be reactivated into immunogenic DCs with sufficient co-stimulatory molecules, tumor-specific CD8+ CTLs can be primed and activated in vivo. In the present study, we converted human tolerogenic CD141+ DCs with enhanced co-stimulatory molecule expression of CD40, CD80, and CD86 through stimulation with non-toxic mycobacterial lipids such as mycolic acid (MA) and lipoarabinomannan (LAM), which synergistically enhanced both co-stimulatory molecule expression and interleukin (IL)-12 secretion by XCR1+CD141+ DCs. Moreover, MA and LAM-stimulated DCs captured tumor antigens and presented tumor epitope(s) in association with class I MHCs and sufficient upregulated co-stimulatory molecules to prime naïve CD3+ T cells to become CD8+ tumor-specific CTLs. Repeat CD141+ DC stimulation with MA and LAM augmented the secretion of IL-12. These findings provide us a new method for altering the tumor environment by converting tolerogenic DCs to immunogenic DCs with MA and LAM from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Mycobacterium/química , Ácidos Micólicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Antígenos de Superfície/análise , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Interleucina-12/biossíntese , Mycobacterium bovis
5.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 5017-5032, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31371944

RESUMO

Background: Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the major anti-inflammatory compound in green tea, has been shown to suppress osteoclast (OC) differentiation. However, the low aqueous solubility of EGCG always leads to poor bioavailability, adverse effects, and several drawbacks for clinical applications. Purpose: In this study, we synthesized EGCG-capped gold nanoparticles (EGCG-GNPs) to solve the drawbacks for clinical uses of EGCG in bone destruction disorders by direct reduction of HAuCl4 in EGCG aqueous solution. Methods and Results: The obtained EGCG-GNPs were negatively charged and spherical. Theoretical calculation results suggested that EGCG was released from GNPs in an acidic environment. Cellular uptake study showed an obviously large amount of intracellular EGCG-GNPs without cytotoxicity. EGCG-GNPs exhibited better effects in reducing intracellular reactive oxygen species levels than free EGCG. A more dramatic anti-osteoclastogenic effect induced by EGCG-GNPs than free EGCG was observed in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated bone marrow macrophages, including decreased formation of TRAP-positive multinuclear cells and actin rings. Meanwhile, EGCG-GNPs not only suppressed the mRNA expression of genetic markers of OC differentiation but also inhibited MAPK signaling pathways. Furthermore, we confirmed that EGCG-GNPs greatly reversed bone resorption in the LPS-induced calvarial bone erosion model in vivo, which was more effective than applying free EGCG, specifically in inhibiting the number of OCs, improving bone density, and preventing bone loss. Conclusion: EGCG-GNPs showed better anti-osteoclastogenic effect than free EGCG in vitro and in vivo, indicating their potential in anti-bone resorption treatment strategy.


Assuntos
Catequina/análogos & derivados , Ouro/farmacologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Células da Medula Óssea/citologia , Células da Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Reabsorção Óssea/patologia , Catequina/farmacologia , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Teoria da Densidade Funcional , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Ligantes , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Modelos Biológicos , Ligante RANK/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Crânio/patologia , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 67(9): 966-976, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257308

RESUMO

Honokiol, a biphenolic neolignan isolated from Magnolia officinalis, was reported to have a promising anti-inflammatory activity for the treatment of various diseases. There are many efforts on the synthesis and structure-activity relationship of honokiol derivatives. However, regioselective O-alkylation of honokiol remains a challenge and serves as a tool to provide not only some derivatives but also chemical probes for target identification and mode of action. In this study, we examined the reaction condition for regioselective O-alkylation, in which C2 and C4'-alkylated analogs of honokiol were synthesized and evaluated for inhibitory activity on nitric oxide production and cyclooxygenase-2 expression. Furthermore, we successfully synthesized a potential photoaffinity probe consisting of biotin and benzophenone based on a C4'-alkylated derivative.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Compostos de Bifenilo/farmacologia , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/farmacologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Lignanas/farmacologia , Alquilação , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/síntese química , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/química , Compostos de Bifenilo/síntese química , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/síntese química , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/química , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Lignanas/síntese química , Lignanas/química , Lipopolissacarídeos/antagonistas & inibidores , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Óxido Nítrico/antagonistas & inibidores , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Células RAW 264.7 , Estereoisomerismo
7.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(9): 7707-7716, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326176

RESUMO

Maillard reaction products formed from whey protein isolate (WPI) and sugar have been shown to have an anti-inflammatory effect in vitro. Here, we incubated WPI and galactose (GWA) in an aqueous solution at 65°C for 24 h to produce a glycated conjugate, which was then fermented using Lactobacillus gasseri 4M13 to obtain the fermented product (F-GWA). We demonstrated that F-GWA had an anti-inflammatory effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. It reduced both LPS-stimulated nitric oxide production and LPS-stimulated increases in the gene expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and cyclooxygenase-2 in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, F-GWA inhibited the LPS-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase, members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase family. The glycation process was evaluated by measuring fluorescence intensity and the furosine concentration during the Maillard reaction to form GWA. The protein modifications of WPI were analyzed using MALDI-TOF tandem mass spectrometry. We found that the combination of the Maillard reaction and L. gasseri 4M13 fermentation increased the prebiotic properties of GWA as well as organic acid production, compared with the nonreacted WPI and galactose.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Fermentação , Lactobacillus gasseri/metabolismo , Macrófagos/fisiologia , Reação de Maillard , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/química , Animais , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/genética , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Galactose/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Células RAW 264.7 , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/metabolismo
8.
J Food Sci ; 84(7): 1920-1928, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264720

RESUMO

Vanillin, a kind of phenolic compound, is naturally found in food and beverage and widely used as a flavoring agent. In view of the safety and universality of vanillin, exploring the functions of vanillin on human is of great value. Thus, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated THP-1 cells were selected as the cell model to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of vanillin in this study. On the basis of the results, vanillin markedly suppressed the expression of inflammatory cytokines (that is, TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, and IL-8), mediators (NO, iNOS, PGE2, and COX-2), and NLRP3 inflammasome (that is, NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1), blocked the LPS-induced activation of the NF-κB/IκBα/AP-1 signaling pathway, and activated the gene expression of the Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway. In addition, it was confirmed that vanillin was unable to react with LPS due to the results of quantification by HS-SPME-GC-MS. Hence, vanillin could effectively attenuate LPS-induced inflammatory response by regulating the expression of intracellular signaling pathways in THP-1 cells. It is a potent anti-inflammatory component found in food and beverage. These findings might contribute to the overall understanding of the potential health benefits of vanillin for food application. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: In this study, the anti-inflammatory effect of vanillin (VA) was evaluated by ELISA, real-time PCR, and western blot in LPS-induced THP-1 cells. The hypothesis that VA could react with LPS was excluded due to the results of quantification by HS-SPME-GC-MS. On the basis of the result, vanillin could effectively attenuate LPS-induced inflammatory response in THP-1 cells and was a potent anti-inflammatory component natural in food and beverage. These findings might contribute to the overall understanding of the potential health benefits of vanillin for food application.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Benzaldeídos/farmacologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/imunologia , Humanos , Inflamassomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamassomos/imunologia , Interleucina-1beta/imunologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Monócitos/imunologia , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/imunologia , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/imunologia , Células THP-1
9.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 52(7): e8732, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31314855

RESUMO

Inflammation plays an important role in the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), suggesting that the immune system is a target of therapeutic interventions used for treating CVDs. This study evaluated mechanisms underlying inflammatory response and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy associated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- or heat shock protein 60 (HSP60)-induced Toll-like receptor (TLR) stimulation and the effect of a small interfering RNA (siRNA) against Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II delta B (CaMKIIδB) on these outcomes. Our results showed that treatment with HSP60 or LPS (TLR agonists) induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and complement system C3 and factor B gene expression. In vitro silencing of CaMKIIδB prevented complement gene transcription and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy associated with TLR 2/4 activation but did not prevent the increase in interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alfa gene expression in primary cultured cardiomyocytes. Moreover, CaMKIIδB silencing attenuated nuclear factor-kappa B expression. These findings supported the hypothesis that CaMKIIδB acts as a link between inflammation and cardiac hypertrophy. Furthermore, the present study is the first to show that extracellular HSP60 activated complement gene expression through CaMKIIδB. Our results indicated that a stress stimulus induced by LPS or HSP60 treatment promoted cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and initiated an inflammatory response through the complement system. However, CaMKIIδB silencing prevented the cardiomyocyte hypertrophy independent of inflammatory response induced by LPS or HSP60 treatment.


Assuntos
Proteína Quinase Tipo 2 Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Receptores Toll-Like/metabolismo , Animais , Chaperonina 60/farmacologia , Expressão Gênica , Inflamação/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
10.
Chem Biol Interact ; 308: 364-371, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31158334

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Notoginsenoside R1 (NGR1) is the main saponin isolated from the roots of Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F.H. Chen (Araliaceae). This study explored the protective effects of NGR1 on human renal proximal tubular epithelial cell inflammatory damage caused by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), as well as possible internal molecular mechanisms. METHODS: Cell viability and apoptosis were assessed using CCK-8 assay and Annexin V-FITC/PI Apoptosis Detection kit, respectively. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) level was tested using DCFH-DA staining. qRT-PCR was used to measure microRNA-26a (miR-26a), interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß), IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) expressions. miRNA transfection was conducted to knock down miR-26a. The protein expression levels of key molecules related to cell apoptosis, inflammatory response and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway were detected using western blotting. RESULTS: LPS stimulation caused human renal proximal tubular epithelial cell viability reduction, apoptosis and inflammatory cytokines expression. NGR1 treatment protected human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells from LPS-caused viability reduction, ROS level elevation, apoptosis and inflammatory cytokines expression. Mechanistically, NGR1 enhanced miR-26a expression in LPS-treated human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells. Knockdown of miR-26a reversed the protective effect of NGR1 on LPS-treated cells. Besides, NGR1 inactivated NF-κB pathway in LPS-treated human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells via up-regulating miR-26a. CONCLUSION: NGR1 protected human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells from LPS-caused inflammatory damage at least partially via up-regulating miR-26a and then inactivating NF-κB pathway.


Assuntos
Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Antagomirs/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Túbulos Renais Proximais/citologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , MicroRNAs/antagonistas & inibidores , MicroRNAs/genética , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
11.
Gene ; 710: 218-232, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31158448

RESUMO

Alterations in the global gene expression profile are considered to contribute to the various physiological and pathological changes during the course of ageing. Genes that code for the molecular components of the innate system are alter markedly as ageing occurs; and this may define the susceptibility of very young and very old individuals to reproductive tract infections. The expression pattern of genes that code for beta-defensins (effectors of innate immune response) in male reproductive tract tissues of different stages of ageing is not yet reported. Further, the induction of beta-defensins during endotoxin challenge and whether epigenetic modulators can influence the expression of these genes in different stages of ageing are not reported. We analyzed the basal mRNA levels of beta-defensins and defensin-like proteins (Sperm Associated Antigen 11 (SPAG11) family members), their induction during endotoxin challenge and modulation by epigenetic modifiers (Trichostatin A and Azacytidine) in the caput, cauda, testis, prostate and seminal vesicle of rats that represent early stage to late stages of life (20 day to 730 day old). We observed differential basal gene expression pattern in the male reproductive tract tissues and the induction by LPS was not consistent neither among the age groups not the tissues analyzed. Trichostatin A and Azacytidine also influenced antimicrobial gene expression and the pattern was not consistent in different tissues obtained from different age groups. Results of this study demonstrate that antimicrobial gene expression varies to a great extent during ageing and is strongly influenced by endotoxins and epigenetic modulators.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Genitália Masculina/química , Glicopeptídeos/genética , beta-Defensinas/genética , Animais , Azacitidina/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Genitália Masculina/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Hidroxâmicos/farmacologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
12.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 4229-4245, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31239677

RESUMO

Purpose: Gene therapies via Noggin small interfering (si)RNA (siNoggin) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 plasmid DNA (pBMP-2) may be promising strategies for bone repair/regeneration, but their ideal delivery vectors, efficacy difference, and underlying mechanisms have not been explored, so these issues were probed here. Methods: This study used lipopolysaccharide-amine nanopolymersomes (LNPs), an efficient cytosolic delivery vector developed by the research team, to mediate siNoggin and pBMP-2 to transfect MC3T3-E1 cells, respectively. The cytotoxicity, cell uptake, and gene knockdown efficiency of siNoggin-loaded LNPs (LNPs/siNoggin) were studied, then the osteogenic-differentiation efficacy of MC3T3-E1 cells treated by LNPs/pBMP-2 and LNPs/siNoggin, respectively, were compared by measuring the expression of osteogenesis-related genes and proteins, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and mineralization of the extracellular matrix at all osteogenic stages. Finally, the possible signaling pathways of the two treatments were explored. Results: LNPs delivered siNoggin into cells efficiently to silence 50% of Noggin expression without obvious cytotoxicity. LNPs/siNoggin and LNPs/pBMP-2 enhanced the osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3 E1 cells, but LNPs/siNoggin was better than LNPs/pBMP-2. BMP/Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog (Smad) and glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3ß/ß-catenin signaling pathways appeared to be involved in osteogenic differentiation induced by LNPs/siNoggin, but GSK-3ß/ß-catenin was not stimulated upon LNPs/pBMP-2 treatment. Conclusion: LNPs are safe and efficient delivery vectors for DNA and RNA, which may find wide applications in gene therapy. siNoggin treatment may be a more efficient strategy to enhance osteogenic differentiation than pBMP-2 treatment. LNPs loaded with siNoggin and/or pBMP-2 may provide new opportunities for the repair and regeneration of bone.


Assuntos
Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 2/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Nanopartículas/química , Osteogênese , Polímeros/química , RNA Interferente Pequeno/administração & dosagem , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Aminas/química , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Subunidade alfa 1 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Camundongos , Minerais/química , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteogênese/genética , Plasmídeos/administração & dosagem , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transfecção , beta Catenina/metabolismo
13.
Am J Vet Res ; 80(7): 663-669, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246122

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate effects of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1) inhibitors on the production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) by interferon-γ (IFN-γ)- and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of horses as an in vitro model of inflammation in horses. SAMPLE: 1,440 samples of PBMCs from 6 healthy research horses. PROCEDURES: From heparinized whole blood samples, PBMC cultures were obtained. An initial dose-response trial on 48 PBMC samples from 2 horses (24 samples each) was used to determine concentrations of IFN-γ and LPS for use as low- and high-level stimulation concentrations. Seventy-two PBMC samples from 6 horses were assigned equally to 1 of 4 PARP1 inhibition categories: no PARP1 inhibitor (PARP1 inhibition control); 2-((R)-2-methylpyrrolidin-2-yl)-1H-benzimidazole-4-carbozamide dihydrochloride (ABT888);4-(3-(1-(cyclopropanecarbonyl)piperazine-4-carbonyl)-4-fluorobenzyl)phthalazin-1(2H)-one (AZD2281); or N-(6-oxo-5,6-dihydrophenanthridin-2-yl) -N,N-dimethylacetamide hydrochloride (PJ34). Samples of PBMCs from each horse and each PARP1 inhibition category were then assigned to 1 of 3 levels of IFN-γ and LPS stimulation: none (control), low stimulation, or high stimulation. After a 24-hour incubation period, a TNF-α ELISA was used to measure TNF-α concentration in the supernatant. Results were compared across treatments and for each horse. Data were analyzed with repeated-measures ANOVA. RESULTS: Median TNF-α concentration was significantly lower for PJ34-treated, high-level stimulated PBMCs than for PARP1 inhibition control, high-level stimulated PBMCs; however, no other meaningful differences in TNF-α concentration were detected among the inhibition and stimulation combinations. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Findings suggested that PJ34 PARP1 inhibition may reduce TNF-α production in horses, a potential benefit in reducing inflammation and endotoxin-induced damage in horses.


Assuntos
Cavalos/sangue , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/farmacologia , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Doenças dos Cavalos/fisiopatologia , Técnicas In Vitro , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/enzimologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia
14.
Phytochemistry ; 164: 206-214, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177053

RESUMO

Eight undescribed cholestane glycosides named osaundersioside A-H, along with three previously known compounds named osaundersioside I-K were isolated from Ornithogalum saundersiae Baker bulbs (Asparagaceae). Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis and chemical methods. All isolates were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity and inhibitory effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production. Osaundersioside C was thus determined to exhibit specific cytotoxicity towards MCF-7 cell line with an IC50 value of 0.20 µM, Osaundersioside H exhibited inhibitory effect on NO production in macrophages at the concentration of 10-5 M, with inhibition rate of 56.81%.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Asparagaceae/química , Colestanos/farmacologia , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/química , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Colestanos/química , Colestanos/isolamento & purificação , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Glicosídeos/química , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Lipopolissacarídeos/antagonistas & inibidores , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Células MCF-7 , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Óxido Nítrico/antagonistas & inibidores , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Casca de Planta/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
15.
Phytochemistry ; 164: 236-242, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185420

RESUMO

Mangiterpenes A-C and 2',3'-seco-manginoid C, four undescribed sesquiterpene/monoterpene-shikimate-conjugated meroterpenoids with spiro ring systems, were isolated from Guignardia mangiferae. The structures and absolute configurations of these compounds were established by comprehensive spectroscopic analyses and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations. Mangiterpenes A-C represent the first examples of sesquiterpene-shikimate-conjugated spirocyclic meroterpenoids, and 2',3'-seco-manginoid C features an unexpected 2',3'-seco-manginoids skeleton. Mangiterpene C strongly inhibited the production of NO inducted by LPS, with an IC50 value of 5.97 µM. It showed an anti-inflammatory effect by means of blocking in the NF-κB signaling pathway and decreasing the expression of inflammatory mediators.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Ácido Chiquímico/farmacologia , Compostos de Espiro/farmacologia , Terpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/química , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/isolamento & purificação , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Lipopolissacarídeos/antagonistas & inibidores , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Monoterpenos/química , Monoterpenos/isolamento & purificação , NF-kappa B/antagonistas & inibidores , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/antagonistas & inibidores , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Células RAW 264.7 , Ácido Chiquímico/química , Ácido Chiquímico/isolamento & purificação , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Espiro/química , Compostos de Espiro/isolamento & purificação , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Terpenos/química , Terpenos/isolamento & purificação
16.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 3503-3516, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190807

RESUMO

Purpose: The NLRP3 inflammasome activation has been proposed as a common mechanism for some adjuvants to boost the immune system, and cationic liposomes were reported to potentially activate the NLRP3 inflammasome. Herein, we questioned whether the NLRP3 inflammasome-activating cationic liposomes could promote antigen presentation and be applied as an immune adjuvant. In addition, we aimed to investigate the structure effect of lipid on triggering these immune responses. Materials and methods: A series of structurally similar lipids, consisting of arginine (Arg) head group and varied lengths of alkyl chains or spacers in between were used to prepare cationic liposomes. Lipopolysaccharide-primed human or murine macrophages or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-primed THP-1 cells were treated with these liposomes, and interleukin (IL)-1ß secretion was measured to quantify the NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Lysosome rupture was examined in THP-1 cells by the fluorescence loss of acridine orange, a lysosome dye. Further, chicken ovalbumin (OVA) was loaded on the liposome surface and applied to murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs), which activate OT-I and OT-II lymphocytes upon major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I- and class II-mediated antigen presentation, respectively. OT-I and OT-II cell division and IL-2 secretion were measured to evaluate the antigen presentation efficiency. The expressions of MHC molecules and co-stimulatory molecules ie, CD80, CD86, and CD40 on BMDCs were investigated by flow cytometry. Results: All the liposomes showed size distributions of 80-200 nm and zeta potentials of around 50 mV. A3C14 liposomes, consisting of Arg-C3-Glu2C14 lipids induced the most potent lysosome rupture and NLRP3 inflammasome activation. OVA-A3C14 also exhibited the most potent MHC class I- and class II-mediated antigen presentation in BMDCs without interfering MHC and co-stimulatory molecules. Conclusion: The hydrophobic moieties of arginine-based liposomes are crucial in stimulating innate immune cells. A3C14 liposomes were non-immunogenic but strongly activated innate immune cells and promoted antigen presentation, and therefore can be applied as immune adjuvants.


Assuntos
Apresentação do Antígeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Arginina/farmacologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Animais , Cátions , Células Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade/metabolismo , Humanos , Lipídeos/química , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Lipossomos , Lisossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
17.
Vet Res Commun ; 43(3): 179-186, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187404

RESUMO

Endometrial epithelial cells play a key defensive role as part of the innate immune response of cow uterus. An association between risk of acquiring infectious diseases and increased levels of free fatty acids postpartum has been suggested, and the use of omega-3 fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been proposed as a beneficial strategy to improve immunity and fertility. The goal of our study was to demonstrate the presence of free fatty acid (FFA)-1 and 4 receptors in endometrial cells and to investigate their role on DHA interference in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory endometrial activation. We demonstrated that the bovine endometrial (BEND) cells line and bovine endometrium express both FFA1 and FFA4 receptors. FFA1 and FFA4 receptors were localized in the epithelium lining the endometrial cavity and in endometrial glands whereas in BEND cells a characteristic cell membrane localization of both receptors was observed. DHA, a FFA4 natural agonist, increased intracellular calcium mobilization in BEND cells, but the FFA1 agonists oleic and linoleic acids did not increase this response. DHA-induced intracellular calcium mobilization was inhibited by the FFA4 and FFA1 antagonists AH7614 and GW1100, respectively. DHA significantly reduced LPS-induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production, but none of the antagonists reduced the effect produced by DHA. On the contrary, linoleic acid increased LPS-induced PGE2 production. In conclusion, endometrial cells express FFA4 and FFA1 receptors, and DHA induces intracellular calcium release via FFA4 and FFA1 receptors. DHA reduces PGE2, but this response was not mediated by FFA4 or FFA1 receptors.


Assuntos
Endométrio/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/genética , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/imunologia , Animais , Bovinos , Endométrio/citologia , Endométrio/efeitos dos fármacos , Endométrio/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo
18.
Life Sci ; 231: 116569, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202841

RESUMO

AIM: The IRE1 signaling pathway is implicated in I/R injury. However, little is known about the involvement of this pathway in low-dose LPS treatment of myocardial I/R injury. Thus, an attempt was made to determine the relationship between the IRE1 pathway and I/R injury using rats or in vitro H9C2 cell myocardial I/R injury models. MAIN METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats and cultured H9C2 cells were pretreated with low-dose LPS and subjected to myocardial I/R injury models. KEY FINDINGS: Low-dose LPS did not affect normal rat or cellular function. Compared with the I/R group, treatment with LPS attenuated myocardial apoptosis, decreased plasma LDH and CK-MB activities, reduced myocardium infarct size, and downregulated caspase-3 expression. Moreover, the protein or mRNA expression levels of the IRE1 signaling pathway-related proteins Grp78, IRE1, p-ASK1, ASK1, p-JNK, and JNK were notably increased during I/R injury but significantly decreased by low-dose LPS treatment both in rats and in H9C2 cells. SIGNIFICANCE: Low-dose LPS exhibited therapeutic effects in myocardial I/R injury. Most importantly, the cardioprotective mechanism of low-dose LPS may be associated with the IRE1 signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Isquemia Miocárdica/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinase 5/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/fisiologia , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo , Isquemia Miocárdica/metabolismo , Isquemia Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/fisiopatologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Life Sci ; 231: 116589, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226416

RESUMO

AIMS: Despite the protective effect of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) on human colon has been widely-reported, the mechanism of its beneficial effect is still unclear. This paper aims to reveal the internal mechanism underlined the anti-colitis effect of GOS by studying its regulatory effect on miRNAs. MAIN METHODS: An in vitro model of colitis was constructed by using human colon epithelial FHC cells and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). An in vivo colitis model was established as well, by injecting Rag2-/- Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with helicobacter hepaticus. The effects of GOS pre-treatment on these two models were tested, and the miRNAs involved in these effects were studied. KEY FINDINGS: The expression of miR-19b, miR-590-5p and miR-495 was up-regulated, and the expression of miR-29a, miR-31 and miR-142-5p was down-regulated by GOS treatment in both normal and LPS-stimulated FHC cells. Among which, miR-19b was the most varied miRNA. GOS pre-treatment significantly attenuated LPS-induced cell injury, as evidenced by the increase of cell viability, the decrease of apoptosis, as well as the suppressed release of TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-1ß. GOS pre-treatment could also prevent Rag2-/- rats against helicobacter hepaticus injection induced diarrhea and inflammation, as the body weight and colon organ weight were recovered, diarrhea score was declined, and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines was inhibited. The in vitro and in vivo effects of GOS abovementioned were all impeded when miR-19b was silenced. SIGNIFICANCE: In vitro and in vivo experiments showed that GOS have certain anti-colitis effect, and this effect may be achieved by up-regulating miR-19b.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs/genética , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Colite/genética , Colite/fisiopatologia , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Masculino , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Ativação Transcricional/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima
20.
Life Sci ; 231: 116519, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152813

RESUMO

Glechoma hederacea belongs to the Labiatae family and has many biological activities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of a hot water extract of G. hederacea (HWG). Our results indicated that rosmarinic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, genistin, and ferulic acid were the most abundant phytochemicals in HWG. The free radical scavenging capacity of HWG in cell-free systems was evaluated by using the α,α-diphenyl-ß-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ß-carotene bleaching assays. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of HWG were determined in vitro in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages. The results demonstrated that DAPI staining, the comet assay, and DNA fragmentation showed that HWG prevented LPS-induced DNA damage in RAW264.7 macrophages, reduced the content of LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA), increased GSH levels, and regulated antioxidant enzyme activities. We also demonstrated that HWG significantly decreased the LPS-induced mRNA expression of iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1ß in RAW264.7 macrophages, and reduced the LPS-induced protein expression of iNOS and COX-2 in RAW264.7 macrophages. These results show that HWG and its main components possess potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Lamiaceae/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/isolamento & purificação , Lamiaceae/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Células RAW 264.7/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
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