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1.
Heart Fail Clin ; 16(1): 1-9, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735307

RESUMO

The effects of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism on the heart and cardiovascular system are well documented. It has also been shown that various forms of heart disease including but not limited to congenital, hypertensive, ischemic, cardiac surgery, and heart transplantation cause an alteration in thyroid function tests including a decrease in serum liothyronine (T3). This article discusses the basic science and clinical data that support the hypothesis that these changes pose pathophysiologic and potential novel therapeutic challenges.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/etiologia , Hormônios Tireóideos/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Ecocardiografia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Humanos , Lipoproteínas/sangue , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/sangue
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(39): e17300, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574855

RESUMO

We investigated associations between inflammatory marker levels and hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related compensated liver cirrhosis risk in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) infection in China. We used a case-control design and data from the records of 110 Chinese patients with CHC and cirrhosis for the study; 458 CHC patients who did not have a diagnosis of cirrhosis were matched to the case group by age and sex characteristics. We also investigated fatty liver disease risk factors. The group of patients with CHC infection and cirrhosis had lower platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) values (60.63 [44.09, 89.31]) compared with the control group patients (80.24 [57.85, 111.08]). The results indicated that the group of patients with cirrhosis had higher 4-factor fibrosis index and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) values compared with the group of patients with CHC-only (1.66 [0.98, 2.60] vs 0.71 [0.45, 1.17], respectively; P < .001 and 2.12 [0.97, 4.25] vs 0.99 [0.51, 2.01], respectively; P < .001). Compared with the control group, the AST/alanine aminotransferase ratio (AAR) values in the group of patients with cirrhosis were significantly higher (P < .001). Logistic regression analysis that included model adjustment for demographic characteristics and other factors that could affect cirrhosis risk revealed that greater 1/PLR values were associated with an increased odds of having cirrhosis (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.991 [0.985-0.996]); APRI and AAR values were also independent predictors of the presence of compensated cirrhosis. We found that compared with the patients with CHC-only, the triglyceride, cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the patients with both CHC and fatty liver disease were significantly higher. The multivariate analysis of the risk of fatty liver development in patients with CHC infection found that cholesterol level was a statistically significant risk factor (AOR [95% CI] 1.380 [1.089-1.750], P = .008). Increased 1/PLR, APRI, and AAR values were associated with increased risks for development of cirrhosis in this population of Chinese patients with CHC infection. Higher cholesterol levels increased the risk of development of fatty liver disease in patients with CHC.


Assuntos
Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Hepatite C Crônica , Cirrose Hepática , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Fígado Gorduroso/sangue , Fígado Gorduroso/diagnóstico , Fígado Gorduroso/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hepacivirus/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite C Crônica/sangue , Hepatite C Crônica/complicações , Hepatite C Crônica/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lipoproteínas/sangue , Cirrose Hepática/sangue , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia , Cirrose Hepática/etiologia , Contagem de Linfócitos/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Contagem de Plaquetas/métodos , Fatores de Risco
3.
Lancet ; 394(10199): 697-708, 2019 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448741

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis and its clinical manifestation as ischaemic heart disease remains a considerable health burden. Given that many factors contribute to ischaemic heart disease, a multifactorial approach to prevention is recommended, starting with lifestyle advice, smoking cessation, and control of known cardiovascular risk factors, such as blood pressure and lipids. Within the lipid profile, the principal target is lowering LDL cholesterol, firstly with lifestyle interventions and subsequently with pharmacological therapy. Statins are the recommended first-line pharmacological treatment. Some individuals might require further lowering of LDL cholesterol or be unable to tolerate statins. Additional therapies targeting different pathways in cholesterol metabolism are now available, ranging from small molecules taken orally, to injectable therapies. Examples include ezetimibe, which targets Niemann-Pick C1-like protein, and monoclonal antibodies that target PCSK9. Phase 3 trials have also been completed for bempedoic acid (targeting ATP-citrate lyase) and inclisiran (an interference RNA-based therapeutic targeting hepatic PCSK9 synthesis). In addition to LDL cholesterol, mendelian randomisation studies support a causal role for lipoprotein(a) and triglycerides in ischaemic heart disease. In this Series paper, we appraise currently available and emerging therapies for lowering LDL cholesterol, lipoprotein(a), and triglycerides for prevention of ischaemic heart disease.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Anticolesterolemiantes/farmacologia , LDL-Colesterol/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/farmacologia , Lipoproteínas/efeitos dos fármacos , Isquemia Miocárdica/prevenção & controle , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Humanos , Lipoproteínas/sangue , Isquemia Miocárdica/tratamento farmacológico , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9 , Fatores de Risco , Triglicerídeos/sangue
4.
Phytother Res ; 33(10): 2609-2621, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31359513

RESUMO

The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effects of spirulina on glycemic control and serum lipoproteins in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and related disorders. Two independent authors systematically searched online database including EMBASE, Scopus, PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science from inception until April 30, 2019. The Cochrane Collaboration's risk of bias tool was applied to assess the methodological quality of included trials. The heterogeneity among the included studies was assessed using Cochrane's Q test and I-square (I2 ) statistic. Pooling effect sizes from studies showed a significant reduction in fasting plasma glucose (FPG; weighted mean difference [WMD]: -10.31; 95% confidence interval, CI [-16.21, -4.42]) and insulin concentrations (WMD: -0.53; 95% CI [-0.62, -0.44]) following the administration of spirulina. Pooled analysis showed also a significant reduction in total cholesterol (WMD: -20.50; 95% CI [-38.25, -2.74]), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C; WMD: -19.02; 95% CI [-36.27, -1.78]), and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) concentrations (WMD: -6.72; 95% CI [-9.19, -4.26]) and a significant increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels (WMD: 1.42; 95% CI [0.16, 2.68]) following spirulina therapy. This meta-analysis demonstrated the beneficial effects of spirulina supplementation on improving FPG, insulin, total cholesterol, LDL-C, VLDL-C, and HDL-C levels in patients with MetS and related disorders.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Lipoproteínas/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/terapia , Spirulina , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
5.
Angiology ; 70(9): 853-859, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31167539

RESUMO

This study evaluated the prognostic value of remnant lipoprotein cholesterol (RLP-C) as a predictor of in-stent restenosis (ISR) after drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Consecutive patients with CAD (n = 612) who underwent both successful coronary DES implantation and follow-up angiography ranging from 6 to 24 months were enrolled. The independent predictors of ISR were explored by multivariate logistic regression analysis; 95 (15.52%) patients were identified to have ISR. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that RLP-C concentration (odds ratio [OR]: 4.245, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.493-7.229), age (OR: 1.026, 95% CI: 1.002-1.051), diabetes mellitus (DM; OR: 1.811, 95% CI: 1.134-2.892), and lesion length (OR: 1.013, 95% CI: 1.002-1.024) were associated with ISR. Via subgroup analysis, we found that RLP-C was independently associated with ISR in both CAD with DM (OR: 4.154, 95% CI: 1.895-9.104) and CAD without DM (OR: 4.455, 95% CI: 2.097-9.464) groups. In the analysis of the receiver operating characteristics curve, RLP-C level >0.515 mmol/L exhibited 77.9% sensitivity and 56.5% specificity (area under the curve: 0.705, 95% CI: 0.648-0.762) in predicting ISR. In conclusion, RLP-C is independently associated with the development of ISR in patients with CAD after DES implantation.


Assuntos
Colesterol/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/etiologia , Reestenose Coronária/sangue , Stents Farmacológicos/efeitos adversos , Lipoproteínas/sangue , Idoso , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Curva ROC
6.
J Vet Intern Med ; 33(4): 1686-1694, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31175698

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Babesia canis infection induces a marked acute phase response (APR) that might be associated with alteration in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism and disease prognosis. HYPOTHESIS: Dogs with B. canis-induced APR develop dyslipidemia with altered lipoprotein concentration and morphology. ANIMALS: Twenty-nine client-owned dogs with acute B. canis infection and 10 clinically healthy control dogs. METHODS: Observational cross-sectional study. Serum amyloid A (SAA) was measured using ELISA. Cholesterol, phospholipids, and triglycerides were determined biochemically. Lipoproteins were separated using agarose gel electrophoresis. Lipoprotein diameter was assessed by polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis; correlation with ApoA-1 (radioimmunoassay) and SAA was determined. RESULTS: Dogs with B. canis infection had a marked APR (median SAA, 168.3 µg/mL; range, 98.1-716.2 µg/mL) compared with controls (3.2 µg/mL, 2.0-4.2 µg/mL) (P < .001). Dogs with B. canis infection had significantly lower median cholesterol (4.79 mmol/L, 1.89-7.64 mmol/L versus 6.15 mmol/L, 4.2-7.4 mmol/L) (P = .02), phospholipid (4.64 mmol/L, 2.6-6.6 mmol/L versus 5.72 mmol/L, 4.68-7.0 mmol/L) (P = .02), and α-lipoproteins (77.5%, 27.7%-93.5% versus 89.2%, 75.1%-93.5%) (P = .04), and higher ApoA-1 (1.36 U, 0.8-2.56 U versus 0.95 U, 0.73-1.54 U) concentrations (P = .02). Serum amyloid A correlated with high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) diameter (rho = .43; P = .03) and ApoA-1 (rho = .63, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Major changes associated with B. canis-induced APR in dogs are related to concentration, composition, and morphology of HDL particles pointing to an altered reverse cholesterol transport. Parallel ApoA-1 and SAA concentration increase is a unique still unexplained pathophysiological finding.


Assuntos
Reação de Fase Aguda/veterinária , Babesiose/sangue , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Reação de Fase Aguda/sangue , Reação de Fase Aguda/parasitologia , Animais , Apoproteínas/sangue , Babesia , Babesiose/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Doenças do Cão/metabolismo , Cães , Feminino , Lipídeos/sangue , Lipoproteínas/sangue , Masculino , Proteína Amiloide A Sérica/análise
7.
Food Funct ; 10(7): 4177-4188, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246210

RESUMO

Dietary eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), a main component of fish oil, has been proved to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the anti-atherosclerosis effect of fish oil enriched with EPA partially relied on its chemical groups at the sn-3 position. Male ApoE-/- mice were divided into three groups and were fed a high-fat diet (Model) or a high-fat diet containing EPA incorporated into phospholipids (EPA-PL) or triglycerides (EPA-TG), respectively. Compared with the model group, a decrease in the area of atherosclerosis lesions at the aorta was observed in both EPA-treated groups, in which EPA-PL was superior to EPA-TG. Notably, EPA-PL exhibited lower serum and hepatic lipid levels than the model group, whereas EPA-TG only reduced the hepatic triglyceride level. Interestingly, only EPA-PL treatment regulated the expression of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism. In addition, EPA-PL and EPA-TG suppressed the inflammation markers in the aorta and circulation. In conclusion, EPA-PL was superior to EPA-TG in reducing lesion progression by modulating the hepatic lipid metabolism, as well as decreasing the inflammation in the artery wall and circulatory system, which might be attributed to their structural differences at the sn-3 position.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/farmacologia , Fosfolipídeos/farmacologia , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Animais , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/patologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Óleos de Peixe/química , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Inflamação , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipoproteínas/sangue , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout
8.
Molecules ; 24(11)2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31212585

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the anti-diabetic activity of amentoflavone (AME) in diabetic mice, and to explore the potential mechanisms. METHODS: Diabetic mice induced by high fat diet and streptozotocin were administered with amentoflavone for 8 weeks. Biochemical indexes were tested to evaluate its anti-diabetic effect. Hepatic steatosis, the histopathology change of the pancreas was evaluated. The activity of glucose metabolic enzymes, the expression of Akt and pAkt, and the glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) immunoreactivity were detected. RESULTS: AME decreased the level of glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and glucagon, and increased the levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and insulin. Additionally, AME increased the activity of glucokinase (GCK), phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK-1), and pyruvate kinase (PK), and inhibited the activity of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), and glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase). Mechanistically, AME increased superoxide dismutase (SOD), decreased malondialdehyde (MDA), activation of several key signaling molecules including pAkt (Ser473), and increased the translocation to the sedimenting membranes of GLUT4 in skeletal muscle tissue. CONCLUSIONS: AME exerted anti-diabetic effects by regulating glucose and lipid metabolism, perhaps via anti-oxidant effects and activating the PI3K/Akt pathway. Our study provided novel insight into the role and underlying mechanisms of AME in diabetes.


Assuntos
Biflavonoides/química , Biflavonoides/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Animais , Biomarcadores , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Jejum , Fígado Gorduroso/etiologia , Fígado Gorduroso/metabolismo , Fígado Gorduroso/patologia , Glucagon/sangue , Glucose/metabolismo , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Insulina/sangue , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipídeos/sangue , Lipoproteínas/sangue , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Camundongos , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosforilação
9.
Nat Rev Cardiol ; 16(9): 555-574, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31123340

RESUMO

Testosterone is the main male sex hormone and is essential for the maintenance of male secondary sexual characteristics and fertility. Androgen deficiency in young men owing to organic disease of the hypothalamus, pituitary gland or testes has been treated with testosterone replacement for decades without reports of increased cardiovascular events. In the past decade, the number of testosterone prescriptions issued for middle-aged or older men with either age-related or obesity-related decline in serum testosterone levels has increased exponentially even though these conditions are not approved indications for testosterone therapy. Some retrospective studies and randomized trials have suggested that testosterone replacement therapy increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, which has led the FDA to release a warning statement about the potential cardiovascular risks of testosterone replacement therapy. However, no trials of testosterone replacement therapy published to date were designed or adequately powered to assess cardiovascular events; therefore, the cardiovascular safety of this therapy remains unclear. In this Review, we provide an overview of epidemiological data on the association between serum levels of endogenous testosterone and cardiovascular disease, prescription database studies on the risk of cardiovascular disease in men receiving testosterone therapy, randomized trials and meta-analyses evaluating testosterone replacement therapy and its association with cardiovascular events and mechanistic studies on the effects of testosterone on the cardiovascular system. Our aim is to help clinicians to make informed decisions when considering testosterone replacement therapy in their patients.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal , Testosterona/sangue , Testosterona/uso terapêutico , Animais , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico por imagem , Plaquetas/fisiologia , Débito Cardíaco/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Vasos Coronários , Progressão da Doença , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Endotélio/fisiopatologia , Tolerância ao Exercício/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Lipoproteínas/sangue , Metanálise como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Risco , Testosterona/farmacologia , Resistência Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 109(5): 1239-1250, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31051508

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Replacing dietary saturated fatty acids (SFAs) with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) reduces the plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and subsequently the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, beyond changes in LDL cholesterol, we lack a complete understanding of the physiologic alterations that occur when improving dietary fat quality. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to gain knowledge of metabolic alterations paralleling improvements in the fat quality of the diet. METHODS: We recently conducted an 8-wk, double-blind, randomized controlled trial replacing SFAs with PUFAs in healthy subjects with moderate hypercholesterolemia (n = 99). In the present substudy, we performed comprehensive metabolic profiling with multiple platforms (both nuclear magnetic resonance- and mass spectrometry-based technology) (n = 99), and analyzed peripheral blood mononuclear cell gene expression (n = 95) by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: A large number of lipoprotein subclasses, myristoylcarnitine and palmitoylcarnitine, and kynurenine were reduced when SFAs were replaced with PUFAs. In contrast, bile acids, proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9, acetate, and acetoacetate were increased by the intervention. Some amino acids were also altered by the intervention. The mRNA levels of LXRA and LDLR were increased, in addition to several liver X receptor α target genes and genes involved in inflammation, whereas the mRNA levels of UCP2 and PPARD were decreased in peripheral blood mononuclear cells after replacing SFAs with PUFAs. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis showed that the 30 most important variables that contributed to class separation spanned all classes of biomarkers, and was in accordance with the univariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Applying metabolomics in randomized controlled dietary intervention trials has the potential to extend our knowledge of the biological and molecular effects of dietary fat quality. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01679496.


Assuntos
Dieta , Gorduras na Dieta/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/farmacologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Hipercolesterolemia/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipoproteínas/sangue , Ácido Acético/sangue , Acetoacetatos/sangue , Aminoácidos/sangue , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Gorduras na Dieta/sangue , Método Duplo-Cego , Ácidos Graxos/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/dietoterapia , Hipercolesterolemia/genética , Masculino , Metaboloma/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolômica/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeo Hidrolases/genética , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo
11.
JAMA ; 321(19): 1895-1905, 2019 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112258

RESUMO

Importance: Favorable trends occurred in the lipid levels of US youths through 2010, but these trends may be altered by ongoing changes in the food supply, obesity prevalence, and other factors. Objective: To analyze trends in levels of lipids and apolipoprotein B in US youths during 18 years from 1999 through 2016. Design, Setting, and Participants: Serial cross-sectional analysis of US population-weighted data for youths aged 6 to 19 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys for 1999 through 2016. Linear temporal trends were analyzed using multivariable regression models with regression coefficients (ß) reported as change per 1 year. Exposures: Survey year; examined periods spanned 10 to 18 years based on data availability. Main Outcomes and Measures: Age- and race/ethnicity-adjusted mean levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), non-HDL, and total cholesterol. Among fasting adolescents (aged 12-19 years), mean levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, geometric mean levels of triglycerides, and mean levels of apolipoprotein B. Prevalence of ideal and adverse (vs borderline) levels of lipids and apolipoprotein B per pediatric lipid guidelines. Results: In total, 26 047 youths were included (weighted mean age, 12.4 years; female, 51%). Among all youths, the adjusted mean total cholesterol level declined from 164 mg/dL (95% CI, 161 to 167 mg/dL) in 1999-2000 to 155 mg/dL (95% CI, 154 to 157 mg/dL) in 2015-2016 (ß for linear trend, -0.6 mg/dL [95% CI, -0.7 to -0.4 mg/dL] per year). Adjusted mean HDL cholesterol level increased from 52.5 mg/dL (95% CI, 51.7 to 53.3 mg/dL) in 2007-2008 to 55.0 mg/dL (95% CI, 53.8 to 56.3 mg/dL) in 2015-2016 (ß, 0.2 mg/dL [95% CI, 0.1 to 0.4 mg/dL] per year) and non-HDL cholesterol decreased from 108 mg/dL (95% CI, 106 to 110 mg/dL) to 100 mg/dL (95% CI, 99 to 102 mg/dL) during the same years (ß, -0.9 mg/dL [95% CI, -1.2 to -0.6 mg/dL] per year). Among fasting adolescents, geometric mean levels of triglycerides declined from 78 mg/dL (95% CI, 74 to 82 mg/dL) in 1999-2000 to 63 mg/dL (95% CI, 58 to 68 mg/dL) in 2013-2014 (log-transformed ß, -0.015 [95% CI, -0.020 to -0.010] per year), mean levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol declined from 92 mg/dL (95% CI, 89 to 95 mg/dL) to 86 mg/dL (95% CI, 83 to 90 mg/dL) during the same years (ß, -0.4 mg/dL [95% CI, -0.7 to -0.2 mg/dL] per year), and mean levels of apolipoprotein B declined from 70 mg/dL (95% CI, 68 to 72 mg/dL) in 2005-2006 to 67 mg/dL (95% CI, 65 to 70 mg/dL) in 2013-2014 (ß, -0.4 mg/dL [95% CI, -0.7 to -0.04 mg/dL] per year). Favorable trends were generally also observed in the prevalence of ideal and adverse levels. By the end of the study period, 51.4% (95% CI, 48.5% to 54.2%) of all youths had ideal levels for HDL, non-HDL, and total cholesterol; among adolescents, 46.8% (95% CI, 40.9% to 52.6%) had ideal levels for all lipids and apolipoprotein B, whereas 15.2% (95% CI, 13.1% to 17.3%) of children aged 6 to 11 years and 25.2% (95% CI, 22.2% to 28.2%) of adolescents aged 12 to 19 years had at least 1 adverse level. Conclusions and Relevance: Between 1999 and 2016, favorable trends were observed in levels of lipids and apolipoprotein B in US youths aged 6 to 19 years.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteínas B/sangue , Colesterol/sangue , Hiperlipidemias/epidemiologia , Lipoproteínas/sangue , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Nutrients ; 11(4)2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30991731

RESUMO

The omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is implicated in theregulation of both lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Thus, we questioned whether dietary DHAand low or high content of sucrose impact on metabolism in mice deficient for elongation of verylong-chain fatty acids 2 (ELOVL2), an enzyme involved in the endogenous DHA synthesis. Wefound that Elovl2 -/- mice fed a high-sucrose DHA-enriched diet followed by the high sucrose, highfat challenge significantly increased body weight. This diet affected the triglyceride rich lipoproteinfraction of plasma lipoproteins and changed the expression of several genes involved in lipidmetabolism in a white adipose tissue. Our findings suggest that lipogenesis in mammals issynergistically influenced by DHA dietary and sucrose content.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo Branco/efeitos dos fármacos , Sacarose na Dieta/farmacologia , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/farmacologia , Lipogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos , Acetiltransferases/genética , Acetiltransferases/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/sangue , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/deficiência , Lipogênese/genética , Lipoproteínas/sangue , Camundongos Knockout , Triglicerídeos/sangue
13.
Gynecol Endocrinol ; 35(9): 803-806, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982370

RESUMO

Irisin, a novel exercise-induced myokine, has been implicated in different aspects of human metabolism and could be connected to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This study aimed to investigate serum and follicular fluid (FF) irisin levels in PCOS and normal women undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation and correlate them to the lipid and lipoprotein levels as well as with other metabolic parameters. Serum and FF irisin, together with serum lipid and lipoprotein levels were assessed in 70 women with diagnosed PCOS and 70 non-PCOS controls, under in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment. Regardless of BMI, PCOS women had a significantly increased number of oocytes retrieved, fertilized oocytes and transferred embryos, although the number of women achieving pregnancies did not differ between groups. No correlation between FF irisin levels and pregnancy could be established. Serum and FF irisin levels were significantly higher in PCOS and overweight women and were positively associated with BMI and dyslipidemia. FF irisin levels correlated positively to and were lower than serum irisin levels. Further research would be helpful to analyze irisin's role in female reproduction, if any, as well as in human metabolism and the pathophysiology of PCOS.


Assuntos
Fibronectinas/sangue , Fibronectinas/metabolismo , Líquido Folicular/metabolismo , Lipoproteínas/sangue , Indução da Ovulação , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/metabolismo , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Dislipidemias/etiologia , Dislipidemias/metabolismo , Feminino , Líquido Folicular/química , Humanos , Infertilidade Feminina/etiologia , Infertilidade Feminina/metabolismo , Infertilidade Feminina/terapia , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Lipídeos/sangue , Indução da Ovulação/métodos , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/sangue , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/complicações , Gravidez
14.
Diabetologia ; 62(6): 981-992, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30949716

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Apolipoprotein C-III (apoC-III) is a small proinflammatory protein that may play a key role in diabetes pathophysiology. However, prior observational studies have been limited to predominantly white populations, and the biological links between apoC-III and diabetes, particularly the role of apoC-III on specific lipoprotein particles, are not yet well understood. We therefore investigated associations of total apoC-III and apoC-III-defined lipoprotein subspecies with incident diabetes and glucose metabolism measures in a multi-ethnic cohort. METHODS: For the current analyses, baseline (2000-2002) plasma total apoC-III and apolipoprotein A-I concentrations of HDL containing or lacking apoC-III were newly measured via sandwich ELISA in 4579 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Multivariable Cox regression was used to examine associations of apolipoproteins with incident diabetes until early 2012 (567 cases), and linear mixed models were used to estimate associations with longitudinally assessed continuous measures of glucose metabolism. Similar exploratory analyses of plasma apolipoprotein B concentrations of LDL and VLDL containing or lacking apoC-III were performed in a subset of participants (LDL, n = 1545; VLDL, n = 1526). RESULTS: In the overall population, elevated total apoC-III concentrations were associated with a higher rate of diabetes (top vs bottom quintile, HR 1.88; 95% CI 1.42, 2.47; ptrend = 0.0002). ApoC-III-defined HDL subspecies displayed opposing associations with incidence of diabetes (p for heterogeneity = 0.02). While HDL lacking apoC-III was inversely associated with incidence of diabetes (top vs bottom quintile, HR 0.66; 95% CI 0.46, 0.93; ptrend = 0.002), HDL containing apoC-III was not associated (HR 1.11; 95% CI 0.78, 1.58; ptrend = 0.61). Similarly, only HDL lacking apoC-III was beneficially associated with plasma glucose (ptrend = 0.003), HbA1c (ptrend = 0.04) and insulin sensitivity (ptrend < 0.0001), and higher HDL containing apoC-III was associated with lower insulin sensitivity (ptrend = 0.04). Neither of the apoC-III-defined LDL subspecies was associated with incident diabetes, while VLDL was more strongly associated with the incidence of diabetes when it lacked apoC-III. Further adjustment for plasma triacylglycerols as a potential intermediate attenuated the associations of total apoC-III and apoC-III-defined lipoprotein subspecies. No statistically significant differences were observed across racial/ethnic groups. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Our findings in a multi-ethnic population support the involvement of apoC-III in the development of diabetes, potentially through its association with circulating triacylglycerols. The presence of apoC-III on HDL also diminished the protective association of HDL with incident diabetes. Further investigation of apoC-III and apoC-III-defined HDL subspecies may inform the development of novel diabetes treatment and prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteína A-I/sangue , Apolipoproteína C-III/sangue , Aterosclerose/sangue , Lipoproteínas/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
15.
Lipids Health Dis ; 18(1): 83, 2019 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30943980

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Almonds have been shown to lower LDL cholesterol but there is limited information regarding their effects on the dyslipidemia characterized by increased levels of very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) and small, dense low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles that is associated with abdominal adiposity and high carbohydrate intake. The objective of the present study was to test whether substitution of almonds for other foods attenuates carbohydrate-induced increases in small, dense LDL in individuals with increased abdominal adiposity. METHODS: This was a randomized cross-over study of three 3wk diets, separated by 2wk washouts: a higher-carbohydrate (CHO) reference diet (CHOhigh), a higher-CHO diet with isocaloric substitution of 20% kcal (E) from almonds (CHOhigh + almonds), and a lower-CHO reference diet (CHOlow) in 9 men and 15 women who were overweight or obese. The two CHOhigh diets contained 50% carbohydrate, 15% protein, 35% fat (6% saturated, 21% monounsaturated, 8% polyunsaturated), while the CHOlow diet contained 25% carbohydrate, 28% protein, 47% fat (8% saturated, 28% monounsaturated, 8% polyunsaturated). Lipoprotein subfraction concentrations were measured by ion mobility. RESULTS: Relative to the CHOlow diet: 1) the CHOhigh + almonds diet significantly increased small, dense LDLIIIa (mean difference ± SE: 28.6 ± 10.4 nmol/L, P = 0.008), and reduced LDL-peak diameter (- 1.7 ± 0.6 Å, P = 0.008); 2) the CHOhigh diet significantly increased medium-sized LDLIIb (24.8 ± 11.4 nmol/L, P = 0.04) and large VLDL (3.7 ± 1.8 nmol/L, P = 0.05). Relative to CHOlow, the effects of CHOhigh on LDLIIIa (17.7 ± 10.6 nmol/L) and LDL-peak diameter (- 1.1 ± 0.6 Å) were consistent with those of CHOhigh + almonds, and the effects of CHOhigh + almonds on LDLIIb (21.0 ± 11.2 nmol/L) and large VLDL (2.8 ± 1.8 nmol/L) were consistent with those of CHOhigh, but did not achieve statistical significance (P > 0.05). None of the variables examined showed a significant difference between the CHOhigh + almonds and CHOhigh diets (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our analyses provided no evidence that deriving 20% E from almonds significantly modifies increases in levels of small, dense LDL or other plasma lipoprotein changes induced by a higher carbohydrate low saturated fat diet in individuals with increased abdominal adiposity. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01792648 .


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/dietoterapia , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Obesidade Abdominal/dietoterapia , Prunus dulcis , Adiposidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras/métodos , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Energia/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Lipoproteínas/sangue , Lipoproteínas VLDL/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Caracteres Sexuais , Triglicerídeos/sangue
16.
Lipids Health Dis ; 18(1): 80, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30935416

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence regarding the correlation between lipoproteins and telomere length in US adults is limited. We aimed to investigate whether lipoproteins was associated with telomere length using US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) database. METHODS: A total of 6468 selected participants were identified in the NHANES Data Base (1999-2002). The independent and dependent variables were lipoproteins and telomere length, respectively. The covariates included demographic data, dietary data, physical examination data, and comorbidities. RESULTS: In fully-adjusted model, we found that 0.1 differences of telomere length were positively associated with HDL-C [0.19 (95% CI 0.07, 0.31)], while the associations between LDL-C [0.19 (95% CI -0.27, 0.65)], TG [- 1.00 (95% CI -2.09, 0.07) and telomere length were not detected. By nonlinearity test, only the relationship between HDL-C and telomere length was nonlinear. The inflection point we got was 1.25. On the left side of the inflection point (telomere length ≤ 1.25), a difference in 0.1 of telomere length was associated with 0.50 difference in HDL-C. CONCLUSION: After adjusting for demographic data, dietary data, physical examination data, and comorbidities, telomere length is not associated with LDL-C and TG, but is positively associated with HDL-C when telomere length is less than 1.25.


Assuntos
Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/epidemiologia , Lipoproteínas/genética , Homeostase do Telômero/genética , Telômero/genética , Adulto , Idoso , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/sangue , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/genética , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/patologia , Leucócitos/citologia , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Lipoproteínas/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Fatores de Risco , Triglicerídeos/sangue
17.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 38(7): 1279-1286, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982158

RESUMO

Bacteremia is a major clinical challenge requiring early treatment. Metabolic alterations occur during bacteremia, and accordingly plasma concentrations of lipoproteins LDL-C and HDL-C are substantially changed. We questioned whether bacteremia with Gram-negative versus Gram-positive bacteria causes contrasting changes of lipoprotein levels in order to differentiate between the 2-g stain types and if there is a relation with outcome parameters namely ICU-admission, 30-day mortality, duration of hospitalization. This is a retrospective dual-center cross-sectional study, including 258 patients with bacteremia. Plasma lipid levels were analyzed within 48 h to positive blood culture. Upon admission, HDL-C, LDL-C, and total cholesterol (p = 0.99) in plasma did not significantly differ between patients with Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteremia, while significantly higher triglyceride concentrations were found in Gram-negative bacteremia (p < 0.05). 30-day mortality and ICU admission were associated with lower LDL-C and HDL-C concentrations as compared to survivors and non-ICU patients, and patients with HDL-C < 20 mg dl-1 and LDL-C < 55 mg dl-1 had a relative risk (RR) of 2.85 for ICU therapy requirement and RR = 2 of death within 30 days. Reduced HDL-C and LDL-C concentrations were associated with adverse patient's outcome in bacteremia. Discrimination between Gram-negative and Gram-positive pathogens upon lipoprotein patterns is unlikely.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/mortalidade , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/mortalidade , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/mortalidade , Lipoproteínas/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Estudos Retrospectivos , Triglicerídeos/sangue
18.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 51(9): 1866-1875, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30973481

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Arising evidence suggests that resistance training has the potential to induce beneficial modulation of biomarker profile. To date, however, only immediate responses to resistance training have been investigated using high-throughput metabolomics whereas the effects of chronic resistance training on biomarker profile have not been studied in detail. METHODS: A total of 86 recreationally active healthy men without previous systematic resistance training background were allocated into (i) a resistance training (RT) group (n = 68; age, 33 ± 7 yr; body mass index, 28 ± 3 kg·m) and (ii) a non-RT group (n = 18; age, 31 ± 4 yr; body mass index, 27 ± 3 kg·m). Blood samples were collected at baseline (PRE), after 4 wk (POST-4wk), and after 16 wk of resistance training intervention (POST-16wk), as well as baseline and after the non-RT period (20-24 wk). Nuclear magnetic resonance-metabolome platform was used to determine metabolomic responses to chronic resistance training. RESULTS: Overall, the resistance training intervention resulted in favorable alterations (P < 0.05) in body composition with increased levels of lean mass (~2.8%), decreased levels of android (~9.6%), and total fat mass (~7.5%). These changes in body composition were accompanied by antiatherogenic alterations in serum metabolome profile (false discovery rate < 0.05) as reductions in non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (e.g., free cholesterol, remnant cholesterol, intermediate-density lipoprotein cholesterols, low-density lipoprotein cholesterols) and related apolipoprotein B, and increments in conjugated linoleic fatty acids levels were observed. Individuals with the poorest baseline status (i.e., body composition, metabolome profile) benefitted the most from the resistance training intervention. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, resistance training improves cardiometabolic risk factors and serum metabolome even in previously healthy young men. Thus, suggesting attenuated risk for future cardiovascular disease.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Lipídeos/sangue , Treinamento de Resistência , Levantamento de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto , Aminoácidos/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Dieta , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Humanos , Lipoproteínas/sangue , Estudos Longitudinais , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Metabolômica/métodos , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco
19.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0214060, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30913229

RESUMO

The apolipoprotein E-C1-C4-C2 gene cluster at 19q13.32 encodes four amphipathic apolipoproteins. The influence of APOE common polymorphisms on plasma lipid/lipoprotein profile, especially on LDL-related traits, is well recognized; however, little is known about the role of other genes/variants in this gene cluster. In this study, we evaluated the role of common and uncommon/rare genetic variation in this gene region on inter-individual variation in plasma lipoprotein levels in non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs) and African blacks (ABs). In the variant discovery step, the APOE, APOC1, APOC4, APOC2 genes were sequenced along with their flanking and hepatic control regions (HCR1 and HCR2) in 190 subjects with extreme HDL-C/TG levels. The next step involved the genotyping of 623 NHWs and 788 ABs for the identified uncommon/rare variants and common tagSNPs along with additional relevant SNPs selected from public resources, followed by association analyses with lipid traits. A total of 230 sequence variants, including 15 indels were identified, of which 65 were novel. A total of 70 QC-passed variants in NHWs and 108 QC-passed variants in ABs were included in the final association analyses. Single-site association analysis of SNPs with MAF>1% revealed 20 variants in NHWs and 24 variants in ABs showing evidence of association with at least one lipid trait, including several variants exhibiting independent associations from the established APOE polymorphism even after multiple-testing correction. Overall, our study has confirmed known associations and also identified novel associations in this genomic region with various lipid traits. Our data also support the contribution of both common and uncommon/rare variation in this gene region in affecting plasma lipid profile in the general population.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteína C-II/genética , Apolipoproteína C-I/genética , Apolipoproteínas C/genética , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Lipoproteínas/sangue , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Dislipidemias/sangue , Dislipidemias/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Haplótipos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Família Multigênica , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Triglicerídeos/sangue
20.
Int J Eat Disord ; 52(6): 611-629, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30920679

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Alterations in blood lipid concentrations in anorexia nervosa (AN) have been reported; however, the extent, mechanism, and normalization with weight restoration remain unknown. We conducted a systematic review and a meta-analysis to evaluate changes in lipid concentrations in acutely-ill AN patients compared with healthy controls (HC) and to examine the effect of partial weight restoration. METHOD: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis (PROSPERO: CRD42017078014) were conducted for original peer-reviewed articles. RESULTS: Forty-eight studies were eligible for review; 33 for meta-analyses calculating mean differences (MD). Total cholesterol (MD = 22.7 mg/dL, 95% CI = 12.5, 33.0), high-density lipoprotein (HDL; MD = 3.4 mg/dL, CI = 0.3, 7.0), low-density lipoprotein (LDL; MD = 12.2 mg/dL, CI = 4.4, 20.1), triglycerides (TG; MD = 8.1 mg/dL, CI = 1.7, 14.5), and apolipoprotein B (Apo B; MD = 11.8 mg/dL, CI = 2.3, 21.2) were significantly higher in acutely-ill AN than HC. Partially weight-restored AN patients had higher total cholesterol (MD = 14.8 mg/dL, CI = 2.1, 27.5) and LDL (MD = 16.1 mg/dL, CI = 2.3, 30.0). Pre- versus post-weight restoration differences in lipid concentrations did not differ significantly. DISCUSSION: We report aggregate evidence for elevated lipid concentrations in acutely-ill AN patients compared with HC, some of which persist after partial weight restoration. This could signal an underlying adaptation or dysregulation not fully reversed by weight restoration. Although concentrations differed between AN and HC, most lipid concentrations remained within the reference range and meta-analyses were limited by the number of available studies.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa/sangue , Lipídeos/sangue , Lipoproteínas/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Anorexia Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
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