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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4576, 2020 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917905

RESUMO

Endosome maturation depends on membrane contact sites (MCSs) formed between endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and endolysosomes (LyLEs). The mechanism underlying lipid supply for this process and its pathophysiological relevance remains unclear, however. Here, we identify PDZD8-the mammalian ortholog of a yeast ERMES subunit-as a protein that interacts with protrudin, which is located at ER-LyLE MCSs. Protrudin and PDZD8 promote the formation of ER-LyLE MCSs, and PDZD8 shows the ability to extract various lipids from the ER. Overexpression of both protrudin and PDZD8 in HeLa cells, as well as their depletion in mouse primary neurons, impairs endosomal homeostasis by inducing the formation of abnormal large vacuoles reminiscent of those apparent in spastin- or REEP1-deficient neurons. The protrudin-PDZD8 system is also essential for the establishment of neuronal polarity. Our results suggest that protrudin and PDZD8 cooperatively promote endosome maturation by mediating ER-LyLE tethering and lipid extraction at MCSs, thereby maintaining neuronal polarity and integrity.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Endossomos/fisiologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/metabolismo , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Células HeLa , Humanos , Lipídeos , Lipossomos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Camundongos Knockout , Mitocôndrias , Domínios Proteicos , Proteômica , Proteínas Recombinantes , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/genética
2.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 140(8): 1007-1012, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741858

RESUMO

We previously showed that increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) after ischemic stroke enables extravasation of nano-sized liposomes and accumulation in the ischemic region, and that delivery of neuroprotective agents using liposomal drug delivery systems (DDS) is applicable for treating cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, entry of liposomes into the brain parenchyma was limited in the early stages after I/R possibly due to microvascular dysfunction induced by pathological progression. As such, new approaches to overcome the BBB are needed. Leukocytes can pass through inflamed BBB in I/R region due to membrane proteins displayed on their surface. We thus hypothesized that incorporation of leukocyte membrane proteins onto liposomal membranes would impart leukocyte-mimicking functions to liposomes and that leukocyte-mimetic liposomes (LM-Lipo) may pass through inflamed endothelial cells and BBB, similar to leukocytes. LM-Lipo prepared using intermembrane protein transfer from human leukemia cells showed significantly increased association to inflamed human umbilical vein endothelial cells relative to plain liposomes. Moreover, LM-Lipo passed through inflamed endothelial cell layer by regulating intercellular junctions. These results suggest that imparting leukocyte-like properties to liposomes via intermembrane protein transfer would be an effective strategy to overcome inflamed endothelial barriers. In this review, we describe our findings on ischemic stroke treatment using liposomal DDS and the potential of LM-Lipo to overcome inflamed endothelial barriers.


Assuntos
Barreira Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Leucócitos , Lipossomos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/administração & dosagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/metabolismo , Humanos , Permeabilidade , Transporte Proteico , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/tratamento farmacológico , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4061, 2020 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32792541

RESUMO

Adhesions are fibrotic scars that form between abdominal organs following surgery or infection, and may cause bowel obstruction, chronic pain, or infertility. Our understanding of adhesion biology is limited, which explains the paucity of anti-adhesion treatments. Here we present a systematic analysis of mouse and human adhesion tissues. First, we show that adhesions derive primarily from the visceral peritoneum, consistent with our clinical experience that adhesions form primarily following laparotomy rather than laparoscopy. Second, adhesions are formed by poly-clonal proliferating tissue-resident fibroblasts. Third, using single cell RNA-sequencing, we identify heterogeneity among adhesion fibroblasts, which is more pronounced at early timepoints. Fourth, JUN promotes adhesion formation and results in upregulation of PDGFRA expression. With JUN suppression, adhesion formation is diminished. Our findings support JUN as a therapeutic target to prevent adhesions. An anti-JUN therapy that could be applied intra-operatively to prevent adhesion formation could dramatically improve the lives of surgical patients.


Assuntos
Aderências Teciduais/metabolismo , Aderências Teciduais/patologia , Animais , Benzofenonas/farmacologia , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Células Cultivadas , Doxiciclina/farmacologia , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Imunofluorescência , Gastroenteropatias/metabolismo , Gastroenteropatias/patologia , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Isoxazóis/farmacologia , Lipossomos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Células NIH 3T3 , Parabiose , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Tamoxifeno/farmacologia
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4317, 2020 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32859896

RESUMO

Lipid membranes, nucleic acids, proteins, and metabolism are essential for modern cellular life. Synthetic systems emulating the fundamental properties of living cells must therefore be built upon these functional elements. In this work, phospholipid-producing enzymes encoded in a synthetic minigenome are cell-free expressed within liposome compartments. The de novo synthesized metabolic pathway converts precursors into a variety of lipids, including the constituents of the parental liposome. Balanced production of phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol is realized, owing to transcriptional regulation of the activity of specific genes combined with a metabolic feedback mechanism. Fluorescence-based methods are developed to image the synthesis and membrane incorporation of phosphatidylserine at the single liposome level. Our results provide experimental evidence for DNA-programmed membrane synthesis in a minimal cell model. Strategies are discussed to alleviate current limitations toward effective liposome growth and self-reproduction.


Assuntos
Lipossomos/metabolismo , Lipídeos de Membrana/biossíntese , Lipídeos de Membrana/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Fosfatidiletanolaminas/genética , Fosfatidiletanolaminas/metabolismo , Fosfatidilgliceróis/genética , Fosfatidilgliceróis/metabolismo , Fosfolipídeos/genética , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Proteômica
5.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237156, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780756

RESUMO

Ischemic neuropathy is common in subjects with critical limb ischemia, frequently causing chronic neuropathic pain. However, neuropathic pain caused by ischemia is hard to control despite the restoration of an adequate blood flow. Here, we used a rat model of ischemic-reperfusion nerve injury (IRI) to investigate possible effects of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) against ischemic neuropathy. Hemagglutinating virus of Japan (HVJ) liposomes containing plasmids encoded with HGF was delivered into the peripheral nervous system by retrograde axonal transport following its repeated injections into the tibialis anterior muscle in the right hindlimb. First HGF gene transfer was done immediately after IRI, and repeated at 1, 2 and 3 weeks later. Rats with IRI exhibited pronounced mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia, decreased blood flow and skin temperature, and lowered thresholds of plantar stimuli in the hind paw. These were all significantly improved by HGF gene transfer, as also were sciatic nerve conduction velocity and muscle action potential amplitudes. Histologically, HGF gene transfer resulted in a significant increase of endoneurial microvessels in sciatic and tibial nerves and promoted nerve regeneration which were confirmed by morphometric analysis. Neovascularization was observed in the contralateral side of peripheral nerves as well. In addition, IRI elevated mRNA levels of P2X3 and P2Y1 receptors, and transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor subtype 1 (TRPV1) in sciatic nerves, dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord, and these elevated levels were inhibited by HGF gene transfer. In conclusion, HGF gene transfer is a potent candidate for treatment of acute ischemic neuropathy caused by reperfusion injury, because of robust angiogenesis and enhanced nerve regeneration.


Assuntos
Terapia Genética/métodos , Fator de Crescimento de Hepatócito/genética , Neuralgia/terapia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/terapia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Gânglios Espinais/metabolismo , Técnicas de Transferência de Genes , Vetores Genéticos , Fator de Crescimento de Hepatócito/metabolismo , Humanos , Hiperalgesia/metabolismo , Lipossomos/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Nervo Isquiático/metabolismo , Vírus Sendai/genética , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Nature ; 585(7823): 129-134, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32848250

RESUMO

Transmembrane channels and pores have key roles in fundamental biological processes1 and in biotechnological applications such as DNA nanopore sequencing2-4, resulting in considerable interest in the design of pore-containing proteins. Synthetic amphiphilic peptides have been found to form ion channels5,6, and there have been recent advances in de novo membrane protein design7,8 and in redesigning naturally occurring channel-containing proteins9,10. However, the de novo design of stable, well-defined transmembrane protein pores that are capable of conducting ions selectively or are large enough to enable the passage of small-molecule fluorophores remains an outstanding challenge11,12. Here we report the computational design of protein pores formed by two concentric rings of α-helices that are stable and monodisperse in both their water-soluble and their transmembrane forms. Crystal structures of the water-soluble forms of a 12-helical pore and a 16-helical pore closely match the computational design models. Patch-clamp electrophysiology experiments show that, when expressed in insect cells, the transmembrane form of the 12-helix pore enables the passage of ions across the membrane with high selectivity for potassium over sodium; ion passage is blocked by specific chemical modification at the pore entrance. When incorporated into liposomes using in vitro protein synthesis, the transmembrane form of the 16-helix pore-but not the 12-helix pore-enables the passage of biotinylated Alexa Fluor 488. A cryo-electron microscopy structure of the 16-helix transmembrane pore closely matches the design model. The ability to produce structurally and functionally well-defined transmembrane pores opens the door to the creation of designer channels and pores for a wide variety of applications.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador , Genes Sintéticos/genética , Canais Iônicos/química , Canais Iônicos/genética , Modelos Moleculares , Biologia Sintética , Linhagem Celular , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Cristalografia por Raios X , Condutividade Elétrica , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Hidrazinas , Canais Iônicos/metabolismo , Transporte de Íons , Lipossomos/metabolismo , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Porinas/química , Porinas/genética , Porinas/metabolismo , Engenharia de Proteínas , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Solubilidade , Água/química
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(31): 18497-18503, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32680969

RESUMO

Membrane proteins (MPs) used to be the most difficult targets for structural biology when X-ray crystallography was the mainstream approach. With the resolution revolution of single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM), rapid progress has been made for structural elucidation of isolated MPs. The next challenge is to preserve the electrochemical gradients and membrane curvature for a comprehensive structural elucidation of MPs that rely on these chemical and physical properties for their biological functions. Toward this goal, here we present a convenient workflow for cryo-EM structural analysis of MPs embedded in liposomes, using the well-characterized AcrB as a prototype. Combining optimized proteoliposome isolation, cryo-sample preparation on graphene grids, and an efficient particle selection strategy, the three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of AcrB embedded in liposomes was obtained at 3.9 Å resolution. The conformation of the homotrimeric AcrB remains the same when the surrounding membranes display different curvatures. Our approach, which can be widely applied to cryo-EM analysis of MPs with distinctive soluble domains, lays out the foundation for cryo-EM analysis of integral or peripheral MPs whose functions are affected by transmembrane electrochemical gradients or/and membrane curvatures.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Lipossomos/ultraestrutura , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas Associadas à Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Escherichia coli/ultraestrutura , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/ultraestrutura , Lipossomos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/ultraestrutura , Modelos Moleculares , Proteínas Associadas à Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/ultraestrutura , Conformação Proteica
8.
Mol Cell Biol ; 40(19)2020 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32719109

RESUMO

Recent studies have demonstrated the existence of a discrete pool of cholesterol in the plasma membranes (PM) of mammalian cells-referred to as the accessible cholesterol pool-that can be detected by the binding of modified versions of bacterial cytolysins (e.g., anthrolysin O). When the amount of accessible cholesterol in the PM exceeds a threshold level, the excess cholesterol moves to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where it regulates the SREBP2 pathway and undergoes esterification. We reported previously that the Aster/Gramd1 family of sterol transporters mediates nonvesicular movement of cholesterol from the PM to the ER in multiple mammalian cell types. Here, we investigated the PM pool of accessible cholesterol in cholesterol-loaded fibroblasts with a knockdown of Aster-A and in mouse macrophages from Aster-B and Aster-A/B-deficient mice. Nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) analyses revealed expansion of the accessible cholesterol pool in cells lacking Aster expression. The increased accessible cholesterol pool in the PM was accompanied by reduced cholesterol movement to the ER, evidenced by increased expression of SREBP2-regulated genes. Cosedimentation experiments with liposomes revealed that the Aster-B GRAM domain binds to membranes in a cholesterol concentration-dependent manner and that the binding is facilitated by the presence of phosphatidylserine. These studies revealed that the Aster-mediated nonvesicular cholesterol transport pathway controls levels of accessible cholesterol in the PM, as well as the activity of the SREBP pathway.


Assuntos
Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Colesterol/metabolismo , Células 3T3-L1 , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Lipossomos/metabolismo , Macrófagos Peritoneais/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Espectrometria de Massa de Íon Secundário/métodos , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 2/genética , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 2/metabolismo
9.
J Infect Public Health ; 13(9): 1255-1264, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32674978

RESUMO

An alternate host for mycobacteria is Mycobacterium smegmatis which is used frequently. It is a directly budding eco-friendly organism not emulated as human infection. It is mainly useful for the investigation of various microorganisms in the sort of Mycobacteria in cell culture laboratories. Some Mycobacterium species groups that is normal, unsafe ailments, likely to Mycobacterium leprae, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis. At present, various laboratories are clean and culture this type of species to make an opinion that fascinating route of harmful Mycobacteria. This publication provides aggregate data on cell shape, genome studies, ecology, pathology and utilization of M. smegmatis.


Assuntos
Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/patologia , Mycobacterium smegmatis/metabolismo , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Humanos , Lipossomos/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Mycobacterium smegmatis/citologia , Mycobacterium smegmatis/genética , Mycobacterium smegmatis/ultraestrutura
10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2848, 2020 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503964

RESUMO

The natural antibiotic teixobactin kills pathogenic bacteria without detectable resistance. The difficult synthesis and unfavourable solubility of teixobactin require modifications, yet insufficient knowledge on its binding mode impedes the hunt for superior analogues. Thus far, teixobactins are assumed to kill bacteria by binding to cognate cell wall precursors (Lipid II and III). Here we present the binding mode of teixobactins in cellular membranes using solid-state NMR, microscopy, and affinity assays. We solve the structure of the complex formed by an improved teixobactin-analogue and Lipid II and reveal how teixobactins recognize a broad spectrum of targets. Unexpectedly, we find that teixobactins only weakly bind to Lipid II in cellular membranes, implying the direct interaction with cell wall precursors is not the sole killing mechanism. Our data suggest an additional mechanism affords the excellent activity of teixobactins, which can block the cell wall biosynthesis by capturing precursors in massive clusters on membranes.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Depsipeptídeos/farmacologia , Uridina Difosfato Ácido N-Acetilmurâmico/análogos & derivados , Membrana Celular/ultraestrutura , Parede Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Depsipeptídeos/química , Lipossomos/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Uridina Difosfato Ácido N-Acetilmurâmico/química , Uridina Difosfato Ácido N-Acetilmurâmico/metabolismo
11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(24): 13468-13479, 2020 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32467162

RESUMO

The functions of nervous and neuroendocrine systems rely on fast and tightly regulated release of neurotransmitters stored in secretory vesicles through SNARE-mediated exocytosis. Few proteins, including tomosyn (STXBP5) and amisyn (STXBP6), were proposed to negatively regulate exocytosis. Little is known about amisyn, a 24-kDa brain-enriched protein with a SNARE motif. We report here that full-length amisyn forms a stable SNARE complex with syntaxin-1 and SNAP-25 through its C-terminal SNARE motif and competes with synaptobrevin-2/VAMP2 for the SNARE-complex assembly. Furthermore, amisyn contains an N-terminal pleckstrin homology domain that mediates its transient association with the plasma membrane of neurosecretory cells by binding to phospholipid PI(4,5)P2 However, unlike synaptrobrevin-2, the SNARE motif of amisyn is not sufficient to account for the role of amisyn in exocytosis: Both the pleckstrin homology domain and the SNARE motif are needed for its inhibitory function. Mechanistically, amisyn interferes with the priming of secretory vesicles and the sizes of releasable vesicle pools, but not vesicle fusion properties. Our biochemical and functional analyses of this vertebrate-specific protein unveil key aspects of negative regulation of exocytosis.


Assuntos
Exocitose , Fosfatidilinositol 4,5-Difosfato/metabolismo , Proteína 2 Associada à Membrana da Vesícula/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/metabolismo , Animais , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Células Cromafins/metabolismo , Humanos , Lipossomos/metabolismo , Fusão de Membrana , Células PC12 , Domínios de Homologia à Plecstrina , Ligação Proteica , Ratos , Proteínas SNARE/metabolismo , Proteína 25 Associada a Sinaptossoma/metabolismo , Sintaxina 1/metabolismo , Vertebrados , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/química , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/genética
12.
Chemistry ; 26(39): 8597-8607, 2020 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32301193

RESUMO

Liposomes are effective nanocarriers due to their ability to deliver encapsulated drugs to diseased cells. Nevertheless, liposome delivery would be improved by enhancing the ability to control the release of contents at the target site. While various stimuli have been explored for triggering liposome release, enzymes provide excellent targets due to their common overexpression in diseased cells. We present a general approach to enzyme-responsive liposomes exploiting targets that are commonly aberrant in disease, including esterases, phosphatases, and ß-galactosidases. Responsive lipids correlating with each enzyme family were designed and synthesized bearing an enzyme substrate moiety attached via a self-immolating linker to a non-bilayer lipid scaffold, such that enzymatic hydrolysis triggers lipid decomposition to disrupt membrane integrity and release contents. Liposome dye leakage assays demonstrated that each enzyme-responsive liposome yielded significant content release upon enzymatic treatment compared to minimal release in controls. Results also showed that fine-tuning liposome composition was critical for controlling release. DLS analysis showed particle size increases in the cases of esterase- and ß-galactosidase-responsive lipids, supporting alterations to membrane properties. These results showcase an effective modular strategy that can be tailored to target different enzymes, providing a promising new avenue for advancing liposomal drug delivery.


Assuntos
Lipídeos/química , Lipossomos/química , beta-Galactosidase/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Lipossomos/metabolismo , Tamanho da Partícula
13.
J Biol Chem ; 295(10): 3257-3268, 2020 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005660

RESUMO

Eukaryotic cells are compartmentalized to form organelles, whose functions rely on proper phospholipid and protein transport. Here we determined the crystal structure of human VAT-1, a cytosolic soluble protein that was suggested to transfer phosphatidylserine, at 2.2 Å resolution. We found that VAT-1 transferred not only phosphatidylserine but also other acidic phospholipids between membranes in vitro Structure-based mutational analyses showed the presence of a possible lipid-binding cavity at the interface between the two subdomains, and two tyrosine residues in the flexible loops facilitated phospholipid transfer, likely by functioning as a gate to this lipid-binding cavity. We also found that a basic and hydrophobic loop with two tryptophan residues protruded from the molecule and facilitated binding to the acidic-lipid membranes, thereby achieving efficient phospholipid transfer.


Assuntos
Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Transporte Biológico , Cristalografia por Raios X , Humanos , Lipossomos/química , Lipossomos/metabolismo , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Fosfatidilserinas/metabolismo , Domínios Proteicos , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Triptofano/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/química , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/genética
14.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 204: 111812, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062391

RESUMO

One of the most important barriers to the detection of the biological autoluminescence (BAL) from biosystems using a non-invasive monitoring approach, in both the in vivo and the in vitro applications, is its very low signal intensity (< 1000 photons/s/cm2). Experimental studies have revealed that the formation of electron excited species, as a result of reactions of biomolecules with reactive oxygen species (ROS), is the principal biochemical source of the BAL which occurs during the cell metabolism. Mitochondria, as the most important organelles involved in oxidative metabolism, are considered to be the main intracellular BAL source. Hence, in order to achieve the BAL enhancement via affecting the mitochondria, we prepared a novel mitochondrial-liposomal nanocarrier with two attractive features including the intra-liposomal gold nanoparticle synthesizing ability and the mitochondria penetration capability. The results indicate that these nanocarriers (with the average size of 131.1 ±â€¯20.1 nm) are not only able to synthesize the gold nanoparticles within them (with the average size of 15 nm) and penetrate into the U2OS cell mitochondria, but they are also able to amplify the BAL signals. Our results open new possibilities for the use of biological autoluminescence as a non-invasive and label-free monitoring method in nanomedicine and biotechnology.


Assuntos
Ouro/química , Lipossomos/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Lipossomos/metabolismo , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
15.
Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr ; 1862(5): 183203, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31981589

RESUMO

Mechanosensitive (MS) channels have an intimate relationship with membrane lipids that underlie their mechanosensitivity. Membrane lipids may influence channel activity by directly interacting with MS channels or by influencing the global properties of the membrane such as elastic area expansion modulus or bending rigidity. Previous work has implicated membrane stiffness as a potential determinant of the mechanosensitivity of E. coli (Ec)MscS. Here we systematically tested this hypothesis using patch fluorometry of azolectin liposomes doped with lipids of increasing elastic area expansion modulus. Increasing dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) content of azolectin liposomes made it more difficult to activate EcMscS by membrane tension (i.e. increased gating threshold). This effect was exacerbated by stiffer forms of phosphatidylethanolamine such as the branched chain lipid diphytanoylphosphoethanolamine (DPhPE) or the fully saturated lipid distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DSPE). Furthermore, a comparison of the branched chain lipid diphytanoylphosphocholine (DPhPC) to the stiffer DPhPE indicated again that it was harder to activate EcMscS in the presence of the stiffer DPhPE. We show that these effects are not due to changes in membrane bending rigidity as the membrane tension threshold of EcMscS in membranes doped with PC18:1 and PC18:3 remained the same, despite a two-fold difference in their bending rigidity. We also show that after prolonged pressure application sudden removal of force in softer membranes caused a rebound reactivation of EcMscS and we discuss the relevance of this phenomenon to bacterial osmoregulation. Collectively, our data suggests that membrane stiffness (elastic area expansion modulus) is one of the key determinants of the mechanosensitivity of EcMscS.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Canais Iônicos/metabolismo , Bicamadas Lipídicas/química , Mecanotransdução Celular/fisiologia , Transporte Biológico , Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/química , Ativação do Canal Iônico/fisiologia , Canais Iônicos/química , Bicamadas Lipídicas/metabolismo , Lipossomos/metabolismo , Lipídeos de Membrana/metabolismo , Membranas/metabolismo , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp/métodos , Fosfatidilcolinas/metabolismo , Fosfatidiletanolaminas , Esferoplastos/metabolismo
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(4): 1902-1909, 2020 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932440

RESUMO

Executing gene circuits by cell-free transcription-translation into cell-sized compartments, such as liposomes, is one of the major bottom-up approaches to building minimal cells. The dynamic synthesis and proper self-assembly of macromolecular structures inside liposomes, the cytoskeleton in particular, stands as a central limitation to the development of cell analogs genetically programmed. In this work, we express the Escherichia coli gene mreB inside vesicles with bilayers made of lipid-polyethylene glycol (PEG). We demonstrate that two-dimensional molecular crowding, emulated by the PEG molecules at the lipid bilayer, is enough to promote the polymerization of the protein MreB at the inner membrane into a sturdy cytoskeleton capable of transforming spherical liposomes into elongated shapes, such as rod-like compartments. We quantitatively describe this mechanism with respect to the size of liposomes, lipid composition of the membrane, crowding at the membrane, and strength of MreB synthesis. So far unexplored, molecular crowding at the surface of synthetic cells emerges as an additional development with potential broad applications. The symmetry breaking observed could be an important step toward compartment self-reproduction.


Assuntos
Células Artificiais/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Forma Celular , Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/química , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Lipossomos/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/química , Citoesqueleto/química , Escherichia coli/citologia , Escherichia coli/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Lipossomos/química , Polimerização , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Conformação Proteica
17.
J Food Sci ; 85(1): 86-95, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945205

RESUMO

For the past several decades, only a few studies were conducted on the change in immature rice liposomes during seed development. To evaluate and compare the lipid material of different degrees of developing rice grains, this paper focused on fresh rice seeds from only one most popular species of Dasan divided into five growth periods. The lipid components of fresh rice, especially γ-oryzanol and fatty acids equipped with extremely beneficial phytonutrients, were investigated. The results illustrated that the level of extracted liposome increased gradually along with the development of rice and in the third stage of development, the level of liposome achieved maximum. And then, instead of increasing, it was decreased at later stages of development. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of fresh edible rice (FER) was also evaluated by DPPH and ABTS assay. It was shown that FER has the higher antioxidant activity than the ripened rice seed on lipids, which will improve FER using on the functional foods and help provide certainly theoretical basis in food processing industry.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Lipossomos/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenilpropionatos/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo
18.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 534, 2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31988280

RESUMO

A disturbance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis may cause the pathogenesis of many diseases. Inspired by natural photosynthesis, this work proposes a photo-driven H2-evolving liposomal nanoplatform (Lip NP) that comprises an upconversion nanoparticle (UCNP) that is conjugated with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) via a ROS-responsive linker, which is encapsulated inside the liposomal system in which the lipid bilayer embeds chlorophyll a (Chla). The UCNP functions as a transducer, converting NIR light into upconversion luminescence for simultaneous imaging and therapy in situ. Functioning as light-harvesting antennas, AuNPs are used to detect the local concentration of ROS for FRET biosensing, while the Chla activates the photosynthesis of H2 gas to scavenge local excess ROS. The results thus obtained indicate the potential of using the Lip NPs in the analysis of biological tissues, restoring their ROS homeostasis, possibly preventing the initiation and progression of diseases.


Assuntos
Clorofila/metabolismo , Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Lipossomos/metabolismo , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Fotossíntese , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Ouro , Nanoestruturas
19.
Talanta ; 209: 120600, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31892046

RESUMO

The rate-determining step of the human exposome workflow is the acquisition of physiologically relevant data (e.g., effect directed analysis), which can be performed retrospectively or with ad hoc experiments. In this contribution, an automated system is proposed for evaluating potential interaction mechanisms of xenobiotics across cell membranes, the so-called membranotropic effects, using liposomes as a mimicry of biological membranes, and fluorescent membrane probes. The smart fluidic method features real-time acquisition of fluorescence readouts, data processing and feedback in a fully unsupervised mode. As a proof of concept applicability, the behavior of newly synthesized cholesterol-laden biomimetic liposomes, and the in-vitro potential toxicant action of bisphenol A and diclofenac as model of emerging contaminants on cell membrane surrogates were investigated in a flow-through format. Unattended operation resulted in excellent intermediate precision (<1.5%) and unveiled that diclofenac affected the liposomal bilayer order very slightly, regardless of the cholesterol concentration, because it accumulates at a superficial level, while the membranotropic effect of bisphenol A was more pronounced at low concentration levels of cholesterol because at increased levels, the membrane reduces its permeability.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Colesterol/metabolismo , Diclofenaco/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Lipossomos/metabolismo , Fenóis/toxicidade , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Testes de Toxicidade/instrumentação , Xenobióticos/toxicidade
20.
Neuron ; 105(2): 310-321.e3, 2020 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761710

RESUMO

Transmembrane channel-like (TMC) 1 and 2 are required for the mechanotransduction of mouse inner ear hair cells and localize to the site of mechanotransduction in mouse hair cell stereocilia. However, it remains unclear whether TMC1 and TMC2 are indeed ion channels and whether they can sense mechanical force directly. Here we express TMC1 from the green sea turtle (CmTMC1) and TMC2 from the budgerigar (MuTMC2) in insect cells, purify and reconstitute the proteins, and show that liposome-reconstituted CmTMC1 and MuTMC2 proteins possess ion channel activity. Furthermore, by applying pressure to proteoliposomes, we demonstrate that both CmTMC1 and MuTMC2 proteins can indeed respond to mechanical stimuli. In addition, CmTMC1 mutants corresponding to human hearing loss mutants exhibit reduced or no ion channel activity. Taken together, our results show that the CmTMC1 and MuTMC2 proteins are pore-forming subunits of mechanosensitive ion channels, supporting TMC1 and TMC2 as hair cell transduction channels.


Assuntos
Canais Iônicos/metabolismo , Mecanotransdução Celular/fisiologia , Proteínas de Membrana/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Linhagem Celular , Feminino , Lipossomos/metabolismo , Melopsittacus , Proteínas de Membrana/biossíntese , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Mutação , Spodoptera , Tartarugas
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