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1.
Nat Cell Biol ; 22(8): 973-985, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753672

RESUMO

Autophagy is a homeostatic process with multiple functions in mammalian cells. Here, we show that mammalian Atg8 proteins (mAtg8s) and the autophagy regulator IRGM control TFEB, a transcriptional activator of the lysosomal system. IRGM directly interacted with TFEB and promoted the nuclear translocation of TFEB. An mAtg8 partner of IRGM, GABARAP, interacted with TFEB. Deletion of all mAtg8s or GABARAPs affected the global transcriptional response to starvation and downregulated subsets of TFEB targets. IRGM and GABARAPs countered the action of mTOR as a negative regulator of TFEB. This was suppressed by constitutively active RagB, an activator of mTOR. Infection of macrophages with the membrane-permeabilizing microbe Mycobacterium tuberculosis or infection of target cells by HIV elicited TFEB activation in an IRGM-dependent manner. Thus, IRGM and its interactors mAtg8s close a loop between the autophagosomal pathway and the control of lysosomal biogenesis by TFEB, thus ensuring coordinated activation of the two systems that eventually merge during autophagy.


Assuntos
Família da Proteína 8 Relacionada à Autofagia/fisiologia , Autofagia/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina e Hélice-Alça-Hélix Básicos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/fisiologia , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Calcineurina/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Células HeLa , Humanos , Lisossomos/fisiologia , Transporte Proteico , Proteínas Qa-SNARE/metabolismo
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(35): 21391-21402, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817423

RESUMO

Syntaxin17, a key autophagosomal N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) protein, can associate with ATG8 family proteins SNAP29 and VAMP8 to facilitate the membrane fusion process between the double-membraned autophagosome and single-membraned lysosome in mammalian macroautophagy. However, the inherent properties of Syntaxin17 and the mechanistic basis underlying the interactions of Syntaxin17 with its binding proteins remain largely unknown. Here, using biochemical, NMR, and structural approaches, we systemically characterized Syntaxin17 as well as its interactions with ATG8 family proteins, SNAP29 and VAMP8. We discovered that Syntaxin17 alone adopts an autoinhibited conformation mediated by a direct interaction between its Habc domain and the Qa-SNARE motif. In addition, we revealed that the Qa-SNARE region of Syntaxin17 contains one LC3-interacting region (LIR) motif, which preferentially binds to GABARAP subfamily members. Importantly, the GABARAP binding of Syntaxin17 can release its autoinhibited state. The determined crystal structure of the Syntaxin17 LIR-GABARAP complex not only provides mechanistic insights into the interaction between Syntaxin17 and GABARAP but also reveals an unconventional LIR motif with a C-terminally extended 310 helix for selectively binding to ATG8 family proteins. Finally, we also elucidated structural arrangements of the autophagic Syntaxin17-SNAP29-VAMP8 SNARE core complex, and uncovered its conserved biochemical and structural characteristics common to all other SNAREs. In all, our findings reveal three distinct states of Syntaxin17, and provide mechanistic insights into the Syntaxin17-mediated autophagosome-lysosome fusion process.


Assuntos
Autofagossomos/fisiologia , Lisossomos/fisiologia , Proteínas Qa-SNARE/metabolismo , Proteínas Qb-SNARE/metabolismo , Proteínas Qc-SNARE/metabolismo , Proteínas R-SNARE/metabolismo , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Família da Proteína 8 Relacionada à Autofagia/metabolismo , Escherichia coli , Humanos , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo
3.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(6): 1441-1453, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375545

RESUMO

Megakaryocyte-derived platelets and endothelial cells store their hemostatic cargo in α- and δ-granules and Weibel-Palade bodies, respectively. These storage granules belong to the lysosome-related organelles (LROs), a heterogeneous group of organelles that are rapidly released following agonist-induced triggering of intracellular signaling pathways. Following vascular injury, endothelial Weibel-Palade bodies release their content into the vascular lumen and promote the formation of long VWF (von Willebrand factor) strings that form an adhesive platform for platelets. Binding to VWF strings as well as exposed subendothelial collagen activates platelets resulting in the release of α- and δ-granules, which are crucial events in formation of a primary hemostatic plug. Biogenesis and secretion of these LROs are pivotal for the maintenance of proper hemostasis. Several bleeding disorders have been linked to abnormal generation of LROs in megakaryocytes and endothelial cells. Recent reviews have emphasized common pathways in the biogenesis and biological properties of LROs, focusing mainly on melanosomes. Despite many similarities, LROs in platelet and endothelial cells clearly possess distinct properties that allow them to provide a highly coordinated and synergistic contribution to primary hemostasis by sequentially releasing hemostatic cargo. In this brief review, we discuss in depth the known regulators of α- and δ-granules in megakaryocytes/platelets and Weibel-Palade bodies in endothelial cells, starting from transcription factors that have been associated with granule formation to protein complexes that promote granule maturation. In addition, we provide a detailed view on the interplay between platelet and endothelial LROs in controlling hemostasis as well as their dysfunction in LRO related bleeding disorders.


Assuntos
Plaquetas/ultraestrutura , Grânulos Citoplasmáticos/fisiologia , Células Endoteliais/ultraestrutura , Hemostasia/fisiologia , Lisossomos/fisiologia , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/genética , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/fisiopatologia , Colágeno/fisiologia , Grânulos Citoplasmáticos/ultraestrutura , Humanos , Lisossomos/ultraestrutura , Corpos de Weibel-Palade/fisiologia , Corpos de Weibel-Palade/ultraestrutura , Fator de von Willebrand/metabolismo
4.
Curr Diab Rep ; 20(6): 20, 2020 04 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32306181

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Impairments in mitochondrial function in patients with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes have been disputed for decades. This review aims to briefly summarize the current knowledge on mitochondrial dysfunction in metabolic tissues and to particularly focus on addressing a new perspective of mitochondrial dysfunction, the altered capacity of mitochondria to communicate with other organelles within insulin-resistant tissues. RECENT FINDINGS: Organelle interactions are temporally and spatially formed connections essential for normal cell function. Recent studies have shown that mitochondria interact with various cellular organelles, such as the endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes and lipid droplets, forming inter-organelle junctions. We will discuss the current knowledge on alterations in these mitochondria-organelle interactions in insulin resistance and diabetes, with a focus on changes in mitochondria-lipid droplet communication as a major player in ectopic lipid accumulation, lipotoxicity and insulin resistance.


Assuntos
Comunicação Celular/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Mitocôndrias/fisiologia , Doenças Mitocondriais/fisiopatologia , Organelas/fisiologia , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Retículo Endoplasmático/fisiologia , Complexo de Golgi/metabolismo , Complexo de Golgi/fisiologia , Humanos , Gotículas Lipídicas/metabolismo , Gotículas Lipídicas/fisiologia , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Lisossomos/fisiologia , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Doenças Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Organelas/metabolismo , Sobrepeso/metabolismo , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Peroxissomos/metabolismo , Peroxissomos/fisiologia
5.
J Mycol Med ; 30(2): 100965, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32307255

RESUMO

Cryptococcosis is an opportunistic systemic mycosis whose treatment is limited to three drugs. In this work, we evaluated the antifungal activity of a hexane extract (HE) from Spondias tuberosa leaves against Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined, and putative mechanisms were evaluated by flow cytometry. In addition, an in vivo infection assay was performed using Tenebrio molitor larvae. Treatment with HE inhibited the growth of standard and clinical isolates of C. neoformans and C. gattii (MICs ranging from 0.78 to 3.12mg/mL), significantly (P<0.05) increased mitochondrial superoxide anion levels, and induced mitochondrial membrane depolarization, loss of lysosomal membrane integrity, and phosphatidylserine externalization. The mean survival time of C. gattii-infected T. molitor larvae significantly (P<0.05) increased from 1.225 days in control to 3.067 and 3.882 days in HE-treated groups (78 and 156mg/kg, respectively). In conclusion, HE showed anticryptococcal activity, induced mitochondrial and lysosomal damage in yeast cells, and exhibited anti-infective action against C. gattii in T. molitor larvae.


Assuntos
Anacardiaceae/química , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Criptococose/tratamento farmacológico , Hexanos/química , Animais , Antifúngicos/efeitos adversos , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Criptococose/patologia , Cryptococcus gattii/citologia , Cryptococcus gattii/efeitos dos fármacos , Cryptococcus gattii/ultraestrutura , Cryptococcus neoformans/citologia , Cryptococcus neoformans/efeitos dos fármacos , Cryptococcus neoformans/ultraestrutura , Hexanos/farmacologia , Humanos , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Lisossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lisossomos/fisiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/fisiologia , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Tenebrio/efeitos dos fármacos , Tenebrio/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Testes de Toxicidade
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(7)2020 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32276321

RESUMO

Beyond the consolidated role in degrading and recycling cellular waste, the autophagic- and endo-lysosomal systems play a crucial role in extracellular release pathways. Lysosomal exocytosis is a process leading to the secretion of lysosomal content upon lysosome fusion with plasma membrane and is an important mechanism of cellular clearance, necessary to maintain cell fitness. Exosomes are a class of extracellular vesicles originating from the inward budding of the membrane of late endosomes, which may not fuse with lysosomes but be released extracellularly upon exocytosis. In addition to garbage disposal tools, they are now considered a cell-to-cell communication mechanism. Autophagy is a cellular process leading to sequestration of cytosolic cargoes for their degradation within lysosomes. However, the autophagic machinery is also involved in unconventional protein secretion and autophagy-dependent secretion, which are fundamental mechanisms for toxic protein disposal, immune signalling and pathogen surveillance. These cellular processes underline the crosstalk between the autophagic and the endosomal system and indicate an intersection between degradative and secretory functions. Further, they suggest that the molecular mechanisms underlying fusion, either with lysosomes or plasma membrane, are key determinants to maintain cell homeostasis upon stressing stimuli. When they fail, the accumulation of undigested substrates leads to pathological consequences, as indicated by the involvement of autophagic and lysosomal alteration in human diseases, namely lysosomal storage disorders, age-related neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. In this paper, we reviewed the current knowledge on the functional role of extracellular release pathways involving lysosomes and the autophagic- and endo-lysosomal systems, evaluating their implication in health and disease.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Exocitose , Vesículas Extracelulares/fisiologia , Lisossomos/fisiologia , Animais , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/fisiologia , Endossomos/fisiologia , Exossomos/fisiologia , Humanos
7.
Molecules ; 25(3)2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32033190

RESUMO

Abstract: A main cellular functional module that becomes dysfunctional during aging is the proteostasis network. In the present study, we show that benzoic acid derivatives isolated from Bjerkandera adusta promote the activity of the two main protein degradation systems, namely the ubiquitin-proteasome (UPP) and especially the autophagy-lysosome pathway (ALP) in human foreskin fibroblasts. Our findings were further supported by in silico studies, where all compounds were found to be putative binders of both cathepsins B and L. Among them, compound 3 (3-chloro-4-methoxybenzoic acid) showed the most potent interaction with both enzymes, which justifies the strong activation of cathepsins B and L (467.3 ± 3.9%) on cell-based assays. Considering that the activity of both the UPP and ALP pathways decreases with aging, our results suggest that the hydroxybenzoic acid scaffold could be considered as a promising candidate for the development of novel modulators of the proteostasis network, and likely of anti-aging agents.


Assuntos
Autofagia/fisiologia , Coriolaceae/química , Hidroxibenzoatos/farmacologia , Lisossomos/fisiologia , Proteostase/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Benzoico/farmacologia , Catepsinas/metabolismo , Extratos Celulares/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Coriolaceae/metabolismo , Humanos , Hidroxibenzoatos/química , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Proteólise , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo
8.
Vet Res ; 51(1): 10, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32041637

RESUMO

With the emergence of highly pathogenic variant strains, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) has led to significant economic loss in the global swine industry. Many studies have described how coronaviruses enter cells, but information on PEDV invasion strategies remains insufficient. Given that the differences in gene sequences and pathogenicity between classical and mutant strains of PEDV may lead to diverse invasion mechanisms, this study focused on the cellular entry pathways and cellular transport of the PEDV GI and GII subtype strains in Vero cells and IPEC-J2 cells. We first characterized the kinetics of PEDV entry into cells and found that the highest invasion rate of PEDV was approximately 33% in the IPEC-J2 cells and approximately 100% in the Vero cells. To clarify the specific endocytic pathways, systematic research methods were used and showed that PEDV enters cells via the clathrin- and caveolae-mediated endocytosis pathways, in which dynamin II, clathrin heavy chain, Eps15, cholesterol, and caveolin-1 were indispensably involved. In addition, lipid raft extraction assay showed that PEDV can also enter cells through lipid raft-mediated endocytosis. To investigate the trafficking of internalized PEDV, we found that PEDV entry into cells relied on low pH and internalized virions reached lysosomes through the early endosome-late endosome-lysosome pathway. The results concretely revealed the entry mechanisms of PEDV and provided an insightful theoretical basis for the further understanding of PEDV pathogenesis and guidance for new targets of antiviral drugs.


Assuntos
Cavéolas/metabolismo , Clatrina/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Endocitose , Microdomínios da Membrana/metabolismo , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/fisiologia , Animais , Chlorocebus aethiops , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Endossomos/fisiologia , Lisossomos/fisiologia , Células Vero
9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 634, 2020 01 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959889

RESUMO

Obesity, caused by the dysfunction of white adipose tissue (WAT), is reportedly accompanied by exacerbation of lipolysis. Perilipin 1 (PLIN1), which forms a coat around lipid droplets, interacts with several lipolysis proteins to regulate lipolysis. While it is known that perilipin family proteins are degraded in lysosomes, the underlying molecular mechanisms related to the downregulated expression of PLIN1 in obese WAT remain unknown. Recently, we found that lysosomal dysfunction originating from an abnormality of cathepsin B (CTSB), a lysosomal representative protease, occurs in obese WAT. Therefore, we investigated the effect of CTSB alterations on PLIN1 expression in obese WAT. PLIN1 protein disappeared and CTSB protein appeared in the cytoplasm of adipocytes in the early stage of obese WAT. Overexpression of CTSB reduced PLIN1 protein in 3T3L1 adipocytes, and treatment with a CTSB inhibitor significantly recovered this reduction. In addition, CTSB overexpression induced the dysfunction of lipolysis in 3T3L1 adipocytes. Therefore, we concluded that upregulation of CTSB induced the reduction of PLIN1 protein in obese WAT, resulting in lipolysis dysfunction. This suggests a novel pathology of lipid metabolism involving PLIN1 in adipocytes and that CTSB might be a therapeutic candidate molecule for obese WAT.


Assuntos
Adipócitos Brancos/metabolismo , Catepsina B/genética , Catepsina B/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Perilipina-1/genética , Perilipina-1/metabolismo , Células 3T3 , Animais , Regulação para Baixo , Lipólise/genética , Lisossomos/fisiologia , Camundongos
10.
FASEB J ; 34(1): 161-179, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914609

RESUMO

Fas-apoptotic inhibitory molecule 2 (FAIM2) is a member of the transmembrane BAX inhibitor motif-containing (TMBIM) family. TMBIM family is comprised of six anti-apoptotic proteins that suppress cell death by regulating endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ homeostasis. Recent studies have implicated two TMBIM proteins, GRINA and BAX Inhibitor-1, in mediating cytoprotection via autophagy. However, whether FAIM2 plays a role in autophagy has been unknown. Here we show that FAIM2 localizes to the lysosomes at basal state and facilitates autophagy through interaction with microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 proteins in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. FAIM2 overexpression increased autophagy flux, while autophagy flux was impaired in shRNA-mediated knockdown (shFAIM2) cells, and the impairment was more evident in the presence of rapamycin. In shFAIM2 cells, autophagosome maturation through fusion with lysosomes was impaired, leading to accumulation of autophagosomes. A functional LC3-interacting region motif within FAIM2 was essential for the interaction with LC3 and rescue of autophagy flux in shFAIM2 cells while LC3-binding property of FAIM2 was dispensable for the anti-apoptotic function in response to Fas receptor-mediated apoptosis. Suppression of autophagosome maturation was also observed in a null mutant of Caenorhabditis elegans lacking xbx-6, the ortholog of FAIM2. Our study suggests that FAIM2 is a novel regulator of autophagy mediating autophagosome maturation through the interaction with LC3.


Assuntos
Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Autofagossomos/fisiologia , Lisossomos/fisiologia , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Animais , Apoptose , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Glicoproteínas de Membrana Associadas ao Lisossomo/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana Associadas ao Lisossomo/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Plasmídeos , Transporte Proteico , Sirolimo/farmacologia
11.
Mol Cell ; 77(3): 645-655.e7, 2020 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31983508

RESUMO

The lysosome is an acidic multi-functional organelle with roles in macromolecular digestion, nutrient sensing, and signaling. However, why cells require acidic lysosomes to proliferate and which nutrients become limiting under lysosomal dysfunction are unclear. To address this, we performed CRISPR-Cas9-based genetic screens and identified cholesterol biosynthesis and iron uptake as essential metabolic pathways when lysosomal pH is altered. While cholesterol synthesis is only necessary, iron is both necessary and sufficient for cell proliferation under lysosomal dysfunction. Remarkably, iron supplementation restores cell proliferation under both pharmacologic and genetic-mediated lysosomal dysfunction. The rescue was independent of metabolic or signaling changes classically associated with increased lysosomal pH, uncoupling lysosomal function from cell proliferation. Finally, our experiments revealed that lysosomal dysfunction dramatically alters mitochondrial metabolism and hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) signaling due to iron depletion. Altogether, these findings identify iron homeostasis as the key function of lysosomal acidity for cell proliferation.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Ferro/metabolismo , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Colesterol/biossíntese , Colesterol/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Células HeLa , Homeostase , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Células Jurkat , Lisossomos/fisiologia , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética
12.
Hum Genet ; 139(3): 277-290, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31144030

RESUMO

Our understanding of the process of autophagy and its role in health and diseases has grown remarkably in the last two decades. Early work established autophagy as a general bulk recycling process which involves the sequestration and transport of intracellular material to the lysosome for degradation. Currently, autophagy is viewed as a nexus of metabolic and proteostatic signalling that can determine key physiological decisions from cell fate to organismal lifespan. Here, we review the latest literature on the role of autophagy and lysosomes in stress response and longevity. We highlight the connections between autophagy and metabolic processes, the network associated with its regulation, and the links between autophagic dysfunction, neurodegenerative diseases, and aging.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Autofagia/fisiologia , Longevidade/fisiologia , Animais , Humanos , Lisossomos/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
13.
Annu Rev Pathol ; 15: 261-285, 2020 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594457

RESUMO

Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process that targets different types of cytoplasmic cargo (such as bulk cytoplasm, damaged cellular organelles, and misfolded protein aggregates) for lysosomal degradation. Autophagy is activated in response to biological stress and also plays a critical role in the maintenance of normal cellular homeostasis; the latter function is particularly important for the integrity of postmitotic, metabolically active tissues, such as skeletal muscle. Through impairment of muscle homeostasis, autophagy dysfunction contributes to the pathogenesis of many different skeletal myopathies; the observed autophagy defects differ from disease to disease but have been shown to involve all steps of the autophagic cascade (from induction to lysosomal cargo degradation) and to impair both bulk and selective autophagy. To highlight the molecular and cellular mechanisms that are shared among different myopathies with deficient autophagy, these disorders are discussed based on the nature of the underlying autophagic defect rather than etiology or clinical presentation.


Assuntos
Autofagia/fisiologia , Doenças Musculares/etiologia , Animais , Autofagia/genética , Humanos , Lisossomos/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Doenças Musculares/genética , Agregação Patológica de Proteínas/complicações , Agregação Patológica de Proteínas/genética
14.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 224: 117397, 2020 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336323

RESUMO

In cells, lysosome is an acidic organelle (approximately pH 4.5-5.5), whose pH changes plays a key role in mediating various biological processes. To address this issue, a lot of fluorescent probes have been developed and prepared for tracking lysosomal pH changes. However, few of these probes can realize the imaging of lysosomal pH changes in biosystems. Herein, a new two-photon (TP) ratiometric fluorescent probe (NpRhLys-pH) by adopting the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) strategy has been developed for imaging of lysosomal pH changes in living cells and zebrafish. In this probe NpRhLys-pH, constructed by conjugating a TP fluorophore (D-Π-A-structured naphthalimide derivative) with a rhodamine B fluorophore via a non-conjugated flexible linker, the morpholine moiety serves as a targeting unit for anchoring lysosomes, and the xanthane derivative shows a pH-modulated open/close form of the spirocycle. Such a scaffold affords the NpRhLys-pH is a reliable and specific probe for anchoring lysosomes in living cells and zebrafish with dual-channel emission peaks separated by 85 nm, and responds to lysosomal pH rapidly and reversibly with high selectivity and sensitivity, demonstrating it can be used as a powerful tool for the biological research of the relationship between physiology and pathology and lysosomal pH changes in biological systems.


Assuntos
Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência/métodos , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Lisossomos/química , Animais , Corantes Fluorescentes/análise , Células HeLa , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lisossomos/fisiologia , Peixe-Zebra
15.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1131: 681-697, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646530

RESUMO

Neurons are long-lived post-mitotic cells that possess an elaborate system of endosomes and lysosomes (endolysosomes) for protein quality control. Relatively recently, endolysosomes were recognized to contain high concentrations (400-600 µM) of readily releasable calcium. The release of calcium from this acidic organelle store contributes to calcium-dependent processes of fundamental physiological importance to neurons including neurotransmitter release, membrane excitability, neurite outgrowth, synaptic remodeling, and cell viability. Pathologically, disturbances of endolysosome structure and/or function have been noted in a variety of neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). And, dysregulation of intracellular calcium has been implicated in the neuropathogenesis of these same neurological disorders. Thus, it is important to better understand mechanisms by which calcium is released from endolysosomes as well as the consequences of such release to inter-organellar signaling, physiological functions of neurons, and possible pathological consequences. In doing so, a path forward towards new therapeutic modalities might be facilitated.


Assuntos
Cálcio , Lisossomos , Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Neurônios , Cálcio/metabolismo , Sinalização do Cálcio , Endossomos/fisiologia , Humanos , Lisossomos/patologia , Lisossomos/fisiologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/fisiopatologia , Neurônios/fisiologia
16.
J Mol Biol ; 432(8): 2462-2482, 2020 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682838

RESUMO

Macroautophagy is a conserved catabolic process observed in all eukaryotic cells, during which selected cellular components are transported to and broken down within lysosomes. The process starts with the capture of unnecessary material into autophagosomes, which is followed by autophagosome-lysosome fusion to generate autolysosomes that degrade the cargo. In the past quarter-century, our knowledge about autophagosome formation almost exponentially increased, while the later steps were much less studied. This fortunately changed in the past few years, with more and more publications focusing on the fate of the completed autophagosome. In this review, we aspire to summarize the current knowledge about the molecular mechanisms of autophagosome-lysosome fusion.


Assuntos
Autofagossomos/fisiologia , Autofagia , Lisossomos/fisiologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/patologia , Animais , Humanos , Proteínas SNARE/metabolismo
17.
Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol ; 21(2): 101-118, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31768005

RESUMO

Exciting new discoveries have transformed the view of the lysosome from a static organelle dedicated to the disposal and recycling of cellular waste to a highly dynamic structure that mediates the adaptation of cell metabolism to environmental cues. Lysosome-mediated signalling pathways and transcription programmes are able to sense the status of cellular metabolism and control the switch between anabolism and catabolism by regulating lysosomal biogenesis and autophagy. The lysosome also extensively communicates with other cellular structures by exchanging content and information and by establishing membrane contact sites. It is now clear that lysosome positioning is a dynamically regulated process and a crucial determinant of lysosomal function. Finally, growing evidence indicates that the role of lysosomal dysfunction in human diseases goes beyond rare inherited diseases, such as lysosomal storage disorders, to include common neurodegenerative and metabolic diseases, as well as cancer. Together, these discoveries highlight the lysosome as a regulatory hub for cellular and organismal homeostasis, and an attractive therapeutic target for a broad variety of disease conditions.


Assuntos
Homeostase/fisiologia , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Lisossomos/fisiologia , Animais , Autofagia , Humanos , Doenças Metabólicas/metabolismo , Metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
18.
Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj ; 1864(3): 129496, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786107

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Germline mutations in heat shock factor 4 (HSF4) cause congenital cataracts. Previously, we have shown that HSF4 is involved in regulating lysosomal pH in mouse lens epithelial cell in vitro. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. METHODS: HSF4-deficient mouse lens epithelial cell lines and zebrafish were used in this study. Immunoblotting and quantitative RT-PCR were used for expression analysis. The protein-protein interactions were tested with GST-pull downs. The lysosomes were fractioned by ultracentrifugation. RESULTS: HSF4 deficiency or knock down of αB-crystallin elevates lysosomal pH and increases the ubiquitination and degradation of ATP6V1A by the proteasome. αB-crystallin localizes partially in the lysosome and interacts solely with the ATP6V1A protein of the V1 complex of V-ATPase. Furthermore, αB-crystallin can co-precipitate with mTORC1 and ATP6V1A in GST pull down assays. Inhibition of mTORC1 by rapamycin or siRNA can lead to dissociation of αB-crystallin from the ATP6V1A and mTORC1complex, shortening the half-life of ATP6V1A and increasing the lysosomal pH. Mutation of ATP6V1A/S441A (the predicted mTOR phosphorylation site) reduces its association with αB-crystallin. In the zebrafish model, HSF4 deficiency reduces αB-crystallin expression and elevates the lysosomal pH in lens tissues. CONCLUSION: HSF4 regulates lysosomal acidification by controlling the association of αB-crystallin with ATP6V1A and mTOR and regulating ATP6V1A protein stabilization. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: This study uncovers a novel function of αB-crystallin, demonstrating that αB-crystallin can regulate lysosomal ATP6V1A protein stabilization by complexing to ATP6V1A and mTOR. This highlights a novel mechanism by which HSF4 regulates the proteolytic process of organelles during lens development.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Cadeia B de alfa-Cristalina/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Cristalinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição de Choque Térmico/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Humanos , Cristalino/metabolismo , Lisossomos/fisiologia , Camundongos , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Ubiquitinação , ATPases Vacuolares Próton-Translocadoras/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
19.
Mol Biol Cell ; 31(3): 196-208, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851583

RESUMO

The human herpesvirus-7 (HHV-7) U21 glycoprotein binds to class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and reroutes them to lysosomes. How this single viral glycoprotein efficiently redirects the U21/class I MHC complex to the lysosomal compartment is poorly understood. To investigate the trafficking of HHV-7 U21, we followed synchronous release of U21 from the ER as it traffics through the secretory system. Sorting of integral membrane proteins from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) has been shown to occur through tubular carriers that emanate from the TGN or through vesicular carriers that recruit GGA (Golgi-localized, γ-ear-containing, ARF-binding protein), clathrin adaptors, and clathrin. Here, we present evidence for the existence of a third type of Golgi-derived carrier that is vesicular, yet clathrin independent. This U21-containing carrier also carries a Golgi membrane protein engineered to form inducible oligomers. We propose that U21 employs the novel mechanism of forming oligomeric complexes with class I MHC molecules that result in sorting of the oligomeric U21/class I MHC complexes to Golgi--derived quality control carriers destined for lysosomes.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Herpesvirus Humano 7/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transporte Vesicular/metabolismo , Clatrina/metabolismo , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Complexo de Golgi/virologia , Células HeLa , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/metabolismo , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/fisiologia , Humanos , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Lisossomos/fisiologia , Ligação Proteica , Transporte Proteico , Rede trans-Golgi/metabolismo
20.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 77(16): 3245-3264, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667557

RESUMO

Astrocytes are the key homeostatic cells in the central nervous system; initiation of reactive astrogliosis contributes to neuroinflammation. Pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon γ (IFNγ) induces the expression of the major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) molecules, involved in antigen presentation in reactive astrocytes. The pathway for MHCII delivery to the astrocyte plasma membrane, where MHCII present antigens, is unknown. Rat astrocytes in culture and in organotypic slices were exposed to IFNγ to induce reactive astrogliosis. Astrocytes were probed with optophysiologic tools to investigate subcellular localization of immunolabeled MHCII, and with electrophysiology to characterize interactions of single vesicles with the plasmalemma. In culture and in organotypic slices, IFNγ augmented the astrocytic expression of MHCII, which prominently co-localized with lysosomal marker LAMP1-EGFP, modestly co-localized with Rab7, and did not co-localize with endosomal markers Rab4A, EEA1, and TPC1. MHCII lysosomal localization was corroborated by treatment with the lysosomolytic agent glycyl-L-phenylalanine-ß-naphthylamide, which reduced the number of MHCII-positive vesicles. The surface presence of MHCII was revealed by immunolabeling of live non-permeabilized cells. In IFNγ-treated astrocytes, an increased fraction of large-diameter exocytotic vesicles (lysosome-like vesicles) with prolonged fusion pore dwell time and larger pore conductance was recorded, whereas the rate of endocytosis was decreased. Stimulation with ATP, which triggers cytosolic calcium signaling, increased the frequency of exocytotic events, whereas the frequency of full endocytosis was further reduced. In IFNγ-treated astrocytes, MHCII-linked antigen surface presentation is mediated by increased lysosomal exocytosis, whereas surface retention of antigens is prolonged by concomitant inhibition of endocytosis.


Assuntos
Astrócitos/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Exocitose/fisiologia , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/metabolismo , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Lisossomos/fisiologia , Animais , Apresentação do Antígeno/fisiologia , Astrócitos/fisiologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Sistema Nervoso Central/metabolismo , Sistema Nervoso Central/fisiologia , Endocitose/fisiologia , Endossomos/metabolismo , Endossomos/fisiologia , Feminino , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Transporte Proteico/fisiologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Vesículas Secretórias/metabolismo , Vesículas Secretórias/fisiologia
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