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1.
N Engl J Med ; 382(7): 632-643, 2020 02 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053299

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An outbreak of listeriosis was identified in South Africa in 2017. The source was unknown. METHODS: We conducted epidemiologic, trace-back, and environmental investigations and used whole-genome sequencing to type Listeria monocytogenes isolates. A case was defined as laboratory-confirmed L. monocytogenes infection during the period from June 11, 2017, to April 7, 2018. RESULTS: A total of 937 cases were identified, of which 465 (50%) were associated with pregnancy; 406 of the pregnancy-associated cases (87%) occurred in neonates. Of the 937 cases, 229 (24%) occurred in patients 15 to 49 years of age (excluding those who were pregnant). Among the patients in whom human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status was known, 38% of those with pregnancy-associated cases (77 of 204) and 46% of the remaining patients (97 of 211) were infected with HIV. Among 728 patients with a known outcome, 193 (27%) died. Clinical isolates from 609 patients were sequenced, and 567 (93%) were identified as sequence type 6 (ST6). In a case-control analysis, patients with ST6 infections were more likely to have eaten polony (a ready-to-eat processed meat) than those with non-ST6 infections (odds ratio, 8.55; 95% confidence interval, 1.66 to 43.35). Polony and environmental samples also yielded ST6 isolates, which, together with the isolates from the patients, belonged to the same core-genome multilocus sequence typing cluster with no more than 4 allelic differences; these findings showed that polony produced at a single facility was the outbreak source. A recall of ready-to-eat processed meat products from this facility was associated with a rapid decline in the incidence of L. monocytogenes ST6 infections. CONCLUSIONS: This investigation showed that in a middle-income country with a high prevalence of HIV infection, L. monocytogenes caused disproportionate illness among pregnant girls and women and HIV-infected persons. Whole-genome sequencing facilitated the detection of the outbreak and guided the trace-back investigations that led to the identification of the source.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Listeria monocytogenes/isolamento & purificação , Listeriose/epidemiologia , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/etiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/mortalidade , Infecções por HIV/complicações , HIV-1 , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Listeria monocytogenes/genética , Listeriose/etiologia , Listeriose/mortalidade , Masculino , Produtos da Carne/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Recall e Retirada de Produto , Distribuição por Sexo , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Adulto Jovem
2.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(2): 175-180, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32074706

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the molecular characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes strains from ready-to eat food in China. Methods: A total of 239 Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated from ready-to-eat food in 2017, all strains underwent whole-genome sequencing (WGS) , and comparisons uncovered population structure derived from lineages, clonal complex, serogroups, antimicrobial susceptibility and virulence, which were inferred in silico from the WGS data. Core genome multilocus sequence typing was used to subtype isolates. Results: All strains were categorized into three different lineages, lineage Ⅱ was the predominant types in food, and IIa was the main serogroups. CC8, CC101 and CC87 were the first three prevalent CCs among 23 detected CCs, accounting for 49.4%. Only 4.6% (11 isolates) of tested strains harbored antibiotic resistance genes, which were mostly trimethoprim genes (7 isolates, 2.9%). All strains were positive for LIPI-1, and only a part of strains harbored LIPI-3 and LIPI-4, accounting for 13.8% (33 isolates) and 14.2% (34 isolates), respectively. ST619 carried both LIPI-3 and LIPI-4. 51.5% (123 isolates) of strains carried SSI-1, and all CC121 strains harbored SSI-2. Different lineages, serogroups and CCs can be separated obviously through cgMLST analysis, and 24 sublineages were highly concordant with CCs. Conclusion: Ⅱa was the main serogroups in ready-to-eat food isolates in China; CC8, CC101 and CC87 were the prevalent CCs, and CC87 isolates was hypervirulent isolates, cgMLST method can be adopted for prospective foodborne disease surveillance and outbreaks detection.


Assuntos
Microbiologia de Alimentos , Listeria monocytogenes/isolamento & purificação , Listeriose/microbiologia , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Listeriose/epidemiologia
3.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 116, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992263

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Listeria monocytogenes causes the foodborne infection listeriosis. Pregnant women, infants and immunocompromised children are at increased risk for infection. The aim of this study was to describe the trends in the epidemiology of disease notifications and hospital admissions due to listeriosis in pregnant women aged 15 to 45 years and children aged less than 15 years in New Zealand (NZ) from 1997 to 2016. METHODS: In this population-based descriptive study, listeriosis notification and hospitalization rates from 1997 to 2016 were analyzed. Notification data were extracted from the Institute of Environmental Science and Research (ESR) Notifiable Diseases Database (EpiSurv) and hospitalization data were extracted from the National Minimum Dataset (NMDS). Pregnant women aged 15 to 45 years and children less than 15 years of age were included. Subgroup analysis was conducted for age and ethnicity. Outcomes of infection were described. RESULTS: In the 20-year period considered, there were 147 pregnancy-associated cases of listeriosis either notified to ESR (n = 106) and/or coded in the NMDS (n = 99), giving a crude incidence rate of 12.3 (95% CI 10.4, 14.4) per 100,000 births. In addition, there were 22 cases in children aged 28 days to < 15 years (incidence =0.12, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.19 per 100,000). There were no trends observed over time in the incidence of pregnancy-associated listeriosis. Incidence rates of pregnancy-associated and childhood listeriosis were highest in people of Pacific and Asian ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS: NZ has a low incidence of listeriosis in pregnant women and children, however, the consequences of infection are frequently severe. Those of Pacific and Asian ethnicity have the highest rates of disease and future messaging around food safety should target these groups. This study provides important insights into the epidemiology of listeriosis in pregnant women and children in NZ.


Assuntos
Listeriose/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 83, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996135

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The more quickly bacterial pathogens responsible for foodborne illness outbreaks can be linked to a vehicle of transmission or a source, the more illnesses can be prevented. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) based approaches to source tracking have greatly increased the speed and resolution with which public health response can pinpoint the vehicle and source of outbreaks. Traditionally, WGS approaches have focused on the culture of an individual isolate before proceeding to DNA extraction and sequencing. For Listeria monocytogenes (Lm), generation of an individual isolate for sequencing typically takes about 6 days. Here we demonstrate that a hybrid, "quasimetagenomic" approach ie; direct sequencing of microbiological enrichments (first step in pathogen detection and recovery) can provide high resolution source tracking sequence data, 5 days earlier than response that focuses on culture and sequencing of an individual isolate. This expedited approach could save lives, prevent illnesses and potentially minimize unnecessary destruction of food. METHODS: Naturally contaminated ice cream (from a 2015 outbreak) was enriched to recover Listeria monocytogenes following protocols outlined in the Bacteriological Analytic Manual (BAM). DNA from enriching microbiota was extracted and sequenced at incremental time-points during the first 48 h of pre-enrichment using the Illumina MiSeq platform (2 by 250), to evaluate genomic coverage of target pathogen, Listeria monocytogenes. RESULTS: Quasimetagenomic sequence data acquired from hour 20 were sufficient to discern whether or not Lm strain/s were part of the ongoing outbreak or not. Genomic data from hours 24, 28, 32, 36, 40, 44, and 48 of pre-enrichments all provided identical phylogenetic source tracking utility to the WGS of individual isolates (which require an additional 5 days to culture). CONCLUSIONS: The speed of this approach (more than twice as fast as current methods) has the potential to reduce the number of illnesses associated with any given outbreak by as many as 75% percent of total cases and potentially with continued optimization of the entire chain of response, contribute to minimized food waste.


Assuntos
Microbiologia de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Sorvetes/microbiologia , Listeria monocytogenes/genética , Listeriose/microbiologia , Metagenômica , Surtos de Doenças , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Listeria monocytogenes/classificação , Listeriose/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Fatores de Tempo , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
5.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 312: 108358, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655356

RESUMO

Meat products are commonly regarded as one of the main sources of human listeriosis caused by Listeria monocytogenes. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of L. monocytogenes in a range of meat products from 24 different Chinese regions by using meta-analysis of literature data and a novel sensitivity analysis approach. A total of 112 publications from five databases, published between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2017, were systematically selected for relevance and covered meat products sampled between 2000 and 2016. Estimated by the random-effects model, the pooled prevalence of L. monocytogenes was 8.5% (95% CI: 7.1%-10.3%) in raw meats and 3.2% (95% CI: 2.7%-3.9%) in ready-to-eat (RTE) meats. The prevalence differed from high to low among raw meats including prefabricated raw meats 12.6% (95% CI: 6.9%-21.7%), fresh pork 11.4% (95% CI: 8.6%-14.9%), fresh beef 9.1% (95% CI: 6.3%-13.0%), fresh poultry 7.2% (95% CI:4.9%-10.4%), frozen raw meats 7.2% (95% CI: 5.7%-9.0%), and fresh mutton 5.4% (95% CI: 2.5%-11.0%). A higher L. monocytogenes prevalence level was shown in the meat products from central and northeastern China provincial regions. The entropy-based sensitivity analysis utilized in the meta-analysis indicated that the sampling period and location were two critical factors influencing the prevalence level of L. monocytogenes in meat products. A better understanding of differences in prevalence levels per geographic region and between meat product sources may allow the competent authorities, industry, and other relevant stakeholders to tailor their interventions to control the occurrence of L. monocytogenes in meat products effectively.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Listeria monocytogenes/isolamento & purificação , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Animais , Bovinos , China , Humanos , Listeriose/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Ovinos , Suínos
6.
Food Microbiol ; 85: 103280, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500706

RESUMO

Listeria monocytogenes causes severe diseases in humans, including febrile gastroenteritis and systemic infections that has a high mortality despite antibiotic treatment. This pathogen may cause massive outbreaks associated to the consumption of contaminated food products, which highlight its importance in public health. In the last decade, L. monocytogenes has emerged as a foodborne pathogen of major importance in Chile. A previous work showed that in Chile during 2008 and 2009, L. monocytogenes serotypes 1/2a, 1/2b and 4b were the most frequently identified in food and clinical strains. Here we report the molecular characterization of L. monocytogenes strains isolated from 2008 to 2017 in the country. Our results indicate that serotypes 1/2a, 1/2b and 4b continue to be the most commonly found in food products. In addition, we identify persistent and widespread PFGE subtypes. This study reports ten years of epidemiological surveillance ofL. monocytogenes in Chile.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Listeria monocytogenes/genética , Listeriose/epidemiologia , Chile/epidemiologia , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Surtos de Doenças , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Variação Genética , Humanos , Listeria monocytogenes/patogenicidade , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Epidemiologia Molecular , Saúde Pública , Sorogrupo , Sorotipagem , Fatores de Virulência/genética
7.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(1): 172-175, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704018

RESUMO

Listeria monocytogenes was linked to an outbreak of foodborne illness associated with in-process contaminated ice cream in the United States from 2010 to 2015 that sickened 10 individuals and led to 3 deaths. Ice cream obtained from the outbreak was used in this study to examine the population dynamics of L. monocytogenes as in-process contaminants compared with artificially inoculated cells. Because challenge studies of food products generally use artificial contamination, it is necessary to understand the differences in survival, if any, between these 2 types of contaminants. We hypothesized that laboratory-grown cultures of the pathogen that were not exposed to the environmental stresses of the manufacturing facility would show different population dynamics in an ice cream challenge study compared with in-process contaminants. In this study, half of the outbreak-associated ice cream samples were artificially inoculated with a 10 cfu/g cocktail of L. monocytogenes; the other half contained only the in-process contaminants. All samples were stored at -20°C and tested for pathogen levels (n = 10 for each contaminant type at each time point) by the most probable number method at 3-mo intervals for 36 mo. Generally, population levels between the 2 contamination states in the ice cream were not significantly different and L. monocytogenes survived for at least 36 mo, regardless of contamination state. Overall, our results suggest that the use of L. monocytogenes as an artificial contaminant in challenge studies and risk assessment of ice cream during frozen storage give results similar to those shown by in-process contaminants.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Sorvetes/microbiologia , Listeria monocytogenes/fisiologia , Listeriose/microbiologia , Animais , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Congelamento , Humanos , Listeriose/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(1): 176-178, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733864

RESUMO

Unpasteurized milk can contain harmful bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes. In 2016, the US Food and Drug Administration notified the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Atlanta, GA) that L. monocytogenes isolated from unpasteurized chocolate milk from a Pennsylvania dairy was closely related, by whole-genome sequencing, to L. monocytogenes isolates collected from blood specimens of 2 patients (in California and Florida) in 2014. The California and Florida patients consumed unpasteurized milk from the Pennsylvania dairy. Both were >65 yr old and were hospitalized in 2014; the Florida patient died. Isolates from the 2 patients had indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns and were closely related by whole-genome multilocus sequence typing analysis (by 2 alleles) to the isolate from unpasteurized chocolate milk produced by the Pennsylvania dairy in 2015. Together, epidemiologic and laboratory information indicated a common origin. This is the first multistate listeriosis outbreak linked to unpasteurized milk in the United States detected using whole-genome multilocus sequence analysis.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Listeria monocytogenes/genética , Listeriose/epidemiologia , Leite/microbiologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Animais , California/epidemiologia , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado/veterinária , Florida/epidemiologia , Humanos , Listeria monocytogenes/isolamento & purificação , Listeriose/microbiologia , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus/veterinária , Pennsylvania/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
Braz J Microbiol ; 50(4): 1063-1073, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478167

RESUMO

Listeria monocytogenes is one of the most important foodborne pathogens and is a causal agent of listeriosis in humans and animals. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, serogroups, antibiotic susceptibility, virulence factor genes, and genetic relatedness of L. monocytogenes strains isolated from 500 poultry samples in Turkey. The isolation sources of 103 L. monocytogenes strains were retail markets (n = 100) and slaughterhouses (n = 3). L. monocytogenes strains were identified as serogroups 1/2a-3a (75.7%, lineage I), 1/2c-3c (14.56%, lineage I), 1/2b-3b-7 (5.82%, lineage II), 4a-4c (2.91%, lineage III), and 4b-4d-4e (0.97%, lineage III). Most of the L. monocytogenes strains (93.2%) were susceptible to the antibiotics tested. PCR analysis indicated that the majority of the strains (95% to 100%) contained most of the virulence genes (hylA, plcA, plcB, prfA, mpl, actA, dltA, fri, flaA inlA, inlC, and inlJ). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) demonstrated that there were 18 pulsotypes grouped at a similarity of > 90% among the strains. These results indicate that it is necessary to prevent the presence of L. monocytogenes in the poultry-processing environments to help prevent outbreaks of listeriosis and protect public health.


Assuntos
Listeria monocytogenes/genética , Listeria monocytogenes/isolamento & purificação , Listeriose/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Matadouros/economia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Galinhas , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Listeria monocytogenes/classificação , Listeria monocytogenes/efeitos dos fármacos , Listeriose/epidemiologia , Listeriose/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/economia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Turquia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo
10.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 69(6): 392-398, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562639

RESUMO

Four cases of listeriosis in a hospital (A) in New Zealand were identified in 2012. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) used at the time identified four pulsotypes amongst the clinical isolates. Two of the pulsotypes matched to Listeria monocytogenes isolates obtained from ready-to-eat (RTE) meat samples from a RTE producer tested during a nationwide microbiological survey the month prior. The outbreak investigation confirmed that the RTE producer had supplied product to the hospital and additional testing confirmed the presence of L.  monocytogenes in RTE meats from the hospital kitchen. Two further listeriosis cases presented in another hospital (B) with one clinical isolate identified as the same pulsotype as identified for one case in hospital A, but the epidemiology information concluded that the clinical cases from hospital B were not linked to the outbreak. Retrospective whole-genome sequencing confirmed that epidemiologically linked isolates belonging to three different genotypes for clinical cases from hospital A and RTE meats samples from the hospital kitchen differed by 0-1 core-genome locus or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). The use of core-genome multilocus sequence typing and SNP analysis provided a greater degree of discrimination between isolates compared to PFGE. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: This study describes a listeriosis outbreak associated with a hospital in New Zealand and attributed to contaminated ready-to-eat (RTE) meat supplied to the hospital by a single producer. Retrospective whole-genome sequence analysis of outbreak isolates was found to provide a greater degree of discrimination between isolates compared to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and supported the conclusions made at the time of the outbreak. The multiple genotypes identified from clinical cases and the RTE meats obtained during the outbreak highlight the importance of epidemiological concordance alongside genotyping.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Listeria monocytogenes/genética , Listeriose/epidemiologia , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Carne/microbiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Listeria monocytogenes/classificação , Listeria monocytogenes/isolamento & purificação , Listeriose/microbiologia , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
11.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 69(4): 230-236, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381169

RESUMO

This study evaluated the survival responses of Listeria monocytogenes strains (individually and mixed) in a soft lactic cheese following acid and salt stress exposures. The Weibull and log-linear with tail models were used to predict the survival responses of the pathogen in the cheese stored at 4°C for 15 days. Both models showed a good prediction accuracy for stressed L. monocytogenes cells (Af = 1·00) and higher prediction errors (Af = 1·12-1·14) for nonstressed cells. The inactivation rates (δ (d) and kmax (d-1 )) were significantly lower (P < 0·05) for cells subjected to stress exposure indicating the enhanced tolerance to food stress. However, while enhanced tolerance appeared to be the main effect of stress pre-exposure, in one susceptible strain (69), stress exposure led to higher rates of inactivation. When introduced into the food as mixed strains, one strain out-lived others and remained as the sole survivor. Such strains that perhaps have a predilection for the food environment can provide more cautious estimates of kinetic parameters for predicting L. monocytogenes responses in foods especially if their stress-hardened tolerant cells are used. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: The ability to predict the growth and survival of Listeria monocytogenes in contaminated RTE foods is essential for listeriosis risk assessment. The results of this study provided valuable information on the kinetic parameters of survival of some L. monocytogenes strains found within the South African food environment. In addition to showing differences in the survival responses among strains, the study also showed the importance of the pre-contamination state of the cells in influencing survival kinetics.


Assuntos
Queijo/microbiologia , Ácido Láctico/farmacologia , Listeria monocytogenes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Listeriose/epidemiologia , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Queijo/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Medição de Risco , Tolerância ao Sal/fisiologia , África do Sul/epidemiologia
12.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 538, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443675

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility test of Listeria monocytogenes among pregnant women in Tigray region, Ethiopia. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of L. monocytogenes among pregnant women was found to be (8.5%; 12/141). With regard to the socio-demographic characteristics, a high prevalence of L. monocytogenes was observed in the age group of 20-24 years (18.6%; 8/43), rural dwellers (10%; 3/30), secondary school (9.6%; 5/52), and housewives (11.4%;10/88). A high drug resistance rate was observed to penicillin G (66.7%), clindamycin (66.7%), amoxicillin (50%) and vancomycin (50%). However, isolates were relatively sensitive to ciprofloxacin (75%), erythromycin (75%), trimethoprim/sulphamethaxazole (66.7%) and chloramphenicol (60%).


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Listeria monocytogenes/efeitos dos fármacos , Listeriose/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Listeria monocytogenes/fisiologia , Listeriose/epidemiologia , Listeriose/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Prevalência , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 25(8): 1461-1468, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310227

RESUMO

We investigated an outbreak of listeriosis detected by whole-genome multilocus sequence typing and associated with packaged leafy green salads. Nineteen cases were identified in the United States during July 5, 2015-January 31, 2016; isolates from case-patients were closely related (median difference 3 alleles, range 0-16 alleles). Of 16 case-patients interviewed, all reported salad consumption. Of 9 case-patients who recalled brand information, all reported brands processed at a common US facility. The Public Health Agency of Canada simultaneously investigated 14 cases of listeriosis associated with this outbreak. Isolates from the processing facility, packaged leafy green salads, and 9 case-patients from Canada were closely related to US clinical isolates (median difference 3 alleles, range 0-16 alleles). This investigation led to a recall of packaged leafy green salads made at the processing facility. Additional research is needed to identify best practices and effective policies to reduce the likelihood of Listeria monocytogenes contamination of fresh produce.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Listeria , Listeriose/epidemiologia , Listeriose/microbiologia , /microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Canadá/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Notificação de Doenças , Feminino , Genoma Bacteriano , Geografia Médica , Humanos , Listeria/classificação , Listeria/genética , Listeria/isolamento & purificação , Listeriose/transmissão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Gravidez , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Estações do Ano , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Forensic Sci Int ; 302: 109869, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302416

RESUMO

A common objective in microbial forensic investigations is to identify the origin of a recovered pathogenic bacterium by DNA sequencing. However, there is currently no consensus about how degrees of belief in such origin hypotheses should be quantified, interpreted, and communicated to wider audiences. To fill this gap, we have developed a concept based on calculating probabilistic evidential values for microbial forensic hypotheses. The likelihood-ratio method underpinning this concept is widely used in other forensic fields, such as human DNA matching, where results are readily interpretable and have been successfully communicated in juridical hearings. The concept was applied to two case scenarios of interest in microbial forensics: (1) identifying source cultures among series of very similar cultures generated by parallel serial passage of the Tier 1 pathogen Francisella tularensis, and (2) finding the production facilities of strains isolated in a real disease outbreak caused by the human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. Evidence values for the studied hypotheses were computed based on signatures derived from whole genome sequencing data, including deep-sequenced low-frequency variants and structural variants such as duplications and deletions acquired during serial passages. In the F. tularensis case study, we were able to correctly assign fictive evidence samples to the correct culture batches of origin on the basis of structural variant data. By setting up relevant hypotheses and using data on cultivated batch sources to define the reference populations under each hypothesis, evidential values could be calculated. The results show that extremely similar strains can be separated on the basis of amplified mutational patterns identified by high-throughput sequencing. In the L. monocytogenes scenario, analyses of whole genome sequence data conclusively assigned the clinical samples to specific sources of origin, and conclusions were formulated to facilitate communication of the findings. Taken together, these findings demonstrate the potential of using bacterial whole genome sequencing data, including data on both low frequency SNP signatures and structural variants, to calculate evidence values that facilitate interpretation and communication of the results. The concept could be applied in diverse scenarios, including both epidemiological and forensic source tracking of bacterial infectious disease outbreaks.


Assuntos
Busca de Comunicante/métodos , Francisella tularensis/genética , Genoma Bacteriano , Funções Verossimilhança , Listeria monocytogenes/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Surtos de Doenças , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Genética Forense/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Listeriose/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Tularemia/epidemiologia
15.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 304: 97-105, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176965

RESUMO

Listeria monocytogenes causes severe consequences especially for persons belonging to risk groups. Finland is among the countries with highest number of listeriosis cases in the European Union. Although most reported cases appear to be sporadic and the maximum bacterial concentration of 100 cfu/g is not usually exceeded at retail, cold smoked and salt-cured fish products have been noted as those products with great risk especially for the elderly. In order to investigate the listeriosis risk more carefully, an exposure assessment was developed, and laboratory results for cold smoked and salt-cured salmon products were exploited. L. monocytogenes exposure was modeled for consumers in two age groups, the elderly population as a risk group and the working-age population as a reference. Incidence was assessed by estimating bacterial growth in the food products at three temperatures. Bayesian estimation of the risk was based on bacterial occurrence and product consumption data and epidemiological population data. The model builds on a two-state Markov chain describing repeated consumption on consecutive days. The cumulative exposure is probabilistically governed by the daily decreasing likelihood of continued consumption and the increasing bacterial concentrations due to growth. The population risk was then predicted with a Poisson distribution accounting for the daily probabilities of purchasing a contaminated product and the cumulative total probability of infection from its use. According to the model presented in this article, elderly Finns are at a greater risk of acquiring listeriosis than healthy adults. The risk for the elderly does not fully diminish even if the products have been stored at the recommended temperature (between 0 and 3 °C). It can be concluded that the stage after retail, i.e. food handling and storage by consumer or professional kitchens, is essential to protection against listeriosis. The estimation model provides means for assessing the joint impacts of these effects.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Listeria monocytogenes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Listeriose/epidemiologia , Salmão/microbiologia , Alimentos Marinhos/microbiologia , Idoso , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Pesqueiros , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Fumaça , Cloreto de Sódio , Temperatura
16.
Obstet Gynecol Surv ; 74(6): 362-368, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216045

RESUMO

Importance: Listeriosis is a rare foodborne condition that can cause serious health consequences in neonates and pregnant women. Listeria monocytogenes can be vertically transmitted to the fetus, resulting in adverse maternal, fetal, and neonatal outcomes. In this review, we summarize what is currently known about listeriosis in pregnancy and review the current management and treatment recommendations. Objective: To summarize the clinical and relevant evidence available regarding listeriosis in pregnancy and educate providers on common clinical symptoms, sequelae, and appropriate treatment guidelines. Evidence Acquisition: A PubMed review was conducted using search terms "pregnancy" OR "Listeria" OR "Maternal Listeriosis," and "Neonatal Listeriosis." The search included review articles, original research articles, and guidelines on diagnosis and management of listeriosis in pregnancy. The search was limited to the English language and publications between 1988 and July 2018. Conclusions: Listeriosis in pregnancy can result in severe adverse maternal, fetal, and neonatal outcomes including miscarriage, preterm labor, fetal death, and neonatal meningitis and sepsis. Early treatment has been shown to improve fetal and neonatal outcomes; therefore, prevention with education and early diagnosis prompting treatment will improve overall outcomes. Relevance: The incidence of listeriosis is expected to rise in the coming years due to changes in the US population, with increasing numbers of older Americans and Hispanic individuals, both of whom are at higher risk. Pregnant women contract listeriosis at a rate that is 16- to 18-fold greater than the general population. Given the expected increased rise in incidence and increased susceptibility of pregnant women, understanding the common clinical symptoms, maternal and fetal sequelae, and appropriate treatment guidelines is essential.


Assuntos
Morte Fetal/etiologia , Listeriose/complicações , Listeriose/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Listeria monocytogenes , Listeriose/diagnóstico , Listeriose/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/microbiologia , Avaliação de Sintomas
17.
Int J Infect Dis ; 84: 48-53, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31051276

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to identify global trends in Listeria monocytogenes epidemiology using ProMED reports. ProMED is a publicly available, global outbreak reporting system that uses both informal and formal sources. In the context of Listeria, ProMED reports on atypical findings such as higher than average case counts, events from unusual sources, and multinational outbreaks. METHODS: Keywords "Listeria" and "listeriosis" were utilized in the ProMED search engine covering the years 1996-2018. Issue date, countries involved, source, suspected and confirmed case counts, and fatalities were extracted. Data unique to each event, including commentary by content experts, were evaluated. When multiple reports regarding the same outbreak or recall were obtained, the last report pertaining to that outbreak was utilized. Rates of Listeria events over time were compared using a normal approximation to the Poisson distribution; p < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. RESULTS: From 1996 through 2018, 123 Listeria events were identified in the ProMED database. Eighty-one events (65%) were associated with two or more human cases (outbreak events), 13 events (11%) were associated with only one human case (sporadic cases), and 29 events (24%) were precautionary food product recalls due to the presence of bacterial contamination without associated human cases. The implicated food vehicle was identified in 69 (85%) outbreak events and in 10 (77%) sporadic case events. Listeria contaminated foods were identified in all precautionary recall events. Overall, 28 events (23%) implicated novel food vehicles/sources. Events associated with novel food vehicles increased over the study period (p < 0.02), as did international events with more than one country involved (p < 0.02). Ten reports (8%) described hospital-acquired events. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the use of publicly available data to document Listeria epidemiological trends, particularly in settings where foodborne disease surveillance is weak or non-existent. Over the last decade, an increasing number of events have been associated with foods not traditionally recognized as vehicles for Listeria transmission, and a rise in international events was noted. Informing high-risk individuals such as pregnant women and immunocompromised individuals of safe food handling practices is warranted. To ensure timely recall of contaminated food products, open data sharing and communication across borders is critical. Changes in food production and distribution, and improved diagnostics may have contributed to the observed changes.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Listeriose/epidemiologia , Feminino , Manipulação de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Listeria monocytogenes , Masculino , Gravidez
18.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(5): 299-303, May 2019. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1012749

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Listeriosis is a disease that affects several animal species, including humans, and has three different forms of presentation: encephalic, reproductive, or septicemic. The nervous form is caused mainly by the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes. In Brazil, this disease has already been described in sheep, goats, and cattle. There are no reports of the disease in buffaloes in Brazil and worldwide. The objective of this study was to describe an outbreak of listeric meningoencephalitis in buffaloes in the state of Pará, Brazil. The outbreak occurred in a property located in the municipality of Bujaru, in the eastern Amazon, from May to July 2016. In a herd of 47 buffaloes, three animals (Cases 1, 2 and 3), aged <40 days, presented a neurological condition with locomotion difficulty characterized by paralysis of the four limbs, hypoesthesia, lateral recumbency, and death. Morbidity was 6.38% and lethality was 100%. At necropsy, no significant macroscopic lesions were found. Samples of the central nervous system were collected, fixed in 10% buffered formalin, and routinely processed for histopathological analysis. The main microscopic changes observed were unilateral microabscesses in the brainstem composed predominantly of mononuclear cells, with fewer polymorphonuclear cells, and perivascular cuffs composed mostly of mononuclear cells and few neutrophils. Samples of Cases 1 and 2 revealed Gram-positive bacteria in the areas of necrosis by the Gram's stain technique. Samples of Case 1 were positive in immunohistochemistry for L. monocytogenes. Diagnosis of the nervous form of listeriosis was based on epidemiological data, clinical profile, and immunostaining for Listeria monocytogenes. Results showed that listeriosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis in buffaloes with nervous signs.


RESUMO: A listeriose é uma doença que afeta várias espécies animais, incluindo o homem, e possui três formas diferentes de apresentação: nervosa, abortiva ou septicêmica. A forma nervosa é causada principalmente pela bactéria Listeria monocytogenes. No Brasil a doença já foi descrita em bovinos, ovinos e caprinos, mas não foram encontrados relatos desta doença em búfalos no Brasil e no mundo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever um surto de listeriose nervosa em búfalos no estado do Pará, Brasil. O surto ocorreu de maio a julho de 2016, em uma propriedade localizada no município de Bujaru, na Amazônia Oriental. Três bubalinos de um total de 47 animais (Casos 1, 2 e 3), menores de 40 dias, apresentaram um quadro clínico neurológico caracterizado por dificuldade de locomoção, paralisia dos quatro membros, diminuição da sensibilidade cutânea, decúbito lateral e morte. A morbidade foi de 6,38% e a letalidade de 100%. Na necropsia não foram encontradas lesões macroscópicas significativas. Amostras do sistema nervoso central foram coletadas e fixadas em formalina tamponada a 10% e processadas rotineiramente para análise histopatológica. As principais alterações microscópicas observadas foram microabscessos unilaterais no tronco encefálico, compostos predominantemente por células mononucleares, com menor número de polimorfonucleares, e manguitos perivasculares compostos predominantemente por células mononucleares e poucos neutrófilos. Amostras dos Casos 1 e 2 revelaram bactérias Gram positivas nas áreas de necrose na técnica de Gram. Amostras do Caso 1 resultaram positivas na imuno-histoquímica para L. monocytogenes. O diagnóstico da forma nervosa da listeriose foi baseado nos dados epidemiológicos, no quadro clínico patológico e na imunomarcação para Listeria monocytogenes. Os resultados demostram que a listeriose deve ser considerada no diagnóstico diferencial em bubalinos com sinais nervosos.


Assuntos
Animais , Búfalos/anormalidades , Listeriose/epidemiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/veterinária , Listeria monocytogenes
19.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0213039, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30818354

RESUMO

Food safety risk assessments and large-scale epidemiological investigations have the potential to provide better and new types of information when whole genome sequence (WGS) data are effectively integrated. Today, the NCBI Pathogen Detection database WGS collections have grown significantly through improvements in technology, coordination, and collaboration, such as the GenomeTrakr and PulseNet networks. However, high-quality genomic data is not often coupled with high-quality epidemiological or food chain metadata. We have created a set of tools for cleaning, curation, integration, analysis and visualization of microbial genome sequencing data. It has been tested using Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes data sets provided by NCBI Pathogen Detection (160,000 sequenced isolates in 2018). GenomeGraphR presents foodborne pathogen WGS data and associated curated metadata in a user-friendly interface that allows a user to query a variety of research questions such as, transmission sources and dynamics, global reach, and persistence of genotypes associated with contamination in the food supply and foodborne illness across time or space. The application is freely available (https://fda-riskmodels.foodrisk.org/genomegraphr/).


Assuntos
Microbiologia de Alimentos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/estatística & dados numéricos , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Genoma Bacteriano , Humanos , Internet , Listeria monocytogenes/genética , Listeria monocytogenes/isolamento & purificação , Listeriose/epidemiologia , Listeriose/microbiologia , Metadados , Epidemiologia Molecular , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Medição de Risco , Intoxicação Alimentar por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Intoxicação Alimentar por Salmonella/microbiologia , Salmonella enterica/genética , Software , Interface Usuário-Computador
20.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 8(1): 17-28, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30866756

RESUMO

An outbreak with a remarkable Listeria monocytogenes clone causing 163 cases of non-invasive listeriosis occurred in Germany in 2015. Core genome multi locus sequence typing grouped non-invasive outbreak isolates and isolates obtained from related food samples into a single cluster, but clearly separated genetically close isolates obtained from invasive listeriosis cases. A comparative genomic approach identified a premature stop codon in the chiB gene, encoding one of the two L. monocytogenes chitinases, which clustered with disease outcome. Correction of this premature stop codon in one representative gastroenteritis outbreak isolate restored chitinase production, but effects in infection experiments were not found. While the exact role of chitinases in virulence of L. monocytogenes is still not fully understood, our results now clearly show that ChiB-derived activity is not required to establish L. monocytogenes gastroenteritis in humans. This limits a possible role of ChiB in human listeriosis to later steps of the infection.


Assuntos
Quitinases/genética , Surtos de Doenças , Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Listeria monocytogenes/classificação , Listeria monocytogenes/isolamento & purificação , Listeriose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Células CACO-2 , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Códon de Terminação , Feminino , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Genômica , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Células HeLa , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Lactente , Listeria monocytogenes/enzimologia , Listeria monocytogenes/patogenicidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Filogenia , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Adulto Jovem
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