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2.
Psychiatr Hung ; 34(2): 80-83, 2019.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416999

RESUMO

The roots of confessionalism reach back to the early Middle Ages and to the Confessions of Rousseau. Confessional literature gained a theoretical foundation in the age of Romanticism, then in the 20th century the genre underwent a revival and late modernisation in the works of the "confessional poets" (Lowell, Sexton, Plath etc.). The literary studies and psychobiographical examination of these authors threw light on the psychiatric aspects of confessionalism; most of them suffered from psychiatric or addictive disorders and committed suicide. Confessional poetry takes repetition of the (fragmented) psychological process of the individual life history as its almost sole theme. The poet builds up, demolishes, then again builds up his or her own life history, blurring the boundaries of reality and fiction. Interrupted personality development and the failure to work through traumatic experiences can be observed in the psychological background, to which Vladimir Nabokov also referred in his personal notes. In this collection of Psychiatria Hungarica about Sylvia Plath, titled The Broken-necked Deer the studies in three parts under the headings oeuvre, life history, illness are imbued with considerations of literary psychology and literary psychiatry that expand and enrich both literary studies and the psychiatric field of vision.


Assuntos
Pessoas Famosas , Literatura Moderna/história , Transtornos Mentais/história , Feminino , História do Século XX , Humanos , Suicídio/história
3.
Psychiatr Hung ; 34(2): 113-127, 2019.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31417002

RESUMO

Due to her childhood spent on the Atlantic coast, the element of sea had a major influence on both Sylvia Plath's artistic carreer and personality. In the present paper we intend to offer a literature psychological analysis of the water metaphor in the oeuvre, focused on the following themes; The vital water; The fearful water; The passionate water and The healing water. Our aim through the analysis of her poetry and novels is to explore the role of this dual symbol in the life of the poet with a well-known polarized personality. Why water has become adequate to express her ambivalences? Finally, how did the relationship with the water element affect the personal life and illness of the author, and what impact of these can be unveiled in the oeuvre?


Assuntos
Pessoas Famosas , Literatura Moderna/história , Metáfora , Água , Feminino , História do Século XX , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/história , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Personalidade
4.
Psychiatr Hung ; 34(2): 131-140, 2019.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31417003

RESUMO

AIM: The purpose of this present paper is to demonstrate the biographical antecedents and the adverse childhood experiences, which might have possibly contributed to those ambivalent feelings which can be observed in Sylvia Plath's confessional art in relation to her parents. METHOD: Biographical-, document- and artistic analyzes. The analyzed artistic pieces are the following: Johnny Panic and the Bible of Dreams, The Bell Jar, Collected poems (from The Colossus and Ariel books) and the Journals by Sylvia Plath. The reconstruction of the biography was conducted based on international textbooks. RESULTS: Sylvia Plath at the age of 30, on the 12th of October, 1962 wrote her famous poem, Daddy, which starts with these lines: "You do not do, you do not do /Any more, black shoe/In which I have lived like a foot For thirty years, poor and white,/Barely daring to breathe or Achoo. Daddy, I have had to kill you./You died before I had time/Marble-heavy, a bag full of God/Ghastly statue with one gray toe/Big as a Frisco seal/And a head in the freakish Atlantic /Where it pours bean green over blue/In the waters off beautiful Nauset./I used to pray to recover you. /Ach, du Dreck." A couple of months later, on the 11th of February 1963. Sylvia Plath committed suicide. Her journal entries and her works all testified that the emotional relationship with her parents significantly contributed to her genuine art and at the same time to the onset of her psychiatric illness. According to her journals, Sylvia Plath reported hate and ambivalent feelings several times to her psychiatrists. It is very likely, that the illness and death of Otto Plath and the emotional crises afterwards might have been that primary experience that might have exercised an adverse effect on Sylvia's life, and what have been composed very vividly in the poem called Daddy. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the analyzes of the biography, the journals and the poems, it can be stated, that the adverse childhood experiences, Sylvia had to experience during her father's illness, after his death, and during the restructuring of the family system are vital in the understanding of Sylvia Plath's art and her psychopathology.


Assuntos
Ira , Pessoas Famosas , Literatura Moderna/história , Transtornos Mentais/história , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Feminino , História do Século XX , Humanos , Poesia como Assunto/história , Psicopatologia , Suicídio/história
5.
Psychiatr Hung ; 34(2): 185-198, 2019.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31417007

RESUMO

Sylvia Plath was one of the most famous American poets in the twentieth century. Plath was diagnosed with depression after her first suicide attempt when she was 20 years old. Her major depression (without psychotic symptoms) recurred several times. Plath never had a manic episode, but there were probable hypomanic periods in her life. She died by violent suicide when she was 30. Sylvia Plath took a bottle of sleeping pills and stuck her head in a gas oven. Several factors may have contributed to Plath's psychiatric disorder and suicide. The author reviews the etiological factors and course of psychiatric disorder based on the Unabridged Journals of Sylvia Plath and the literature. Her family history was positive and her premorbid personality was vulnerable to depression. There were histrionic, narcissistic and borderline features in her personality. The probable diagnoses of Plath were bipolar II. affective disorder and mixed personality disorder.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/história , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/história , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Pessoas Famosas , Transtornos do Humor/história , Transtornos da Personalidade/história , Feminino , História do Século XX , Humanos , Literatura Moderna/história , Personalidade , Suicídio/história
6.
Psychiatr Hung ; 34(2): 214-236, 2019.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31417009

RESUMO

To clarify the relationship between literature and psychiatry we can call on the help of the American-English writer Sylvia Plath, who was given electroconvulsive therapy and psychotherapy on a number of occasions for psychiatric illness and later took her own life. This study seeks an answer to five questions. Did Sylvia Plath suffer from psychiatric illness? Did she show signs of the bipolar triad (bipolar affective disorder, trait aggression, substance or behavioural dependence)? Did her activity as a writer have a therapeutic effect? What was the nature of her "confessionalism"? To what extent does her oeuvre reflect her life? Sylvia Plath very probably suffered from a psychiatric illness, namely bipolar 2 affective disorder. The unsuitable treatment of her illness and the interruption of intensive psychotherapy could have contributed to her early death. Together with the bipolar affective disorder, she was also characterised by serious dispositional aggression and emotional dependence. For her, writing was both a source of stress, because her dysthymia intensified her inhibitions, and at the same time self-healing and a self-fulfilling prophecy. The roots of her confessionalism can be found in her personality development suspended in the stage of becoming an adult, and the failure to work through her traumas. Unlike Goethe and Salinger who killed their heroes, having them commit suicide in The Sorrows of Young Werther and A Perfect Day for Bananafish, while both writers recovered from their crisis, Sylvia Plath described a positive development in The Bell Jar and in Ariel, her verse cycle, then put her head in the gas oven. Would she have stayed alive if she had followed the patterns of Goethe and Salinger?


Assuntos
Ira , Pessoas Famosas , Imaginação , Literatura Moderna/história , Suicídio/história , Suicídio/psicologia , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Transtorno Bipolar/terapia , Feminino , História do Século XX , Humanos , Psicoterapia , Redação/história
9.
Australas Psychiatry ; 27(5): 469-471, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30945930

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Janet Frame (1924-2004) was one of New Zealand's most celebrated authors. Much of her work stems from her experiences as a psychiatric patient. She was hospitalised for about eight years with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Treatments included insulin coma therapy and unmodified electroconvulsive therapy. Her doctors then planned for her to have a leucotomy, which was cancelled upon discovery that one of her works had won a prestigious literary award. She subsequently moved to England and was assessed at the Maudsley Hospital by Sir Aubrey Lewis. She was found to never have suffered from schizophrenia; her condition was instead attributed to the effects of overtreatment and prolonged hospitalisation. She reflected profoundly on these experiences in her writing, and those who are interested in psychiatry are truly fortunate to have access to her autobiographies, fiction and poetry. CONCLUSIONS: Janet Frame has written both autobiographical and fictional accounts of her many years of psychiatric treatment, describing individuals, interpersonal relationships, and everyday life in these institutions. Her own life story demonstrates extraordinary recovery and achievement.


Assuntos
Erros de Diagnóstico , Literatura Moderna , Medicina na Literatura , Esquizofrenia , Erros de Diagnóstico/história , Feminino , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Literatura Moderna/história , Medicina na Literatura/história , Nova Zelândia , Narrativas Pessoais como Assunto
11.
Front Neurol Neurosci ; 43: 145-163, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30419567

RESUMO

Franz Kafka's Letter to His Father is one of the greatest examples in world literature of memory of a traumatic childhood. In it, the author takes a retrospective journey through his life, recollecting and analyzing the reasons for the estrangement and hostility between a father and a son. This essay considers Letter to His Father in the light of current knowledge about autobiographical memory. The essay first sets forth basic aspects of Kafka's life in order to place Letter to His Father in the context of Kafka's biography, and then presents Kafka's relevance to the literature and thought of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. The essay then considers the different forms of childhood abuse and their consequences in light of evidence from neurodevelopmental psychology. We present evidence about the relationship between trauma and the construction of self-image. Furthermore, we discuss the subjectivity of Kafka's recollections from the perspective of recent advances in neurobiology. Memory is shown to be dynamic, selective, inherently malleable and dependent on perception, which is a subjective construction, in which the brain interprets and gives coherence to experienced stimuli. We consider the inaccuracy of memory, which is related to neuroplastic changes in the brain that take place over time: consolidation, reconsolidation and transformation. Finally, the relationship between literature and autobiography in the Kafkaesque universe is considered.


Assuntos
Pessoas Famosas , Pai/psicologia , Literatura Moderna/história , Memória/fisiologia , Criança , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Cir Cir ; 86(6): 583-592, 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30361704

RESUMO

Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra fue hijo de un cirujano itinerante. Escribió una de las obras maestras de la literatura universal, El Ingenioso Hidalgo Don Quijote de la Mancha, considerada la primera novela moderna y solo la Biblia la rivaliza por el número de traducciones a diferentes lenguas e idiomas. La lectura del Quijote por un médico le hace dar un viraje a nuestra profesión. En sus páginas se tratan diversos y variados aspectos médicos, que van desde la descripción de diferentes enfermedades, tratamientos y heridas de batalla, al perfil psicológico de sus personajes. La capacidad de Cervantes para la descripción de hechos médicos y enfermedades es notoria, derivada de la osbservación de la actividad de su padre y de la lectura de libros de medicina. Don Quijote representa un mundo idealizado, ficticio y con claro comportamiento psicótico. A pesar de haber sido escrito hace cuatro siglos, El Quijote está lleno de referencias a diferentes especialidades de la medicina cuyo contenido sigue siendo de interés. El objetivo de este trabajo es describir brevemente el entorno médico que vivió Cervantes y su impacto en El Quijote.Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra was the son of an itinerant surgeon. He wrote a masterpiece of the world literature, El Ingenioso Hidalgo Don Quijote de la Mancha. It is rivalled only by the Bible for the number of languages into which it has been translated. This masterpiece of the world literature is considered to be the first modern novel. For the physician, a reading of the Quijote is likely to veer in a medical direction. Various medical matters arise in the course of the novel, ranging from medical illness, treatments and battle wounds to the psychological profile of their characters. Cervantes´s excellent nosological ability is evident when he describes symptoms and signs of illness, derived from being a witness to his father´s medical practice and reading medical books. Don Quixote representing an idealized and fictional world with clear psychotic features. Although Cervantes wrote it four centuries ago, Don Quixote contains plenty of references to different specialities of medicine, and many of the ideas and concepts reflected in it are still of interest. The aim of this paper is to describe briefly the medical environment that surrounded Cervantes and its impact on the Quixote.


Assuntos
Literatura Moderna/história , Medicina na Literatura/história , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , Espanha
14.
Front Neurol Neurosci ; 43: 76-84, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30336458

RESUMO

Thomas Mann (1875-1955) is considered one of the most influential writers of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. In addition to his novels and essays, he was well known for his criticisms of the Nazi party, and particularly against the racial nationalism promoted by Adolf Hitler after the First World War, as well as for his depiction of diseases. Here, we provide a quick sketch of Mann's life and his relationship with nineteenth to twentieth century German society. We then proceed to describe how Mann became interested in diseases, how he used the diseases as metaphors, and his specific contribution to the field of neurology. We describe some of the neurological cases portrayed in Mann's work, and particularly epilepsy described in The Buddenbrooks, Felix Krull and The Magic Mountain, meningitis, neurosyphilis and migraines depicted in Doctor Faustus, and essential tremor described in The Magic Mountain and Doctor Faustus. We conclude with reflections about Mann's interest in diseases and particularly in neurology.


Assuntos
Literatura Moderna/história , Medicina na Literatura/história , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/história , Neurologia/história , Pessoas Famosas , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Socialismo Nacional
15.
Front Neurol Neurosci ; 43: 185-195, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30336462

RESUMO

The Italian poet, novelist, translator, editor and diarist Cesare Pavese (1908-1950) famously committed suicide after winning the coveted Strega prize for his 1949 trilogy of novels La bella estate (The Beautiful Summer). This article discusses one of the novels in that trilogy, Among Women Only (Tra donne sole), presenting it as a psychological "laboratory" in which the intensely private Pavese explores the rationale for suicide on the very public stage of the novel. The author argues that the writing of Tra donne sole was one of the self-willed steps that made it not just possible for Pavese to commit suicide, but impossible not to.


Assuntos
Literatura Moderna/história , Solidão/psicologia , Redação/história , Pessoas Famosas , Feminino , História do Século XX , Humanos , Itália , Suicídio/história
16.
Front Neurol Neurosci ; 43: 196-220, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30336466

RESUMO

In this essay, we propose an association between Franz Kafka's novel, The Trial, and phenomenological and neurobiological processes in schizophrenia. We begin by presenting a summary of the plot, pointing to some of its remarkable literary aspects. We next compare the mental processes of dissociation, disorientation and delusion as represented in the novel with phenomenological processes that take place in the prodromal states of schizophrenia. We discuss how such disorders of the self and disorders of thought, both crucial aspects of the schizophrenic experience, appear in The Trial and in other literary and private writings by Franz Kafka. We relate how these disorders may arise from the false attribution of salience and false associative learning caused by hyperactivity of dopaminergic function associated with chaotic firing of dopaminergic neurons. Finally, we show how Kafka leads not just the protagonist of The Trial, but even more the reader to experience a quasi-delusional state. We discuss the relationship between the perturbation of thought and disorientation of mind evoked by the novel in the reader and the need of our brains for empathy and predictability.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Delusões/psicologia , Literatura Moderna/história , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Pessoas Famosas , História do Século XX , Humanos , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico
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