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1.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e050819, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475181

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Vision problems affect academic performance, social and mental health. Most traditional vision screening methods rely on human expert assessments based on a set of vision tests. As technology advances, new instruments and computerised tools are available for complementing vision screening. The scoping review based on this protocol aims to investigate current technologies for vision screening, what vision tests can be complemented by technologies, and how these can support vision screening by providing measurements. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The planned review will utilise the PRISMA extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) tool. Electronic search will be performed in databases, including Web of Science, MEDLINE (Ovid), Scopus, Engineering Village, Cochrane and Embase. We will perform a systematic search in selected reference databases without the limitation on publications dates, or country of studies. Reference management software, like EndNote and DistillerSR, will be used to remove duplicate entries. Two authors will independently analyse the studies for inclusion eligibility. Conflicts will be resolved by discussion. We will extract the types of technologies, types of vision tests they complement and the measurements for the included studies. Overall findings will be synthesised by thematic analysis and mapping to the logic model. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval is not required for this review, as it will only summarise existing published data. We will publish the findings in an open access, peer-reviewed journal. We expect that the review results will be useful for vision screening experts, developers, researchers, and policymakers.


Assuntos
Seleção Visual , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Revisão por Pares , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Tecnologia
2.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e048956, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489280

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Early-onset scoliosis (EOS) is a rare spinal deformity affecting children under the age of 10. Both the condition and its treatment have associated morbidity and can impact quality of life. Understanding this impact can be achieved by using appropriate patient-reported and/or carer-reported outcome measures. The aim of the review described in this protocol is to evaluate the evidence on measurement properties relevant to health-related quality of life outcomes in the EOS population. The focus will be on outcome measures relevant to patients undergoing treatment of EOS under the age of 10. METHODS/ANALYSIS: This protocol is reported in line with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocol and COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) methodology. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, EMCARE, PubMed, PsychINFO and CINAHL databases will be searched using a two-stage search strategy. The first stage will identify measures of HRQoL used in EOS through screening of titles and abstracts. The second stage will assess the measurement properties of those measures identified through screening of full-text articles. The measurement properties of interest are the 'reliability', 'validity' and 'responsiveness' of the instrument. Only English language articles will be considered. Two reviewers will independently review the search results against the eligibility criteria, perform data extraction and assess for risk of bias, with disputes handled by a third reviewer. Data will be quantitatively pooled where possible or reported as a narrative synthesis. The summarised results for each measurement property will be rated against the criteria for good measurement properties following the COSMIN methodology. Two reviewers will assess the body of evidence for each measurement property using modified Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation guidelines. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: No ethical approval is required for this review and the results will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed publications. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020219721.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Escoliose , Viés , Humanos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Projetos de Pesquisa , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Escoliose/diagnóstico
3.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e045822, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489266

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The assistant in medicine is a new and paid role for final-year medical students that has been established in New South Wales, Australia, as part of the surge workforce management response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Eligibility requires the applicant to be a final-year medical student in an Australian Medical Council-accredited university and registered with the Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency. While there are roles with some similarities to the assistant in medicine role, such as assistantships (the UK) and physician assistants adopted internationally, this is completely new in Australia. Little is known about the functionality and success factors of this role within the health practitioner landscape, particularly within the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Given the complexity of this role, a realist approach to evaluation has been undertaken as described in this protocol, which sets out a study design spanning from August 2020 to June 2021. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The intention of conducting a realist review is to identify the circumstances and mechanisms that determine the outcomes of the assistant in medicine intervention. We will start by developing an initial programme theory to explore the potential function of the assistant in medicine role through realist syntheses of critically appraised summaries of existing literature using relevant databases and journals. Other data sources such as interviews and surveys with key stakeholders will contribute to the refinements of the programme theory. Using this method, we will develop a set of hypotheses on how and why the Australian assistants in medicine intervention might 'work' to achieve a variety of outcomes based on examples of related international interventions. These hypotheses will be tested against the qualitative and quantitative evidence gathered from all relevant stakeholders. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval for the larger study was obtained from the Western Sydney Local Health District (2020/ETH01745). The findings of this review will provide useful information for hospital managers, academics and policymakers, who can apply the findings in their context when deciding how to implement and support the introduction of assistants in medicine into the health system. We will publish our findings in reports to policymakers, peer-reviewed journals and international conferences.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Estudantes de Medicina , Austrália , Humanos , Pandemias , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Trials ; 22(1): 635, 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530871

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Palliative care is a medical specialty centered on improving the quality of life (QOL) of patients with complex or life-threatening illnesses. The need for palliative care is increasing and with that the rigorous testing of triage tools that can be used quickly and reliably to identify patients that may benefit from palliative care. METHODS: To that aim, we will conduct a two-armed stepped-wedge cluster randomized trial rolled out to two inpatient hospitals to evaluate whether a machine learning algorithm accurately identifies patients who may benefit from a comprehensive review by a palliative care specialist and decreases time to receiving a palliative care consult in hospital. This is a single-center study which will be conducted from August 2019 to November 2020 at Saint Mary's Hospital & Methodist Hospital both within Mayo Clinic Rochester in Minnesota. Clusters will be nursing units which will be chosen to be a mix of complex patients from Cardiology, Critical Care, and Oncology and had previously established relationships with palliative medicine. The stepped wedge design will have 12 units allocated to a design matrix of 5 treatment wedges. Each wedge will last 75 days resulting in a study period of 12 months of recruitment unless otherwise specified. Data will be analyzed with Bayesian hierarchical models with credible intervals denoting statistical significance. DISCUSSION: This intervention offers a pragmatic approach to delivering specialty palliative care to hospital patients in need using machine learning, thereby leading to high value care and improved outcomes. It is not enough for AI to be utilized by simply publishing research showing predictive performance; clinical trials demonstrating better outcomes are critically needed. Furthermore, the deployment of an AI algorithm is a complex process that requires multiple teams with varying skill sets. To evaluate a deployed AI, a pragmatic clinical trial can accommodate the difficulties of clinical practice while retaining scientific rigor. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03976297 . Registered on 6 June 2019, prior to trial start.


Assuntos
Cuidados Paliativos , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Oncologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto
5.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e045946, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493506

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has driven unprecedented social and economic reform in efforts to curb the impact of disease. Governments worldwide have legislated non-essential service shutdowns and adapted essential service provision in order to minimise face-to-face contact. We anticipate major consequences resulting from such policies, with marginalised populations expected to bear the greatest burden of such measures, especially those with substance use disorders (SUDs). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We aim to conduct (1) a scoping review to summarise the available evidence evaluating the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on patients with SUDs, and (2) an evidence map to visually plot and categorise the current available evidence evaluating the impact of COVID-19 on patients with SUDs to identify gaps in addressing high-risk populations. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval is not required for this scoping review as we plan to review publicly available data. This is part of a multistep project, whereby we intend to use the findings generated from this review in combination with data from an ongoing prospective cohort study our team is leading, encompassing over 2000 patients with SUDs receiving medication-assisted therapy in Ontario prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Cisplatino , Doxorrubicina , Humanos , Mitomicina , Pandemias , Estudos Prospectivos , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , SARS-CoV-2 , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
6.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e051611, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493523

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Various evidence-based interventions are available to improve the care of people with dementia in different care settings, many of which are not or are only partially implemented in routine care. Different implementation strategies have been developed to support the implementation of interventions in routine care; however, the implementation of complex interventions remains challenging. The aim of our reviews is to identify promising strategies for, significant facilitators of and barriers to the implementation of evidence-based interventions for very common dementia care phenomena: (A) behaviour that challenges supporting a person with dementia in long-term care, (B) delirium in acute care and (C) the postacute care needs of people with dementia. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will conduct one scoping review for each preselected dementia care phenomenon (A, B and C). For this, three literature searches will be carried out in the following electronic databases: MEDLINE (via PubMed), CINAHL (via EBSCO) and PsycINFO (via EBSCO). Additionally, we will perform backward and forward citation tracking via reference lists and Google Scholar. Identified records will be independently screened by two reviewers (title/abstract and full text) using the defined inclusion criteria. We will include all study designs and publications in the German or English language. For the data analyses, we will conduct a deductive content analysis using two different analytical approaches: Expert Recommendations for Implementation Change and the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Due to the nature of a review, ethical clearing is not required. We will disseminate our results in peer-reviewed journals, workshops with stakeholders, and (inter)national conferences.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde , Demência , Demência/terapia , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , Assistência de Longa Duração , Projetos de Pesquisa , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto
7.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e050527, 2021 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34376452

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Integrated care aims to improve population health. Obesity and mental health are major health issues worldwide. The complexity of the multifactorial drivers of these public health problems has led to the adoption of a whole system approach. This review aims to highlight factors that influence the planning, implementation and evaluation of whole system integrated care for these conditions. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Using the framework of Arksey and O' Malley, we will perform a comprehensive search in the following databases: MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsychINFO, PubMed, British Nursing Database, Web of Science, Health Systems Evidence, Cochrane Library and University of York Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. Further hand-search of reference lists and the grey literature will be conducted. The search will be restricted to articles published from 2000 to 2020. The review is expected to be completed by August 2021. Full texts of the potential studies will be screened for the inclusion criteria. Quality of studies will be appraised. Narrative synthesis will be completed using data extracted from the included studies. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: A favourable ethics opinion for this study was obtained from the Institute for Health Research Ethics Committee of the University of Bedfordshire (IHREC937). This review expects to identify information relating to factors that facilitate or hinder whole system integrated care for obesity and mental health. The finding from this review will be widely disseminated to stakeholders to inform implementation of whole system integrated care initiatives.


Assuntos
Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde , Saúde Mental , Humanos , Obesidade/terapia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto
8.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e047280, 2021 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362801

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Research has established that various forms of stigma (HIV stigma, gender non-conforming stigma and same-gender sex stigma) exist across Sub-Saharan Africa and have consequences for the utilisation of HIV prevention and care services. Stigmas are typically investigated in HIV literature individually or through investigating individual populations and the various stigmas they may face. The concept of intersectionality highlights the interconnected nature of social categorisations and their ability to create interdependent systems of discrimination based on gender, race, sexuality and so on. Drawing from perspectives on intersectionality, intersectional stigma denotes the convergence of multiple marginalised identities within an individual or a group, the experiences of stigma associated with these identities as well as the synergistic impact of these experiences on health and well-being. With respect to HIV, public health scholars can examine the impacts of intersectional stigmas on HIV prevention and care utilisation. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Reviewers will search systematically through MEDLINE, Global Health, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science Core Collection and Africa Index Medicus and citations for quantitative studies, qualitative studies and grey literature that include data on stigma and HIV among men who have sex with men and women who have sex with women in Sub-Saharan Africa. Eligible studies will include primary or secondary data on stigma related to HIV risk factors experienced by this population. Studies will be written in French or English and be published between January 1991 and November 2020. All screening and data extraction will be performed in duplicate, and if discrepancies arise, they will be settled by GM'RA, LEN, DD or AO. Findings from this study will be reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval is not required as there will be no human participants and no protected data will be used in this study. We will disseminate findings through peer-reviewed manuscripts, conferences and webinars.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , África ao Sul do Saara , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Estigma Social , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
9.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e045795, 2021 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426461

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The hygiene hypothesis suggests that reduced exposure to microbes might have contributed to the increase in prevalence and incidence of asthma and allergy observed during the second half of the last century. Following this proposal, several studies have investigated the role of sibship size and birth order in the development of asthma and allergic diseases, but the underlying evidence is conflicting. The objective of the present systematic review will be to identify, critically appraise and synthesise previous primary studies investigating the association of sibship size and birth order with the risk of asthma and allergic diseases. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The following databases will be searched: AMED, CABI, CINAHL, Embase, Google Scholar, OAIster, Open Access Theses and Dissertations, Open Grey, ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global, PsycINFO, PubMed, SciELO, Scopus, Web of Science and WHO Global Index Medicus. Studies published up until 31 December 2020 will be eligible. There will be no restrictions by language and geographical location. Risk of bias in the included studies will be assessed using the Effective Public Health Practice Project quality assessment tool. The produced evidence will be synthesised narratively, and studies that present comparable numerical data will be included in meta-analyses using random effects model. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Only data from the published literature will be included in this systematic review. Therefore, no ethical approval is required. The final review paper will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020207905.


Assuntos
Asma , Hipersensibilidade , Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/etiologia , Ordem de Nascimento , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/epidemiologia , Metanálise como Assunto , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
10.
Syst Rev ; 10(1): 217, 2021 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362447

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Loneliness and social isolation are prevalent public health concerns among community-dwelling older adults. One approach that is becoming an increasingly popular method of reducing levels of loneliness and social isolation among older adults is through technology-driven solutions. This protocol outlines a research trajectory whereby a scoping review will be initiated in order to illustrate and map the existing technological approaches that have been utilized to diminish levels of loneliness and social isolation among community-dwelling older adults aged 60 years or older. We will address the question: what are the most common and less used technological approaches to reduce loneliness and social isolation among community-dwelling older adults? METHODS: A scoping review of Academic Search Premier, AGEline, Global Health, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Web of Science databases will take place using our search terms including the following: loneliness, social isolation, older adults, elderly, Aged, Aged 80 and over, program, evaluation, trial, intervention, technology, computer, information and communication technology, internet, and robot. The initial electronic search will be supplemented by reviewing the reference lists and review articles to identify any missing studies. To meet study inclusion criteria, intervention studies had to pertain to community-dwelling adults aged 60 years or older, include technological interventions, include loneliness and/or social isolation as outcome variables, and be written in the English language. Two parallel independent assessments of study eligibility will be conducted for the title, abstract, and full-text screens. Any disagreement will be resolved by consensus and a third reviewer consulted to make a decision if consensus is not achieved initially. Finally, the amalgamation of results will be an iterative process whereby reviewers will refine the plan for presenting results after data extraction is completed so that all of the contents of the extraction may be included in the results. DISCUSSION: The information gleaned in this scoping review will be essential to understand the degree to which technological interventions influence social isolation and loneliness among older adults and identify gaps for further research.


Assuntos
Solidão , Isolamento Social , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Vida Independente , Projetos de Pesquisa , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Tecnologia
11.
Syst Rev ; 10(1): 221, 2021 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380566

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hospitals operate under constant pressure to contain costs and improve the quality of care. The literature suggests that there is an association between health care providers' financial performance and the quality of care. On the one hand, providers that are financially more stable might have better capacity to maintain reliable systems and resources for quality improvement. On the other hand, providing better quality of care might lead to financial gains in the form of increased revenues or achieved savings and, in consequence, a higher profitability. The general objective of this scoping review is to identify and map the available evidence on the association between hospital financial performance and the quality of care. It aims to (1) provide a broad overview of the topic and (2) indicate a more precise research question for a future systematic review. METHODS: This scoping review will follow five stages: (1) defining the research question; (2) identifying relevant literature; (3) study selection; (4) data extraction; (5) collating, summarizing, and reporting the results; and (6) the consultation process and engagement of knowledge users. The following databases will be searched: MEDLINE via PubMed, (2) EMBASE, (3) Web of Science, (4) Scopus, (5) EconLit, (6) ABI/INFORM, and (7) Business Source Premier. The reference lists of relevant papers will be visually scanned with the aim of identifying further studies of interest. Also, a gray literature search will be conducted by screening the websites of diverse organizations dealing with hospital performance and/or quality of care. The review will not apply a publication date limit and will include both quantitative and qualitative empirical studies as well as theoretical papers, technical reports, books/chapters, and thesis. The reporting will utilize the PRISMA extension for a Scoping Review checklist. DISCUSSION: This scoping review will provide an overview of the existing literature on the association between hospital financial performance and the quality of care. The review process will apply a rigorous methodological approach while broad inclusion criteria should assure comprehensive coverage of the available literature. The main limitation of the review is related to the general limitation of scoping reviews, i.e., the lack of a systematic quality and risk of bias assessment of included studies. In addition, the review will include only publications in English. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: Open Science Framework osf.io/z25ag.


Assuntos
Hospitais , Renda , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
12.
Syst Rev ; 10(1): 227, 2021 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389045

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder is a common psychiatric disorder causing great burden on patients and societies. Tricyclic antidepressants are frequently used worldwide to treat patients with major depressive disorder. It has repeatedly been shown that tricyclic antidepressants reduce depressive symptoms with a statistically significant effect, but the effect is small and of questionable clinical importance. Moreover, the beneficial and harmful effects of all types of tricyclic antidepressants have not previously been systematically assessed. Therefore, we aim to investigate the beneficial and harmful effects of tricyclic antidepressants versus 'active placebo', placebo or no intervention for adults with major depressive disorder. METHODS: This is a protocol for a systematic review with meta-analysis that will be reported as recommended by Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis Protocols, bias will be assessed with the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool-version 2, our eight-step procedure will be used to assess if the thresholds for clinical significance are crossed, Trial Sequential Analysis will be conducted to control random errors and the certainty of the evidence will be assessed with the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. To identify relevant trials, we will search both for published and unpublished trials in major medical databases and trial registers, such as CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and ClinicalTrials.gov from their inception to 12 May 2021. Clinical study reports will be applied for from regulatory authorities and pharmaceutical companies. Two review authors will independently screen the results from the literature searches, extract data and perform risk of bias assessment. We will include any published or unpublished randomised clinical trial comparing tricyclic antidepressants with 'active placebo', placebo or no intervention for adults with major depressive disorder. The following interventions will be assessed: amineptine, amitriptyline, amoxapine, butriptyline, cianopramine, clomipramine, desipramine, demexiptiline, dibenzepin, dosulepin, dothiepin, doxepin, imipramine, iprindole, lofepramine, maprotiline, melitracen, metapramine, nortriptyline, noxiptiline, opipramol, protriptyline, tianeptine, trimipramine and quinupramine. Primary outcomes will be depressive symptoms, serious adverse events and quality of life. Secondary outcomes will be suicide or suicide-attempts and non-serious adverse events. If feasible, we will assess the intervention effects using random-effects and fixed-effect meta-analyses. DISCUSSION: Tricyclic antidepressants are recommended by clinical guidelines and frequently used worldwide in the treatment of major depressive disorder. There is a need for a thorough systematic review to provide the necessary background for weighing the benefits against the harms. This review will ultimately inform best practice in the treatment of major depressive disorder. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42021226161 .


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Adulto , Antidepressivos Tricíclicos/uso terapêutico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Qualidade de Vida , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto
13.
Syst Rev ; 10(1): 229, 2021 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389051

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although measures have been put in place, musculoskeletal injuries are noticeable high among the nursing fraternity with low back pain (LBP) being the most prevalent. It is evident that healthcare professionals are in constant exposure to occupational hazards such as musculoskeletal injuries as they discharge their professional duties. Not only does LBP affect the health of the nurses, it also creates a huge burden on the health systems with consequent poor performance at the workplace as well as economic burden. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to map evidence on the prevalence, incidence, mortality, risk factors, and economic costs of musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). This is a scoping review because we want to map the evidence of MSD among nurses in SSA and to identify the scope of body literature in which the findings will be used for planning the intervention study thereafter. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Scoping review will be done to explore, describe, and map literature on the prevalence, incidence, mortality, risk factors, and economic costs related to MSD among nurses in SSA. The search will be done using databases such as PubMed, EBSCOHOST, Scopus, Web of Science, Science direct, Sabinet, WorldCat Local (iCatalogue), MEDLINE, CINAHL, Google Scholar, nursing academic editions, and World Health Organization (WHO) library databases. The search will look for primary studies within peer-reviewed articles as well as gray literature. In addition, the researcher will search for articles using keywords from the included studies as well as the list of references for related studies. The screening will be guided by Arksey and O'Malley's framework which has five steps to be followed: (I) identifying the research question, (II) identifying relevant studies, (III) study selection, (IV) charting the data, and (V) collating, summarizing, and reporting the results, and the scoping review will be reported in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) checklist. A thematic content analysis will be used to give the narrative account of the review; using NVivo version 11 software, two independent reviewers will follow the three stages outlined by the thematic synthesis theory: (a) coding the findings of the included studies line-by-line, (b) organizing these free codes into related areas to construct descriptive themes, and (c) developing analytical themes. The outcome of coding will be verified and discussed with a third reviewer. The process of cross-checking the outcomes of coding of each included article will be discussed thoroughly. DISCUSSION: At the end, this study anticipates to uncover the relevant literature in SSA in regard to the prevalence, incidence, mortality, risk factors, and economic costs related to MSD among nurses; furthermore, findings from this study will help in identifying research gaps; informing policy, priority in funding, and planning; and guiding future research.


Assuntos
Doenças Musculoesqueléticas , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Programas de Rastreamento , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/epidemiologia , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
14.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e044904, 2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404696

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The local retail food environment influences dietary patterns and food choices, as suggested in the literature. The lack of access to healthy food within this environment may result in unhealthy food choices which may lead to obesity and the development of non-communicable diseases. Evidence suggests that resource-poor communities may have unhealthy food environments, therefore, preventing residents from making healthy food choices. A systematic scoping review will be conducted to provide an overview of the evidence on adult food choices in association with the local retail food environment and food access in resource-poor communities. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This protocol for the scoping review was developed following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses Extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) guidelines and the framework process by Arksey and O'Malley. Observational studies, published from July 2005 to January 2021, will be searched and screened. Keywords and medical subject headings (MeSH) terms will be used to search several multidisciplinary databases. Two independent reviewers will screen identified articles using the selection criteria and extract data using the PRISMA-ScR checklist. Descriptive numerical and thematic analysis will be performed to evaluate and categorise quantitative and qualitative data. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval will not be required for the review, as data from published studies will be used. The results of this scoping review will form part of a PhD thesis that will be submitted to the University of the Western Cape, South Africa. The review findings will also be presented at conferences and published in a peer-reviewed journal. OPEN SCIENCE FRAMEWORK REGISTRATION NUMBER: https://osf.io/shf93.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde , Alimentos , Adulto , Humanos , Revisão por Pares , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , África do Sul , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
15.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e046294, 2021 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34408032

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Health systems in sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries are fragile and centralised. Consequently, majority of people have restricted access to healthcare services. Given the rise in the prevalence and burden of asthma in SSA, it is imperative to scrutinise the utilisation of healthcare services by people with asthma. We aim to understand, through this review, the extent of utilisation of healthcare services by asthma patients in SSA countries. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Arksey and O'Malley's scoping review methodology framework will be used to guide the conduct of this scoping review. We will conduct a search of the literature on the electronic databases: Medline, (using PubMed interface), EMBASE, EBSCOHOST, Web of Science and Google Scholar, grey literature sources and the reference lists of key studies to identify studies appropriate for inclusion. Two reviewers will independently screen all abstracts and full-text studies for inclusion. Registration of the proposed scoping review on the PROSPERO has indicated that no similar work has been or is being done elsewhere. We will review studies published on the subject from January 2009 to May 2020 in SSA. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The proposed scoping review will contribute towards the knowledge base on utilisation of healthcare services particularly for people with asthma. This will provide a better understanding of the extent of utilisation of healthcare services by asthma patients and ultimately contribute to improvement of quality of care for people suffering from asthma. The results from the review will enlighten and guide healthcare practitioners and researchers on developing appropriate and feasible interventions to increase the utilisation of healthcare services by asthma patients in resource-constrained settings in SSA countries. Results of this scoping review will be disseminated through a peer-reviewed publication, conference presentations and a 1-day stakeholder meeting. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020154127.


Assuntos
Asma , Atenção à Saúde , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/terapia , Instalações de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto
16.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e050676, 2021 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34408056

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: South Asian countries are ageing and experiencing a rapid increase in proportion of the older population. Income support programmes are of central importance for the older adults as they may help to mitigate the poverty risks associated with ageing and losing the ability to generate income from labour. Evidence related to the income support programmes can help in understanding whether the programmes have been impactful. This scoping review will map the evidence (and gaps) related to income support programmes and create a base to identify the feasibility of future primary research and/or the scope of systematic reviews in the areas where evidence is available. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The Joanna Briggs Institute scoping review methodology will be followed. Eligibility criteria for the scoping review will be based on the 'PCC' or the 'Population-Concept-Context' concept. Advanced search for the relevant articles will be conducted in MEDLINE (via PubMed), Embase, Scopus, Campbell Collaboration, 3ie International Initiative for Impact Evaluation and Web of Science. Additional resources search will be conducted in important organisational websites. Findings of the scoping review will be summarised using descriptive information (frequencies and percentages) for the available evidence on concept (ie, income support programmes), population characteristics and other study variables. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The review is based on data from available literature, hence an ethical approval is not necessary. With this review, we attempt to provide recommendations to the research community and the policymakers about the currently available evidence and the research required for income support of older adults in South Asia, so that resources can be directed towards addressing the same. We plan to disseminate the findings through presentation in international conference and publication in a peer-reviewed journal. REVIEW REGISTRATION: Not registered.


Assuntos
Pobreza , Projetos de Pesquisa , Idoso , Ásia , Humanos , Renda , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
17.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e053485, 2021 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34408061

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cardiometabolic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, obesity and diabetes, are leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Modern advances in population-level disease surveillance are necessary and may inform novel opportunities for precision public health approaches to disease prevention. Electronic data sources, such as social media and consumer rewards points systems, have expanded dramatically in recent decades. These non-traditional datasets may enhance traditional clinical and public health datasets and inform cardiometabolic disease surveillance and population health interventions. However, the scope of non-traditional electronic datasets and their use for cardiometabolic disease surveillance and population health interventions has not been previously reviewed. The primary objective of this review is to describe the scope of non-traditional electronic datasets, and how they are being used for cardiometabolic disease surveillance and to inform interventions. The secondary objective is to describe the methods, such as machine learning and natural language processing, that have been applied to leverage these datasets. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will conduct a scoping review following recommended methodology. Search terms will be based on the three central concepts of non-traditional electronic datasets, cardiometabolic diseases and population health. We will search EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINAHL, Scopus, Web of Science and Cochrane Library peer-reviewed databases and will also conduct a grey literature search. Articles published from 2000 to present will be independently screened by two reviewers for inclusion at abstract and full-text stages, and conflicts will be resolved by a separate reviewer. We will report this data as per the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: No ethics approval is required for this protocol and scoping review, as data will be used only from published studies with appropriate ethics approval. Results will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed publication.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Projetos de Pesquisa , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Atenção à Saúde , Eletrônica , Humanos , Revisão por Pares , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
18.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e050167, 2021 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34413107

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Big data research has grown considerably over the last two decades. This presents new ethical challenges around consent, data storage and anonymisation. Big data research projects require public support to succeed and it has been argued that one way to achieve this is through public involvement and engagement. To better understand the role public involvement and engagement can play in big data research, we will review the current literature. This protocol describes the planned review methods. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Our review will be conducted in two stages. In the first stage, we will conduct a scoping review using Arksey and O'Malley methodology to comprehensively map current evidence on public involvement and engagement in big data research. Databases (CINAHL, Health Research Premium Collection, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science) and grey literature will be searched for eligible papers. We provide a narrative description of the results based on a thematic analysis. In the second stage, out of papers found in the scoping review which discuss involvement and engagement strategies, we will conduct a systematic review following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, exploring the delivery and effectiveness of these strategies. We will conduct a qualitative synthesis. Relevant results from the quantitative studies will be extracted and placed under qualitative themes. Individual studies will be appraised through Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT), we will then assess the overall confidence in each finding through Confidence in the Evidence from Reviews of Qualitative research (GRADE-CERQual). Results will be reported in a thematic and narrative way. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This protocol sets out how the review will be conducted to ensure rigour and transparency. Public advisors were involved in its development. Ethics approval is not required. Review findings will be presented at conferences and published in peer-reviewed journals.


Assuntos
Big Data , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
19.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(27): 4429-4440, 2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34366614

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multifocal-type autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP), sometimes forming multiple pancreatic masses, is frequently misdiagnosed as pancreatic malignancy in routine clinical practice. It is critical to know the imaging features of multifocal-type AIP to prevent misdiagnosis and unnecessary surgery. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no studies evaluating the value of diffusionweighted imaging (DWI), axial fat-suppressed T1 weighted image (T1WI), and dynamic contrast enhanced-computed tomography (DCE-CT) in detecting the lesions of multifocal-type AIP. AIM: To clarify the exact prevalence and radiological findings of multifocal AIP in our cohorts and compare the sensitivity of DWI, axial fat-suppressed T1WI, and DCE-CT for detecting AIP lesions. We also compared radiological features between multifocal AIP and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma with several key imaging landmarks. METHODS: Twenty-six patients with proven multifocal AIP were retrospectively included. Two blinded independent radiologists rated their confidence level in detecting the lesions on a 5-point scale and assessed the diagnostic performance of DWI, axial fat-suppressed T1WI, and DCE-CT. CT and magnetic resonance imaging of multifocal AIP were systematically reviewed for typical imaging findings and compared with the key imaging features of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. RESULTS: Among 118 patients with AIP, 26 (22.0%) had multiple lesions (56 lesions). Ulcerative colitis was associated with multifocal AIP in 7.7% (2/26) of patients, and Crohn's disease was present in 15.3% (4/26) of patients. In multifocal AIP, multiple lesions, delayed homogeneous enhancement, multifocal strictures of the main pancreatic duct, capsule-like rim, lower apparent diffusion coefficient values, and elevated serum Ig4 level were observed significantly more frequently than pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, whereas the presence of capsule-like rim in multifocal-type AIP was lower in frequency than total AIP. Of these lesions of multifocal AIP, DWI detected 89.3% (50/56) and 82.1% (46/56) by the senior and junior radiologist, respectively. CONCLUSION: Multifocal AIP is not as rare as previously thought and was seen in 22.0% of our patients. The diagnostic performance of DWI for detecting multifocal AIP was best followed by axial fat-suppressed T1WI and DCE-CT.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes , Pancreatite Autoimune , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Pancreatite , Doenças Autoimunes/diagnóstico por imagem , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Pancreatite/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto
20.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e051602, 2021 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433610

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Patient engagement is important when developing health guidelines to ensure high-quality and patient-centred recommendations. However, patient engagement in research and guideline development remains suboptimal, particularly for vulnerable populations, including residents with dementia living in long-term care (LTC) who are often not included in research and guideline development because of perceived and actual challenges with their health, memory, concentration and communication. Optimal strategies and methods for engaging LTC residents with dementia in research and guideline development remain unknown. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will conduct a scoping review in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) extension to answer the research questions: (1) What methods have been used to engage LTC residents with dementia in research and guideline development? (2) What are the outcomes of resident engagement? (3) What are the barriers and facilitators to resident engagement? Systematic searches for peer-reviewed articles will be conducted in: Academic Search Premier (EBSCO), APA PsycINFO (EBSCO), CINAHL (EBSCO), Medline (OVID), Embase (Elsevier), Web of Science, and Cochrane Database and in grey literature. Two team members will screen articles and extract data. Results will be presented according to the research question they address. We will engage stakeholders including residents, family members, healthcare providers and representatives from relevant organisations throughout the study. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The scoping review will synthesise what is known about resident engagement in research and guideline development. It may identify gaps in the literature about the optimal methods to engage residents in performing research and developing guidelines and reveal opportunities for new methods. The results will be helpful for researchers and policy-makers seeking to develop guidelines and researchers engaging in topics that reflect the priorities and experiences of people with dementia. Results of the scoping review will be disseminated via publication in a peer-reviewed journal and conference presentations, and a one-page lay summary will be shared with our engaged stakeholders.


Assuntos
Demência , Assistência de Longa Duração , Atenção à Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
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