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1.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(11): 1329-1332, 2019 Nov 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838801

RESUMO

Since the founding of the People's Republic of China, the epidemiological textbooks in China have gone through an all-round development consistently, from nothing to something, from paper to multimedia. After the reform and opening up, especially after the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China (CPC), in order to meet the needs of training multi-level public health talents, a group of epidemiologists, represented by professor Qian Yuping, Wu Xike, Li Liming, Zhan Siyan, et al, have always devoting themselves to the construction of epidemiological textbooks, so that the theory, teaching and scientific research of epidemiology had their own series of specialized textbooks. For nearly 20 years, epidemiological textbooks are obviously updated and improved under the convergence of new technology and media. Digital resources, such as CD, Mooc and electronic schoolbag, together with traditional paper textbooks, perfectly contribute to the modern comprehensive three-dimensional epidemiological textbooks and lay a solid foundation for talent cultivation, discipline construction, scientific research and disease prevention and control.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde , Saúde Pública , Materiais de Ensino , Livros de Texto como Assunto , China , Humanos , Livros de Texto como Assunto/normas
2.
Bull Soc Pathol Exot ; 112(2): 90-95, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478618

RESUMO

Schools are considered as one of the most effective vectors for education on sexually transmitted diseases among young people. We report here the results of a study of HIV infection as presented in school textbooks in Ivory Coast, conducted in June 2018 as part of the development of a communication strategy to increase demand for HIV infection testing, especially among young people. Surprisingly, even though the textbooks studied were published between 2007 and 2017, almost all of them stated that HIV infection leads to death, with no mention of the existence of treatments that make it possible to live in good health. Some textbooks even stated that no treatment is available. These findings highlight one cause - perhaps major - for the reluctance of young people to get tested. The misrepresentation of HIV infection, reinforced by education, hampers incentive campaigns for HIV testing, for which the best argument is that awareness of a positive HIV status makes it possible to benefit from treatment. The present study included textbooks from the French educational program, used throughout French-speaking Africa, and from the Ivory Coast program. It would be interesting to conduct a similar study in other French-speaking and English-speaking African countries. Adapting the presentation of HIV in school textbooks to reflect the current situation in the fight against HIV infection should be a priority.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Infecções por HIV , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Livros de Texto como Assunto , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/transmissão , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Costa do Marfim/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , HIV-1/fisiologia , HIV-2/fisiologia , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Promoção da Saúde/normas , Humanos , Conhecimento , Linguagem , Programas de Rastreamento/psicologia , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/normas , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação Sexual/normas , Educação Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/transmissão , Livros de Texto como Assunto/normas
3.
Adv Physiol Educ ; 43(3): 253-258, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166126

RESUMO

The textbook is a pedagogical tool that provides students and professionals with scientific information. As exercise is an important strategy for the prevention and treatment of noncommunicable diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and arterial hypertension, the presence of correct and up-to-date scientific information in exercise physiology textbooks is important. Our aim was to analyze T2DM and arterial hypertension content in exercise physiology textbooks and compare this content with the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) position stands. Comparative descriptions were made between information regarding T2DM and arterial hypertension found in textbooks (n = 10) and similar information contained in the official ACSM position stands. The quality of the content was compared with current scientific information present in the ACSM position stands. In regards to T2DM, eight textbooks provided information regarding the purpose and benefits of exercise, two provided information regarding exercise prescription, seven provided information regarding the type of exercise, six provided information regarding general care and recommendations, and five provided information regarding the mechanisms involved. In regards to arterial hypertension, all textbooks provided information regarding the purpose and benefit of exercise, six provided information regarding exercise prescription, nine provided information regarding the type of exercise, two provided information regarding general care and recommendations, and seven provided information regarding the mechanisms involved. All textbooks analyzed contained information related to physical exercise for patients with T2DM and arterial hypertension. However, the textbooks differed in terms of the quality of the contents, especially in regard to exercise prescription.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Exercício/fisiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Fisiologia/educação , Livros de Texto como Assunto/normas , Brasil/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/terapia
5.
Nurs Womens Health ; 23(2): e1-e22, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30975290

RESUMO

This education guide provides a framework for educational content and skills verification for nurses who care for women and their newborns in basic, high-risk, and critical care obstetric settings.


Assuntos
Educação em Enfermagem/métodos , Enfermagem Obstétrica/educação , Livros de Texto como Assunto/normas , Competência Clínica/normas , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Cuidados Críticos/normas , Currículo/normas , Currículo/tendências , Educação em Enfermagem/normas , Humanos , Enfermagem Obstétrica/normas
6.
Nurs Ethics ; 26(5): 1554-1565, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29708023

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Textbooks are central for the education of professionals in the health field and a resource for practitioners already in the field. OBJECTIVES: This article focuses on how 12 textbooks in psychiatric nursing and psychiatry, published in Norway between 1877 and 2012, describe and present people with psychosis. RESEARCH DESIGN: We used qualitative content analysis. ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS: The topic is published textbooks, made available to be read by students, teachers and professionals, and no ethical approval was required. FINDINGS: The analysis shows that all 12 textbooks describe and present people who are considered as psychotic from a 'perspective from above'. In this perspective, the readers are learning about psychosis in the professional's language and from the author's viewpoint. Most often the textbooks communicate a universal image of people with psychosis, a description that fits with the diagnostic criteria. The analysis also shows that two textbooks in psychiatric nursing combined this perspective with a 'perspective from within'. Here, the readers are learning about psychosis from the patients' own viewpoint. The authors communicate a personal, psychotic universe that differs from various people, even if they have the same diagnosis, and the descriptions are focusing on the patient as a whole person. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Drawing partly on Rita Charon's writings about narrative knowledge in the health field, and partly on insights from Martha Nussbaum and her concept of narrative imagination, we argue that mental health professionals need to learn about, understand and fathom what patients go through by reading, listening to and acknowledging the patients' own stories and experiences. Cultivating the capacity for empathy and compassion are at the very heart of moral performance in the mental health field. A valuable moral resource in that regard is leading textbooks and how they describe and present people with severe mental illness.


Assuntos
Enfermagem Psiquiátrica/ética , Transtornos Psicóticos/classificação , Livros de Texto como Assunto/normas , Humanos , Noruega , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa
7.
Biochem Mol Biol Educ ; 47(2): 140-144, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30584799

RESUMO

A number of terms have been defined and inconsistently used across various texts in enzymology which may attract the attention of undergraduate students and instructors. At some places, inconsistent use results in confusions as well as leads to the misuse of these terms. Although it is difficult to resolve such inconsistencies, attempts have constantly been made by international regulatory forums such as International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (IUBMB) and other similar organizations to abolish the inconsistencies. This article highlights some of the most commonly occurring confusing and inconsistent terms in enzymology. We have gathered shreds of evidences and provide here possible suggestions and caution for readers and instructors, so that mistakes can be minimized and possible guidelines can be prepared for their usage. A few inconsistencies observed and discussed here include different notations of activation energy, differences in terms uncompetitive and noncompetitive in enzyme inhibition, classification of cofactors and definitions of their sub-types, and confusing usage of the enzyme-inhibitor dissociation constant. Besides this, we have also highlighted the inconsistencies in the enzyme nomenclature. © 2018 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 47(2): 140-144, 2019.


Assuntos
Bioquímica/educação , Enzimas/metabolismo , Biologia Molecular/educação , Livros de Texto como Assunto/normas , Bioquímica/normas , Biologia Molecular/normas
8.
Cardiol J ; 25(5): 565-568, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30394511
12.
Ann Anat ; 212: 11-16, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28385619

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To date, there has been no study examining the perceptions of first-year medical students regarding Eduard Pernkopf's atlas, particularly during their study of gross anatomy and prior to coursework in medical ethics. We present a discussion of Pernkopf's Atlas: Topographical Anatomy of Man from the perspective of U.S. medical students, and sought to determine whether medical students view Pernkopf's Topographical Anatomy of Man as a resource of greater accuracy, detail, and potential educational utility as compared to Netter's Atlas of Human Anatomy. METHODS: The entire first-year class at Drexel University College of Medicine (265 students) was surveyed at approximately the midpoint of their gross anatomy course and 192 responses were collected (72% response rate). RESULTS: Of these, 176 (95%) were unaware of the existence of Pernkopf's atlas. Another 71% of students found the Pernkopf atlas more likely complete and accurate, whereas 76% thought the Netter atlas more useful for learning (p<.001). When presented with a hypothetical scenario in which the subjects used in creating Pernkopf's atlas were donated, or unclaimed, but with knowledge that Pernkopf was an active member of the Nazi party, 133 students (72%) retained their original position (p=.001). About 94% desired discussion of Pernkopf within a medical school bioethics course. The relationship between level of self-reported knowledge and whether or not students would advocate removal of the atlas was statistically significant (p=.013). CONCLUSION: Discussing ethical violations in medical history, especially the Pernkopf atlas, must attain a secure place in medical school curricula, and more specifically, within a bioethics course.


Assuntos
Anatomia Artística , Anatomia/educação , Atlas como Assunto , Livros de Texto como Assunto/normas , Adulto , Anatomia/ética , Anatomia/história , Anatomia Artística/educação , Anatomia Artística/ética , Anatomia Artística/história , Atlas como Assunto/história , Bioética/educação , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , História do Século XX , Humanos , Masculino , Socialismo Nacional/história , Percepção , Philadelphia , Faculdades de Medicina , Estudantes de Medicina , Inquéritos e Questionários , Livros de Texto como Assunto/história , Adulto Jovem
13.
Soc Sci Med ; 180: 106-113, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28343109

RESUMO

Empirical research has linked gender bias in medical education with negative attitudes and behaviors in healthcare providers. Yet it has been more than 20 years since research has considered the degree to which women and men are equally represented in anatomy textbooks. Furthermore, previous research has not explored beyond quantity of representation to also examine visual gender stereotypes and, in light of theoretical advancements in the area of intersectional research, the relationship between representations of gender and representations of ethnicity, body type, health, and age. This study aimed to determine the existence and representation of gender bias in the major anatomy textbooks used at Australian Medical Schools. A systematic visual content analysis was conducted on 6044 images in which sex/gender could be identified, sourced from 17 major anatomy textbooks published from 2008 to 2013. Further content analysis was performed on the 521 narrative images, which represent an unfolding story, found within the same textbooks. Results indicate that the representation of gender in images from anatomy textbooks remain predominantly male except within sex-specific sections. Further, other forms of bias were found to exist in: the visualization of stereotypical gendered emotions, roles and settings; the lack of ethnic, age, and body type diversity; and in the almost complete adherence to a sex/gender binary. Despite increased attention to gender issues in medicine, the visual representation of gender in medical curricula continues to be biased. The biased construction of gender in anatomy textbooks designed for medical education provides future healthcare providers with inadequate and unrealistic information about patients.


Assuntos
Anatomia/educação , Sexismo/psicologia , Livros de Texto como Assunto/normas , Austrália , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Faculdades de Medicina/tendências
14.
J Neuroimmune Pharmacol ; 12(2): 211-212, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28337573

RESUMO

It has been almost nine years since the 1st edition of Neuroimmune Pharmacology was published on May 23rd, 2008. The 2nd edition of Neuroimmune Pharmacology by Ikezu and Gendelman (Editors) with Przedborski, Masliah and Cosentino (Associate Editors) manages to fulfill two separate missions: to provide comprehensive, but highly topical access to a rapidly evolving field and to serve as a standalone reference for scientists and clinicians in need of guidance regarding questions pertinent to neuroimmune pharmacology. Doing a PubMed search on the terms neuroimmune and pharmacology yields 1090 publications, with a first publication by Dougherty and Dafny, published in the Journal of Neuroscience Research in 1988, entitled "Neuroimmune intercommunication, central opioids, and the immune response to bacterial endotoxin." Since 2000, there have been 979 publications using these search terms, with 137 published since the beginning of 2016. The obvious conclusion to be drawn is that this is a burgeoning field that represents the cusp between our understanding of relationships between the immune and nervous systems and how we might treat disease with pharmacologic approaches when normal homeostatic mechanisms go awry.


Assuntos
Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Neuroimunomodulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurofarmacologia/tendências , Livros de Texto como Assunto/normas , Animais , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Transtornos Mentais/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Mentais/imunologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/imunologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/psicologia , Neuroimunomodulação/imunologia , Neurofarmacologia/métodos , Psicotrópicos/farmacologia , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico
15.
17.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 37(9): 1007-14, 2017 Sep 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29354925

RESUMO

Sixty-seven textbooks in the Republic of China have been collected and divided into three stages according to their editing modes, named the early stage (1912-1927), the middle stage (1928-1939) and the late stage (1940-1949). The traditional teaching material of acupuncture was predominated at the early stage in the textbook compilation; meanwhile the editing mode was simple, and the content of it focuses on meridians, collaterals and acupoints and the modern scientific theories have been preliminarily introduced. The textbooks at the middle stage were edited as two modes, "western medicine+acupuncture" and "general introduction→meridian points→manipulation (techniques of acupuncture and moxibustion)→treatment". The knowledge in anatomy, physiology and pathology of western medicine has been involved in content, giving the great consideration to the clinical practicability. However, a part of textbooks still followed the traditional theory of acupuncture at the middle stage. At the late stage, the textbooks were edited align with "acupuncture science, moxibustion science, meridian point science and treatment science"; or in supplementation of the "diagnosis" on the base of "general introduction→ meridian points→techniques of acupuncture→treatment", or edited as "general introduction→points→treatment". The compilation of the textbooks at this stage not only followed but also improved the integration of western and Chinese medicine as that at the middle stage, which turned to be more scientific. Additionally, in the teaching content, the acupoint was much more considerable as compared with pulse and the section of diagnosis has been involved. As a result, a framework of acupuncture discipline has been established preliminarily by taking acupuncture technique, moxibustion technique, acupoints and treatment as the core. The development of the editing mode and content of textbooks played a great impact on the unified compilation of the acupuncture textbooks after the foundation of China.


Assuntos
Acupuntura/educação , Livros de Texto como Assunto/normas , Pontos de Acupuntura , Terapia por Acupuntura , Moxibustão , Taiwan , Materiais de Ensino , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Percept Mot Skills ; 122(3): 933-55, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27095750

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess the content validity of a catalog of 76 judo exercises. Two groups of raters comprising 16 judo experts evaluated the following content validity indicators: Clarity of Language, Practical Pertinence, Theoretical Relevance, and the Dimension of each exercise. The results confirmed the content validity of the judo training catalog with indicators showing scores greater than 0.80. These findings suggest that all 76 judo exercises are pertinent, representative of judo training and understandable for judo coaches. Thus, this catalog of judo exercises may help judo coaches in the selection and recording of exercises.


Assuntos
Artes Marciais/educação , Artes Marciais/fisiologia , Livros de Texto como Assunto/normas , Adulto , Idoso , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 36(7): 759-761, 2016 Jul 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29231419

RESUMO

In National Standards (GB) as well as the textbooks used in TCM universities, the twirling angles of acupuncture manipulation vary a lot. By reviewing the previous editions of textbooks from 3 publication houses and comparing the relevant contents, the author calculated the arc lengths of various twirling angles based on the specification of filiform needle in National Standards (GB) and International Standards (ISO). The conclusion is that the twirling angles mentioned in National Standards (GB) and textbooks are too small and not in compliance with the clinical practice. Hence, it is not advisable to propose a rigid specific provision of twirling angle in acupuncture manipulation.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura/normas , Acupuntura/normas , Agulhas , Livros de Texto como Assunto/normas , Acupuntura/métodos , Terapia por Acupuntura/métodos , Moxibustão/métodos , Moxibustão/normas , Padrões de Referência , Universidades
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