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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 360, 2021 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33452252

RESUMO

Endogenous attention is the cognitive function that selects the relevant pieces of sensory information to achieve goals and it is known to be controlled by dorsal fronto-parietal brain areas. Here we expand this notion by identifying a control attention area located in the temporal lobe. By combining a demanding behavioral paradigm with functional neuroimaging and diffusion tractography, we show that like fronto-parietal attentional areas, the human posterior inferotemporal cortex exhibits significant attentional modulatory activity. This area is functionally distinct from surrounding cortical areas, and is directly connected to parietal and frontal attentional regions. These results show that attentional control spans three cortical lobes and overarches large distances through fiber pathways that run orthogonally to the dominant anterior-posterior axes of sensory processing, thus suggesting a different organizing principle for cognitive control.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Lobo Frontal/fisiologia , Lobo Parietal/fisiologia , Lobo Temporal/fisiologia , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção de Movimento/fisiologia , Vias Neurais/diagnóstico por imagem , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Lobo Parietal/diagnóstico por imagem , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
2.
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue ; 26(2): 118-122, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33346413

RESUMO

Objective: To study the correlation between the brain regional homogeneity (ReHo) features and the clinical characteristics of the patients with psychogenic erectile dysfunction (pED). METHODS: Using IIEF-5 and the Self-Esteem and Relationship (SEAR) questionnaire, we evaluated the erectile function and psychosocial status of 32 pED patients and 28 healthy male subjects. Then, we compared the regional brain activity between the patients and healthy controls by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) and the ReHo method, analyzed the correlation of the ReHo value of the altered brain regions with the results of IIEF-5 and SEAR questionnaire investigation, and explored the relationship between the ReHo features and the symptoms of the pED patients. RESULTS: Compared with the healthy male subjects, the pED patients obtained significantly lower IIEF-5 scores (22.21 ± 0.98 vs 13.97 ± 3.60, P < 0.01) and SEAR scores (61.92 ± 3.73 vs 37.58 ± 7.96, P < 0.01), a higher ReHo value of the left lateral cerebellum, and a lower ReHo value of the right precentral gyrus. The ReHo value of the left lateral cerebellum was correlated negatively with the IIEF-5 scores (r= -0.51, P < 0.01) and SEAR scores (r = -0.54, P < 0.01), while that of the right precentral gyrus positively with the IIEF-5 scores (r = 0.57, P < 0.01) and SEAR scores (r = 0.66, P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with pED had lateral cerebellum-mediated abnormal sensory integration and precentral gyrus-related dysfunction of motor imagery and motor execution.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Erétil/psicologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino
3.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0241578, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33362255

RESUMO

This study investigated consumers' responses to fashion visual merchandising (VM) from a neuroscientific perspective. The brain activations of 20 subjects differently involved in fashion were recorded using functional near-infrared spectroscopy in response to three different fashion VM types. According to the types of fashion VM, significant differences were observed, which were significantly higher for the creative VM. Moreover, highly fashion-involved subjects showed activation of the orbital frontal cortex region in response to the creative VM. Based on these results, it is suggested that marketing strategies should be devised explicitly for the brand's targeted audience and goals.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Marketing/métodos , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico , Criatividade , Tomada de Decisões , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Frontal/fisiologia , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo/fisiologia , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho
4.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 1035-1038, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018162

RESUMO

During gambling, humans often begin by making decisions based on expected rewards and expected risks. However, expectations may not match actual outcomes. As gamblers keep track of their performance, they may feel more or less lucky, which then influences future betting decisions. Studies have identified the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) as a brain region that plays a significant role during risky decision making in humans. However, most human studies infer neural activation from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), which has a poor temporal resolution. In particular, fMRI cannot detect activity from neuronal populations in the OFC, which may encode specific information about how a subject reacts to mismatched outcomes. In this preliminary study, four human subjects participated in a gambling task while local field potentials (LFPs), captured at a millisecond resolution, were recorded from the OFC. We analyzed high-frequency activity (HFA: >70 Hz) in the LFPs, as HFA has been shown to correlate to activation of neuronal populations. In 3 out of 4 subjects, HFA in OFC modulated between matched and mismatched trials as soon as the outcome of each bet was revealed, with modulations occurring at different times and directions depending on the anatomical location within the OFC.


Assuntos
Jogo de Azar , Tomada de Decisões , Lobo Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Motivação , Córtex Pré-Frontal
5.
Ideggyogy Sz ; 73(9-10): 303-308, 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035419

RESUMO

Evidence suggests that pathogen-associated pattern recognition receptors (Toll-like receptors, TLRs) are implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. TLRs are important in both peripheral immune responses and neuronal plasticity. However, the relationship between peripheral TLR expression and regional brain volumes is unknown in schizophrenia. We therefore assessed 30 drug-naïve, first-episode patients with schizophrenia. TLR4+/TLR1+ monocytes were measured using flow-cytometry. High resolution magnetic resonance images (T1 MRI) were obtained and analyzed with FreeSurfer. Results revealed significant negative correlations between the percentage of TLR4+ monocytes, mean fluorescent intensities, and brain volumes in frontal and anterior cingulate regions. The measures of TLR1+ monocytes did not show significant relationships with regional brain volumes. These results raise the possibility that abnormal TLR-activation is associated with decreased brain volumes in schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Lobo Frontal/metabolismo , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Esquizofrenia/genética , Esquizofrenia/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Lobo Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Giro do Cíngulo/diagnóstico por imagem , Giro do Cíngulo/metabolismo , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico
6.
PLoS Biol ; 18(9): e3000854, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898172

RESUMO

Working memory is imprecise, and these imprecisions can be explained by the combined influences of random diffusive error and systematic drift toward a set of stable states ("attractors"). However, the neural correlates of diffusion and drift remain unknown. Here, we investigated how delay-period activity in frontal and parietal cortex, which is known to correlate with the decline in behavioral memory precision observed with increasing memory load, might relate to diffusion and drift. We analyzed data from an existing experiment in which subjects performed delayed recall for line orientation, at different loads, during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning. To quantify the influence of drift and diffusion, we modeled subjects' behavior using a discrete attractor model and calculated within-subject correlation between frontal and parietal delay-period activity and whole-trial estimates of drift and diffusion. We found that although increases in frontal and parietal activity were associated with increases in both diffusion and drift, diffusion explained the most variance in frontal and parietal delay-period activity. In comparison, a subsequent whole-brain regression analysis showed that drift, rather than diffusion, explained the most variance in delay-period activity in lateral occipital cortex. These results are consistent with a model of the differential recruitment of general frontoparietal mechanisms in response to diffusive noise and of stimulus-specific biases in occipital cortex.


Assuntos
Lobo Frontal/fisiologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Lobo Occipital/fisiologia , Lobo Parietal/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Viés , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/anatomia & histologia , Lobo Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Lobo Occipital/anatomia & histologia , Lobo Occipital/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Parietal/anatomia & histologia , Lobo Parietal/diagnóstico por imagem , Estimulação Luminosa , Razão Sinal-Ruído , Fatores de Tempo , Vias Visuais/anatomia & histologia , Vias Visuais/diagnóstico por imagem , Vias Visuais/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4856, 2020 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978385

RESUMO

In humans and macaque monkeys, socially relevant face processing is accomplished via a distributed functional network that includes specialized patches in frontal cortex. It is unclear whether a similar network exists in New World primates, who diverged ~35 million years from Old World primates. The common marmoset is a New World primate species ideally placed to address this question given their complex social repertoire. Here, we demonstrate the existence of a putative high-level face processing network in marmosets. Like Old World primates, marmosets show differential activation in anterior cingulate and lateral prefrontal cortices while they view socially relevant videos of marmoset faces. We corroborate the locations of these frontal regions by demonstrating functional and structural connectivity between these regions and temporal lobe face patches. Given the evolutionary separation between macaques and marmosets, our results suggest this frontal network specialized for social face processing predates the separation between Platyrrhini and Catarrhini.


Assuntos
Callithrix/fisiologia , Face/fisiologia , Lobo Frontal/fisiologia , Animais , Mapeamento Encefálico , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Giro do Cíngulo , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Lobo Temporal
8.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236423, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735611

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Use of functional MRI (fMRI) in pre-surgical planning is a non-invasive method for pre-operative functional mapping for patients with brain tumors, especially tumors located near eloquent cortex. Currently, this practice predominantly involves task-based fMRI (T-fMRI). Resting state fMRI (RS-fMRI) offers an alternative with several methodological advantages. Here, we compare group-level analyses of RS-fMRI vs. T-fMRI as methods for language localization. PURPOSE: To contrast RS-fMRI vs. T-fMRI as techniques for localization of language function. METHODS: We analyzed data obtained in 35 patients who had both T-fMRI and RS-fMRI scans during the course of pre-surgical evaluation. The RS-fMRI data were analyzed using a previously trained resting-state network classifier. The T-fMRI data were analyzed using conventional techniques. Group-level results obtained by both methods were evaluated in terms of two outcome measures: (1) inter-subject variability of response magnitude and (2) sensitivity/specificity analysis of response topography, taking as ground truth previously reported maps of the language system based on intraoperative cortical mapping as well as meta-analytic maps of language task fMRI responses. RESULTS: Both fMRI methods localized major components of the language system (areas of Broca and Wernicke) although not with equal inter-subject consistency. Word-stem completion T-fMRI strongly activated Broca's area but also several task-general areas not specific to language. RS-fMRI provided a more specific representation of the language system. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate several advantages of classifier-based mapping of language representation in the brain. Language T-fMRI activated task-general (i.e., not language-specific) functional systems in addition to areas of Broca and Wernicke. In contrast, classifier-based analysis of RS-fMRI data generated maps confined to language-specific regions of the brain.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Área de Broca/patologia , Glioblastoma/diagnóstico , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Adulto , Idoso , Atenção/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Área de Broca/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Frontal/patologia , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Glioblastoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Glioblastoma/patologia , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Descanso/fisiologia , Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Temporal/patologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Brain Tumor Pathol ; 37(4): 159-164, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32754892

RESUMO

We report a case of 33-year-old Japanese male who presented with a headache and visual disturbances. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large tumor in the left frontal lobe, measuring 7 cm in diameter, which was diagnosed as supratentorial anaplastic ependymoma accompanied by extensive desmoplasia. The patient underwent a gross total resection. Histologically, the tumor cells had oval or short, spindle-shaped nuclei, and proliferating cells in perivascular pseudorosettes with anucleate zones and mitotic figures. Desmoplasia with abundant collagen fibers among the tumor cells was detected at numerous sites, and perinuclear dot- or ring-like immunoreactivity for epithelial membrane antigen was identified. Five years and six months after the initial procedure, a small recurrent tumor was identified at the removal site. The patient underwent a second total resection. The histology of the resected tumor showed decreased collagen production and more apparent anaplastic features as compared to those of the initial tumor. In addition to the histological findings, molecular examinations revealed ependymoma, RELA fusion positive. Although not commonly observed, this case suggests that desmoplasia could be associated with ependymomas, including RELA fusion-positive variant. Moreover, our findings indicate that high-grade ependymoma requires careful, long-term follow-up even if gross total resection is performed.


Assuntos
Ependimoma/genética , Ependimoma/patologia , Fusão Gênica/genética , Neoplasias Supratentoriais/genética , Neoplasias Supratentoriais/patologia , Fator de Transcrição RelA/genética , Adulto , Ependimoma/diagnóstico , Ependimoma/cirurgia , Lobo Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Frontal/patologia , Lobo Frontal/cirurgia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos , Neoplasias Supratentoriais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Supratentoriais/cirurgia
11.
Rinsho Shinkeigaku ; 60(7): 479-484, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32536665

RESUMO

A 48-year-old woman with a right-sided headache beginning a month prior to admission presented with sudden-onset right hemiparesis. On admission, she had weakness of the right lower extremity, which disappeared 3 hours after onset. Contrast enhanced brain MRI revealed no parenchymal lesion, while indicated thrombi in the superior sagittal sinus and the right side of the transverse sinus, sigmoid sinus, and internal jugular vein, leading to the diagnosis of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Brain perfusion single photon emission computed tomography presented slightly decreased blood flow in the bilateral frontal lobes (left-sided dominant) and the right occipitotemporal lobe. Electroencephalogram showed no abnormal finding. After anticoagulant therapy, thrombi in the venous sinuses decreased and brain blood flow improved. We should consider cerebral venous sinus thrombosis in the case of a patient presenting with symptoms of a transient ischemic attack accompanied with headache. Moreover, the etiology of transient neurological deficits remains controversial.


Assuntos
Trombose dos Seios Intracranianos/diagnóstico por imagem , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/irrigação sanguínea , Lobo Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Cefaleia/etiologia , Humanos , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paresia/etiologia , Imagem de Perfusão , Trombose dos Seios Intracranianos/complicações , Trombose dos Seios Intracranianos/tratamento farmacológico , Lobo Temporal/irrigação sanguínea , Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Brain Tumor Pathol ; 37(3): 95-99, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32504153

RESUMO

We report a rare case of oligodendroglioma with gangliocytic differentiation. A 31-year-old male without a past medical history was admitted with a sudden seizure. On magnetic resonance imaging, an approximately 7-cm mass with necrosis was noted in the right frontal lobe. The patient underwent surgical resection. On microscopy, two morphologically distinct areas with oligodendroglioma- and ganglioglioma-like features were found. Immunohistochemistry showed an absence of CD34 expression, whereas isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) was positive in the glial component. Moreover, IDH1 was positive in the ganglion-like cells as well as in the glial component. Subsequent 1p/19q co-deletion was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Finally, a diagnosis of oligodendroglioma with gangliocytic differentiation was made. IDH1/2 molecular test would be basic and essential diagnostic tool in central nervous system tumor of young patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Oligodendroglioma/diagnóstico , Oligodendroglioma/patologia , Adulto , Antígenos CD34 , Lobo Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Frontal/patologia , Humanos , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/genética , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Mutação
13.
J UOEH ; 42(2): 217-222, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32507845

RESUMO

Cerebral cavernous angiomas are vascular anomalies with dilated spaces. We report the case of rare double cavernous angiomas causing higher brain dysfunction. A 74-year-old man exhibited cognitive dysfunction. Magnetic resonance imaging showed two tumors with hemorrhage in the left frontal lobe. Preoperative diagnosis was hemorrhage caused by cavernous angiomas. A 3D model of the double cavernous angioma was made to confirm their association with cortical veins and tumors. Tumors were removed using a single small corticotomy. This is the first report of a rare double cavernous angioma and the 3D printed model facilitated removal of the tumors.


Assuntos
Lobo Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Frontal/cirurgia , Hemangioma Cavernoso do Sistema Nervoso Central/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemangioma Cavernoso do Sistema Nervoso Central/cirurgia , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/métodos , Impressão Tridimensional , Idoso , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino
15.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 8186, 2020 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424290

RESUMO

Three major white matter pathways connect the posterior temporal region and the adjacent inferior parietal lobule with the lateral frontal cortex: the arcuate fasciculus (AF), and the second and third branches of the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF II and SLF III). These pathways are found also in nonhuman primate brains where they play specific roles in auditory and spatial processing. The precise origin, course, and termination of these pathways has been examined in invasive tract tracing studies in macaque monkeys. Here we use this prior knowledge to improve dissections of these pathways in vivo in the human brain using diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) tractography. In this study, the AF, originating from the posterior temporal cortex, has been successfully separated from the SLF II and SLF III tracts originating from the angular and supramarginal gyri of the inferior parietal lobule, respectively. The latter two pathways, i.e. SLF II and SLF III, have also been clearly separated from each other. Furthermore, we report for the first time in the human brain the dorsal branch of the AF that targets the posterior dorsolateral frontal region. These improved dissection protocols provide a solid basis for exploring the respective functional roles of these major fasciculi.


Assuntos
Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Lobo Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Lobo Parietal/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Descanso , Adulto Jovem
17.
World Neurosurg ; 139: 588-591, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32344145

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Orbital compartment syndrome (OCS) is a rare post operative complication of Neurosurgery. It presents typically acutely with loss of vision, loss of pupillary reaction, and limitation of extraocular movement. The etiology of OCS is most typically associated with increased pressure from a mass lesion in the orbit compromising the blood supply of orbital structures. Emergent bedside decompression of the orbit by lateral canthotomy is indicated to quickly treat OCS in an attempt to save visual acuity and extraocular function. CASE DESCRIPTION: We report a 76-year-old male patient whose magnetic resonance imaging of the brain demonstrated an anterior right frontal broad dural-based homogenously enhancing mass measuring 6.0 × 3.1 × 6.3 cm after he presented with 1-year of progressive cognitive dysfunction. A right-sided pterional craniotomy and resection of mass was performed under general anesthesia, with an uncomplicated intraoperative course. Postoperatively, the right eye was noted to have an afferent pupillary defect, complete ophthalmoplegia, ptosis, and significant resistance to retropulsion. Emergent ophthalmologic consultation confirmed the ocular examination, and the diagnosis of right OCS was suspected. A right lateral canthotomy and cantholysis was performed by the ophthalmologist at the bedside. The fundoscopic retinal evaluation was normal. Noncontrast computed tomography of the head demonstrated expected postoperative changes and mild edema of the right frontal lobe without evidence of acute hemorrhage. There was no retro-orbital hematoma, but the right extra-ocular muscles appeared edematous compared to the left. No light perception and ophthalmoplegia continued in the right eye. CONCLUSIONS: This case demonstrates that although very rare, OCS can occur without compression of the eye or an intra-orbital mass. Visual loss is a devastating complication. Constant vigilance to ensure adequate arterial and venous supply to the orbit, with great care to prevent external compression on the eye, hopefully, will continue to make this complication rare.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/cirurgia , Síndromes Compartimentais/cirurgia , Craniotomia/métodos , Lobo Frontal/cirurgia , Neoplasias Meníngeas/cirurgia , Meningioma/cirurgia , Órbita/cirurgia , Idoso , Neoplasias Encefálicas/complicações , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndromes Compartimentais/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndromes Compartimentais/etiologia , Descompressão Cirúrgica/métodos , Lobo Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias Meníngeas/complicações , Neoplasias Meníngeas/diagnóstico por imagem , Meningioma/complicações , Meningioma/diagnóstico por imagem , Órbita/diagnóstico por imagem
18.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1682, 2020 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32245973

RESUMO

When learning about dynamic and uncertain environments, people should update their beliefs most strongly when new evidence is most informative, such as when the environment undergoes a surprising change or existing beliefs are highly uncertain. Here we show that modulations of surprise and uncertainty are encoded in a particular, temporally dynamic pattern of whole-brain functional connectivity, and this encoding is enhanced in individuals that adapt their learning dynamics more appropriately in response to these factors. The key feature of this whole-brain pattern of functional connectivity is stronger connectivity, or functional integration, between the fronto-parietal and other functional systems. Our results provide new insights regarding the association between dynamic adjustments in learning and dynamic, large-scale changes in functional connectivity across the brain.


Assuntos
Lobo Frontal/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Modelos Neurológicos , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Lobo Parietal/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Conectoma , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Lobo Parietal/diagnóstico por imagem , Incerteza , Adulto Jovem
19.
Nat Hum Behav ; 4(8): 844-855, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32313233

RESUMO

Animal neurophysiological studies have identified neural signals within dorsal frontoparietal areas that trace a perceptual decision by accumulating sensory evidence over time and trigger action upon reaching a threshold. Although analogous accumulation-to-bound signals are identifiable on extracranial human electroencephalography, their cortical origins remain unknown. Here neural metrics of human evidence accumulation, predictive of the speed of perceptual reports, were isolated using electroencephalography and related to dorsal frontoparietal network (dFPN) connectivity using diffusion and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. The build-up rate of evidence accumulation mediated the relationship between the white matter macrostructure of dFPN pathways and the efficiency of perceptual reports. This association between steeper build-up rates of evidence accumulation and the dFPN was recapitulated in the resting-state networks. Stronger connectivity between dFPN regions is thus associated with faster evidence accumulation and speeded perceptual decisions. Our findings identify an integrated network for perceptual decisions that may be targeted for neurorehabilitation in cognitive disorders.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Lobo Frontal/fisiologia , Lobo Parietal/fisiologia , Percepção/fisiologia , Adolescente , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Neuroimagem Funcional , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Lobo Parietal/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Branca/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
F1000Res ; 92020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32161644

RESUMO

Even apparently simple choices, like selecting a dessert in a pastry shop, involve options characterized by multiple motivationally relevant attributes. Neuroeconomic research suggests that the human brain may track the subjective value of such options, allowing disparate reward-predictive information to be compared in a common currency. However, the brain mechanisms involved in identifying value-predictive features and combining these to assess the value of each decision option remain unclear. Here, we review recent evidence from studies of multi-attribute decision-making in people with focal frontal lobe damage and in healthy people undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. This work suggests that ventromedial and lateral prefrontal cortex and orbitofrontal cortex are important for forming value judgments under conditions of complexity. We discuss studies supporting the involvement of these regions in selecting among and evaluating option attributes during value judgment and decision-making and when learning from reward feedback. These findings are consistent with roles for these regions in guiding value construction. They argue for a more nuanced understanding of how ventral and lateral prefrontal cortex contribute to discovering and recognizing value, processes that are required under the complex conditions typical of many everyday decisions.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Lobo Frontal/fisiologia , Lobo Frontal/fisiopatologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiopatologia , Lobo Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Recompensa
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