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3.
Arch. med. deporte ; 37(197): 176-182, mayo-jun. 2020. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-195229

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: El fútbol es actualmente el deporte más popular y de más rápido crecimiento en todo el mundo. El fútbol femenino no para de crecer y despierta en la actualidad un gran interés, pero la mayoría de las recomendaciones científicas para el juego femenino se han basado hasta ahora en investigaciones realizadas en hombres. El aumento creciente de la práctica del fútbol femenino hace necesario incluir estos tipos de estudios. OBJETIVO: Fue valorar las funciones ejecutivas del lóbulo frontal en el control de la atención a corto plazo después de haber realizado 6 remates de cabeza con un balón inteligente, en jugadoras de futbol adultas no profesionales. METODOLOGÍA: El diseño de estudio fue experimental de un grupo intervención con evaluación pre y post. El estudio constó de dos fases, en la primera fase se realizó la recogida de datos personales, la historia deportiva, las medidas antropométricas y se realizó el Test Stroop para evaluar las funciones ejecutivas del lóbulo frontal. En la segunda fase, se realizaron 6 remates de cabeza consecutivos desde una distancia de 28 metros y se volvió a realizar el test de Stroop. La muestra estuvo formada por 12 jugadoras, con una media de edad de 25,3 (DE = 6,5 años) y un rango entre los 18 y 40 años. La media de años que llevaban jugando al futbol en equipos federados fue de 6,5 (DE=2,35 años), practicando entre 7 y 10 horas semanales al futbol. RESULTADOS Y CONCLUSIONES: Los impactos repetidos al realizar los remates de cabeza con un balón de fútbol, cuando la velocidad es superior a los 62 km/h, producen cambios cognitivos significativos y específicos en jugadoras de fútbol femenino, inmediatamente después del remate; indicando una disrupción en las funciones cerebrales voluntarias, provocando alteraciones negativas en las funciones ejecutivas


INTRODUCTION: Football is currently the most popular and fastest growing sport in the world. Women's football players does not stop growing and currently arouses great interest, but most of the scientific recommendations for the female game have been based so far on research conducted in men. The increasing increase in the practice of women's football makes it necessary to include these types of studies. OBJECTIVE: To assess the executive functions of the frontal lobe in the control of short-term attention after having performed 6 heading shots with an intelligent ball, in non-professional adult football players. METHODOLOGY: The study design was experimental of an intervention group with pre and post evaluation. The study consisted of two phases, in the first phase the collection of personal data, sports history, anthropometric measures was performed, and the Stroop Test was performed to evaluate the executive functions of the frontal lobe. In the second phase, 6 consecutive head shots were made from 28 meters and the Stroop test was carried out again. The sample consisted of 12 players, with an average age of 25.3 (SD = 6.5 years) and a range between 18 and 40 years. The average number of years they had been playing football in federated teams was 6.5 (SD = 2.35 years), practicing between 7 and 10 hours per week in football .Results and conclusions: The repeated impacts when football heading, when the speed is higher than 62 km / h, produce significant and specific cognitive changes in female football players, immediately after the auction; indicating a disruption in voluntary brain functions, causing negative alterations in executive functions


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Futebol/lesões , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Lobo Frontal/fisiopatologia , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Teste de Stroop , Modelos Lineares , Valores de Referência , Fatores de Risco
4.
Neurobiol Aging ; 92: 43-60, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32422502

RESUMO

TDP-43 aggregates are the defining pathological hallmark for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Strikingly, these TDP-43 proteinopathies are also found in other neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease and are prevalent in the brains of old-aged humans. Furthermore, disease-causal mutations in TDP-43 have been identified for ALS and FTD. Collectively, the evidence indicates that TDP-43 dysfunctions lead to motor and cognitive deficits. To determine whether the mouse line expressing an ALS-linked mutation in TDP-43 (Q331K) can be used to study ALS-FTD spectrum disorders, we performed a systematic and longitudinal behavioral assessment that covered motor and cognitive functions. Deficits in motor and cognitive abilities were observed as early as 3 months of age and persisted through to 12 months of age. Within the cognitive modalities, the hippocampus-mediated spatial learning and memory, and contextual fear conditioning, were normal; whereas the frontal cortex-mediated working memory and cognitive flexibility were impaired. Biochemically, the human TDP-43 transgene downregulates endogenous mouse TDP-43 mRNA and protein, resulting in human TDP-43 protein that is comparable with the physiological level in cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Furthermore, Q331K TDP-43 is largely retained at the nucleus without apparent aggregates. Taken together, our data suggest that motor and frontal cortex may be more vulnerable to disease-linked mutation in TDP-43 and, this mouse model may be used to assess ALS-FTD-related spectrum diseases and the molecular underpinnings associated with the phenotypes.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/fisiopatologia , Cognição , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Lobo Frontal/fisiopatologia , Atividade Motora , Córtex Motor/fisiopatologia , Mutação , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos
5.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(8): 104882, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32417237

RESUMO

Pisa syndrome is usually seen in patients with Alzheimer's disease treated with a cholinesterase inhibitor, dementia with Lewy bodies, Parkinson's disease, or atypical parkinsonism including multiple system atrophy. An 86-year-old woman presented with an acute onset of lateral flexion of her trunk to the left side, i.e., Pisa syndrome. She also showed left hemiparesis predominantly in her lower extremity. Her diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images showed acute infarction in the right premotor area and supplementary motor area. Clopidogrel (75 mg daily) was prescribed. After two weeks from the onset of symptoms, her Pisa syndrome improved. The pathophysiology of Pisa syndrome has not yet been fully understood, but different mechanisms have been assumed. In this patient, it is possible that the infarction in her unilateral frontal lobe impaired the information processing from the temporoparietal cortex to the frontal lobe, including the premotor area and supplementary motor area for anticipatory postural control.


Assuntos
Infarto Cerebral/complicações , Distonia/etiologia , Lobo Frontal/irrigação sanguínea , Lobo Frontal/fisiopatologia , Postura , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infarto Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Infarto Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Distonia/diagnóstico , Distonia/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Síndrome , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230277, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160242

RESUMO

The amyloid-ß (Aß) oligomer is considered one of the major pathogens responsible for neuronal and synaptic loss in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains. Although the neurotoxic mechanisms of Aß have been widely investigated, experimental evidence for the direct linkage between neural signaling and cognitive impairments in association with peptide oligomers is lacking. Here, we conducted an auditory oddball paradigm utilizing an Aß-infused Alzheimer's disease mouse model and interpreted the results based on Y-maze behavioral tests. We acutely injected Aß oligomers into the intracerebroventricular brain region of normal mice to induce Aß-associated cognitive impairments. During the auditory oddball paradigm, electroencephalograms (EEG) were recorded from frontal and parietal cortex of Aß-infused and control mice. The event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by auditory stimuli showed no significant difference in Aß-infused mice compared to control mice. On the other hand, the differential ERP signature elicited by oddball sound stimuli was destructed in the Aß-infused mice group. We noticed that ERP traces to standard and deviant tones were not significantly different in the Aß group, while the control group showed differences in the amplitude of ERP components. In particular, the difference in the first negative component (N1) between standard and deviant tone, which indexes the sensory memory system, was significantly reduced in the parietal cortex of Aß-infused mice. These findings demonstrate the direct influence of Aß oligomers on the functional integrity of cortical areas in vivo. Furthermore, the N1 amplitude difference may provide a potential marker of sensory memory deficits in a mouse model of AD and yield additional targets for drug assessment in AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos , Memória Espacial , Animais , Lobo Frontal/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Lobo Parietal/fisiopatologia
7.
F1000Res ; 92020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32161644

RESUMO

Even apparently simple choices, like selecting a dessert in a pastry shop, involve options characterized by multiple motivationally relevant attributes. Neuroeconomic research suggests that the human brain may track the subjective value of such options, allowing disparate reward-predictive information to be compared in a common currency. However, the brain mechanisms involved in identifying value-predictive features and combining these to assess the value of each decision option remain unclear. Here, we review recent evidence from studies of multi-attribute decision-making in people with focal frontal lobe damage and in healthy people undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. This work suggests that ventromedial and lateral prefrontal cortex and orbitofrontal cortex are important for forming value judgments under conditions of complexity. We discuss studies supporting the involvement of these regions in selecting among and evaluating option attributes during value judgment and decision-making and when learning from reward feedback. These findings are consistent with roles for these regions in guiding value construction. They argue for a more nuanced understanding of how ventral and lateral prefrontal cortex contribute to discovering and recognizing value, processes that are required under the complex conditions typical of many everyday decisions.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Lobo Frontal/fisiologia , Lobo Frontal/fisiopatologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiopatologia , Lobo Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Recompensa
8.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 72(7): 1203-1213, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017421

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: While much brain research on fibromyalgia (FM) focuses on the study of hyperresponsiveness to painful stimuli, some studies suggest that the increased pain-related brain activity often reported in FM studies may be partially explained by stronger responses to salient aspects of the stimulation rather than, or in addition to, the stimulation's painfulness. Therefore, this study was undertaken to test our hypothesis that FM patients would demonstrate elevated brain responses to both pain onset and offset-2 salient sensory events of opposing valences. METHODS: Thirty-eight FM patients (mean ± SD age 46.1 ± 13.4 years; 33 women) and 15 healthy controls (mean ± SD age 45.5 ± 12.4; 10 women) received a moderately painful pressure stimulus to the leg during blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging. Stimulus onset and offset transients were analyzed using a general linear model as stick functions. RESULTS: During pain onset, higher BOLD signal response was observed in FM patients compared to healthy controls in dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal cortices (DLPFC and VLPFC, respectively), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), frontal pole, and precentral gyrus (PrCG). During pain offset, higher and more widespread BOLD signal response was demonstrated in FM patients compared to controls in frontal regions significantly hyperactivated in response to onset. In FM patients, some of these responses were positively correlated with pain unpleasantness ratings (VLPFC, onset; r = 0.35, P = 0.03), pain catastrophizing scores (DLPFC, offset; r = 0.33, P = 0.04), or negatively correlated with stimulus intensity (OFC, offset; r = -0.35, P = 0.03) (PrCG, offset; r = -0.39, P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the increased sensitivity exhibited by FM patients in response to the onset and offset of painful stimuli may reflect a more generalized hypersensitivity to salient sensory events, and that brain hyperactivation may be a mechanism potentially involved in the generalized hypervigilance to salient stimuli in FM.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Fibromialgia/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Catastrofização/diagnóstico por imagem , Catastrofização/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Fibromialgia/fisiopatologia , Lobo Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Frontal/fisiopatologia , Neuroimagem Funcional , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor , Estimulação Física , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiopatologia , Pressão
9.
Brain Topogr ; 33(2): 208-220, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034577

RESUMO

Inhibitory dysfunction is closely associated to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The present study investigated the neurophysiological evidence for and the brain regions related to inhibitory dysfunction in PTSD. Fifty patients with PTSD and 63 healthy controls (HCs) participated in a Go/Nogo task combined with electroencephalographic recordings. The N2-P3 complexes of event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited during the Nogo condition were compared between groups. Participants underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging to examine cortical volumes and completed questionnaires. Correlations between altered ERPs and cortical volumes of regions of interest as well as psychological symptoms were analysed. Nogo-N2 latencies at five electrode sites (Fz, FCz, Cz, CPz, and Pz) were significantly delayed in patients with PTSD compared to HCs. Nogo-N2 latency had a significant negative correlation with the volume of gyrus in the inferior frontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, amygdala, and medial prefrontal cortex. Nogo-N2 latency was significantly and positively correlated with catastrophizing, anxiety, and perceived threat. These findings show inhibitory dysfunction in patients with PTSD, reflected by the delay in Nogo-N2 latencies. They also indicate that Nogo-N2 latencies are associated with smaller cortical volumes responsible for inhibition as well as with major symptoms of PTSD.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Potenciais Evocados , Inibição Psicológica , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia
10.
Brain ; 143(3): 844-861, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068789

RESUMO

The loss and recovery of language functions are still incompletely understood. This longitudinal functional MRI study investigated the neural mechanisms underlying language recovery in patients with post-stroke aphasia putting particular emphasis on the impact of lesion site. To identify patterns of language-related activation, an auditory functional MRI sentence comprehension paradigm was administered to patients with circumscribed lesions of either left frontal (n = 17) or temporo-parietal (n = 17) cortex. Patients were examined repeatedly during the acute (≤1 week, t1), subacute (1-2 weeks, t2) and chronic phase (>6 months, t3) post-stroke; healthy age-matched control subjects (n = 17) were tested once. The separation into two patient groups with circumscribed lesions allowed for a direct comparison of the contributions of distinct lesion-dependent network components to language reorganization between both groups. We hypothesized that activation of left hemisphere spared and perilesional cortex as well as lesion-homologue cortex in the right hemisphere varies between patient groups and across time. In addition, we expected that domain-general networks serving cognitive control independently contribute to language recovery. First, we found a global network disturbance in the acute phase that is characterized by reduced functional MRI language activation including areas distant to the lesion (i.e. diaschisis) and subsequent subacute network reactivation (i.e. resolution of diaschisis). These phenomena were driven by temporo-parietal lesions. Second, we identified a lesion-independent sequential activation pattern with increased activity of perilesional cortex and bilateral domain-general networks in the subacute phase followed by reorganization of left temporal language areas in the chronic phase. Third, we observed involvement of lesion-homologue cortex only in patients with frontal but not temporo-parietal lesions. Fourth, irrespective of lesion location, language reorganization predominantly occurred in pre-existing networks showing comparable activation in healthy controls. Finally, we detected different relationships of performance and activation in language and domain-general networks demonstrating the functional relevance for language recovery. Our findings highlight that the dynamics of language reorganization clearly depend on lesion location and hence open new perspectives for neurobiologically motivated strategies of language rehabilitation, such as individually-tailored targeted application of neuro-stimulation.


Assuntos
Afasia/fisiopatologia , Lobo Frontal/fisiopatologia , Idioma , Lobo Parietal/fisiopatologia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/fisiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Lobo Temporal/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Lobo Frontal/patologia , Neuroimagem Funcional , Humanos , Testes de Linguagem , Estudos Longitudinais , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Vias Neurais/fisiopatologia , Lobo Parietal/patologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Lobo Temporal/patologia
11.
Clin Neurophysiol ; 131(3): 609-615, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31972504

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between seizure onset, sleep stage and focal cortical dysplasia type 2 (FCD2) location in sleep related epilepsy (SRE). METHODS: We reviewed scalp video-EEG data of 77 patients with SRE among 130 surgically treated patients with histologically confirmed FCD2. Seizure onset was classified as occurring during NREM, REM and after arousal. RESULTS: Sleep recordings were available for 65 patients (37 males, 7-49 years old). FCD2 was located in frontal lobe in 46 (71%) and in extra-frontal regions in 19, including the temporal lobe in 6. MRI was negative/doubtful in 35 cases. Interictal rhythmic/pseudorhythmic spike rate increased from 31% during waking to 65% during sleep. Seizure onset occurred from NREM in 46 cases (71%), mostly from stage 2, and after arousal in 14 (22%). Seizures occurring from NREM/REM sleep were significantly more frequent in frontal (89%) compared to extra-frontal location (42%), whilst arousal preceded seizure onset more often in extra-frontal (58%) compared to frontal location (7%). CONCLUSIONS: NREM seizure onset is the most common ictal pattern in SRE due to frontal FCD2 whereas preceding arousal points to extra-frontal regions. SIGNIFICANCE: Sleep recordings may help for FCD2 localisation and suggest topography dependent impact on sleep related epileptic networks.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/fisiopatologia , Lobo Frontal/fisiopatologia , Malformações do Desenvolvimento Cortical do Grupo I/fisiopatologia , Sono/fisiologia , Lobo Temporal/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Eletroencefalografia , Epilepsia/complicações , Epilepsia/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Malformações do Desenvolvimento Cortical do Grupo I/complicações , Malformações do Desenvolvimento Cortical do Grupo I/cirurgia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pré-Operatório , Adulto Jovem
12.
Clin Neurophysiol ; 131(3): 694-702, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31991312

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have deficits in lower-limb functions such as gait, which involves both cognitive and motor dysfunction. In PD, theta and beta brain rhythms are associated with cognitive and motor functions, respectively. We tested the hypothesis that PD patients with lower-limb abnormalities would exhibit abnormal theta and beta rhythms in the mid-frontal cortical region during lower-limb action. METHODS: This study included thirty-nine participants; 13 PD patients with FOG (PDFOG+), 13 without FOG (PDFOG-), and 13 demographically-matched controls. We recorded scalp electroencephalograms (EEG) during a lower-limb pedaling motor task, which required intentional initiation and stopping of a motor movement. RESULTS: FOG scores were correlated with disease severity and cognition. PDFOG+ patients pedaled with reduced speed and decreased acceleration compared to PDFOG- patients and controls. PDFOG+ patients exhibited attenuated theta-band (4-8 Hz) power and increased beta-band (13-30 Hz) power at mid-frontal electrode Cz during pedaling. Frontal theta- and beta-band oscillations also correlated with motor and cognitive deficits. CONCLUSION: Frontal theta and beta oscillations are predictors of lower-limb motor symptoms in PD and could be used to design neuromodulation for PD-related lower-limb abnormalities. SIGNIFICANCE: These data provide insight into mechanisms of lower-limb dysfunction in PD with FOG.


Assuntos
Ritmo beta/fisiologia , Lobo Frontal/fisiopatologia , Extremidade Inferior/fisiopatologia , Movimento/fisiologia , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Ritmo Teta/fisiologia , Idoso , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
Dev Psychobiol ; 62(2): 154-169, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31372993

RESUMO

Childhood trauma is associated with many long-term negative outcomes, and is not limited to the individual experiencing the trauma, but extends to subsequent generations. However, mechanisms underlying the association between maternal childhood trauma and child psychopathology are not well understood. Here, we targeted frontal alpha asymmetry (FAA) as a potential underlying factor of the relationship between maternal childhood trauma and child behavioral problems. Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded from (N = 45) children (Mean age = 57.9 months, SD = 3.13) during an eyes-closed paradigm in order to evaluate FAA. Mothers reported on their childhood trauma experiences using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), and on their child's behavior using the child behavior checklist (CBCL). We found that maternal childhood trauma significantly predicted child total, internalizing, and externalizing behavior at age 5 years. We also observed a role for FAA such that it acted as a moderator, but not mediator, for behavioral problems. We found that children with relative more right/less left frontal activity were more at risk to develop behavioral problems when their mother had been exposed to trauma in her childhood. These results indicate that child frontal asymmetry may serve as a susceptibility marker for child behavioral problems.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância , Ritmo alfa/fisiologia , Sintomas Comportamentais/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Infantil/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Lobo Frontal/fisiopatologia , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Mães , Trauma Psicológico , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
14.
Brain Topogr ; 33(1): 112-122, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560088

RESUMO

Previous neuroscience studies exploring the neural mechanisms of social deficits of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have mainly examined single participants' brain responses to pictures or video-clips displayed on a monitor from the perspective of a passive observer. The present study examined inter-brain communication between children with ASD and their parents in a socio-interactive context. We used a functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)-based hyperscanning technique to simultaneously measure the prefrontal activations in 16 pairs of children with ASD and their parents in a two-person key-press task. The children's task was to press a key together with their parents in a cooperation condition when a "go" signal was present or to press a key as fast as possible under the observation by their parents in a single-person condition. We also measured children's severity of autism symptoms.We found that children with ASD showed increased interpersonal neural synchronization in the frontal cortex when engaging in cooperative interactions with their parents than when performing solo and non-interactive behaviors. Furthermore, this neural synchronization was modulated by the children's autism symptoms, which also covaried with their cooperation task performance. That is, children with severer autism symptoms showed lower level of action and neural synchronization with their parents during cooperation. Our study moved a major step forward in understanding the neural correlates underlying social deficits in ASD and provided important implications for the treatment and behavioral training of ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Criança , Comunicação , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pais/psicologia , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho
15.
World Neurosurg ; 133: 55, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562962

RESUMO

Laughter has a major role in daily social interactions; consequently, its biologic bases have been previously studied. Nevertheless, its cerebral representation remains unclear. The most accepted hypothesis has postulated that laughter has 2 components: mirth, related to the temporal and frontal neocortical areas, and motor aspect, related to the limbic system and brainstem. Furthermore, in prior studies, laughter has been elicited during electric stimulation with depth electrodes in the supplementary motor area and the cingulum. This Video 1 reports resection of a right superior frontal gyrus diffuse astrocytoma (isocitrate dehydrogenase mutant, World Health Organization grade II) with awake intraoperative electric cortical and subcortical stimulation mapping. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography, including all the tracts in relation to the tumor, was obtained preoperatively and postoperatively. Stimulation of the cingulum medially and inferiorly to the tumor elicited a patient's smile and laugh without mirth or merriment. Also, this point correlated with the reconstructed cingulum in the intraoperatively navigated DTI tractography. In conclusion, these findings support the anatomic subdivision of the laughter's mechanism and the role of the cingulum in its motor component. Furthermore, smiles and laughter could be useful functional landmarks to identify the cingulum during subcortical mapping. Although it remains unclear whether pursuing resection beyond this point would have caused permanent postoperative deficits, considering laughter's role in social interaction and other emotion-processing functions associated with the cingulum, in the future it could be potentially considered a functional limit of the resection of intrinsic tumors.


Assuntos
Astrocitoma/cirurgia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/cirurgia , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiopatologia , Riso/fisiologia , Sorriso/fisiologia , Astrocitoma/patologia , Astrocitoma/fisiopatologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/fisiopatologia , Estimulação Elétrica , Lobo Frontal/patologia , Lobo Frontal/fisiopatologia , Lobo Frontal/cirurgia , Humanos
16.
World Neurosurg ; 133: 42-48, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550542

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) is being used for different purposes in patients with brain tumors. However, the procedure requires a positive electrophysiological response. For patients with negative response in rest conditions, active motor threshold (AMT) may be used. However, sometimes it is difficult to obtain AMT measures owing to inability of the patient to sustain steady muscle contraction. Herein, we describe a simple method by using a hand dynamometer to obtain AMT measures during nTMS session. CASE DESCRIPTION: A woman aged 68 years underwent total removal of a right frontal lobe oligodendroglioma World Health Organization grade II 15 years ago. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging during follow-up revealed local recurrence. In the postoperative period, she developed left upper limb paresis. A postoperative nTMS session was performed for motor electrophysiological evaluation. However, using the standard technique for AMT measurement, the patient was unable to perform sustained muscle contraction as required. A hand dynamometer was used. It allowed sustained muscle contraction for AMT measurement. A counter force for the index finger flexion, the hand support to stabilize hand joints, and a numerical screen serving for both the examiner and the patient as a feedback parameter may explain the success obtained with this simple device. CONCLUSIONS: Although more studies are necessary to validate the method, the hand dynamometer should be considered for patients unable to sustain muscle contraction during AMT measurement.


Assuntos
Lobo Frontal/fisiopatologia , Córtex Motor/fisiopatologia , Contração Muscular/fisiologia , Dinamômetro de Força Muscular , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/fisiopatologia , Oligodendroglioma/fisiopatologia , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana/métodos , Idoso , Mapeamento Encefálico , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Frontal/cirurgia , Humanos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico por imagem , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/cirurgia , Oligodendroglioma/diagnóstico por imagem , Oligodendroglioma/cirurgia
17.
Biol Psychol ; 149: 107774, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574296

RESUMO

Impairments in social functioning are characteristic of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Differences in functional networks during face processing in ASD compared to controls have been reported; however, the spatial-temporal dynamics of networks underlying affective processing are still not well understood. The current magnetoencephalography study examined whole-brain functional connectivity to implicit happy and angry faces in 104 adults with and without ASD. A network of reduced gamma band (30-55 Hz) phase synchrony occurring 80-308 ms following angry face presentation was found in adults with ASD compared to controls. The network involved widespread connections primarily anchored in frontal regions, including bilateral orbitofrontal areas, bilateral inferior frontal gyri, and left middle frontal gyrus extending to occipital, temporal, parietal, and subcortical regions. This finding suggests disrupted long-range neuronal communication to angry faces. Additionally, reduced gamma band-specific connectivity may reflect altered E/I balance in brain regions critical for emotional face processing in ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Ritmo Gama/fisiologia , Magnetoencefalografia , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Brain Imaging Behav ; 14(1): 42-50, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30259290

RESUMO

Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is common in the end-stage renal disease (ESRD) population; however, their interrelationship remains largely unclear. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the brain structure variation in ESRD patients with RLS (ERSD-RLS) and its potential relation with the severity of RLS. Diffusion tensor imaging and T1-weighted imaging were obtained from 64 ERSD-RLS and 64 matched healthy controls. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis and tractography atlas-based analysis (TABS) were used to detect the alteration of gray matter (GM) volume and white matter (WM) microstructural characterization. The corticospinal tract (CST), which is a main motor-pathway, was selected as a fiber bundle of interest in the TABS analysis. The severity of RLS was evaluated by using the International RLS Study Group scale. Lastly, a correlation analysis was performed to explore the interrelationship between RLS rating scores and brain structure measurements. For the results, ERSD-RLS showed abnormal GM volume of motor-related brain regions located in the bilateral superior frontal gyri, precentral gyrus, and putamen. Significant differences in the diffusion properties were found at the posterior limb of the internal capsule. Furthermore, the severity of RLS was only significantly associated with the diffusion properties, which was not found in the motor-related regions of GM. Our results suggest that the motor-related brain structure was altered in ERSD-RLS. The abnormal WM microstructure of the CST may serve as an imaging marker correlated with the severity of motor dysfunction in ERSD-RLS, indicating that WM neuroprotection should be considered when improving motor function in ERSD-RLS.


Assuntos
Falência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Síndrome das Pernas Inquietas/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão/métodos , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/fisiopatologia , Substância Cinzenta/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/complicações , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiopatologia , Putamen/fisiopatologia , Substância Branca/fisiopatologia
19.
Brain Lang ; 200: 104710, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31739187

RESUMO

This study used voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping to examine the cortical and white matter regions associated with language production impairments in a sample of 63 preoperative tumour patients. We identified four cognitive functions considered crucial for spoken language production: semantic-to-lexical mapping (selecting the appropriate lexical label for the intended concept); phonological encoding (retrieving the word's phonological form); articulatory-motor planning (programming the articulatory motor movements); and goal-driven language selection (exerting top-down control over the words selected for production). Each participant received a score estimating their competence on each function. We then mapped the region(s) where pathology was significantly associated with low scores. For semantic-to-lexical mapping, the critical map encompassed portions of the left posterior middle and inferior temporal gyri, extending into posterior fusiform gyrus, overlapping substantially with the territory of the inferior longitudinal fasciculus. For phonological encoding, the map encompassed the left inferior parietal lobe and posterior middle temporal gyrus, overlapping with the territory of the inferior longitudinal and posterior arcuate fasciculi. For articulatory-motor planning, the map encompassed parts of the left frontal pole, frontal operculum, and inferior frontal gyrus, and overlapped with the territory of the frontal aslant tract. Finally, the map for goal-driven language selection encompassed the left frontal pole and the anterior cingulate cortex. We compare our findings with those from other neuropsychological samples, and conclude that the study of tumour patients offers evidence that complements that available from other populations.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Linguagem/patologia , Transtornos da Linguagem/fisiopatologia , Fala/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias Encefálicas/complicações , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/patologia , Lobo Frontal/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Transtornos da Linguagem/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Semântica , Lobo Temporal/patologia , Lobo Temporal/fisiopatologia , Substância Branca/patologia , Substância Branca/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Cogn Neuropsychol ; 37(1-2): 97-141, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31739752

RESUMO

Neuropsychological studies from the past century have associated damage to the ventromedial frontal lobes (VMF) with impairments in a variety of domains, including memory, executive function, emotion, social cognition, and valuation. A central question in the literature is whether these seemingly distinct functions are subserved by different sub-regions within the VMF, or whether VMF supports a broader cognitive process that is crucial to these varied domains. In this comprehensive review of the neuropsychological literature from the last two decades, we present a qualitative synthesis of 184 papers that have examined the psychological impairments that result from VMF damage. We discuss these findings in the context of several theoretical frameworks and advocate for the view that VMF is critical for the formation and representation of schema and cognitive maps.


Assuntos
Lobo Frontal/fisiopatologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
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