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1.
J Integr Neurosci ; 21(1): 20, 2022 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35164456

RESUMO

Stress has become a dangerous health problem in our life, especially in student education journey. Accordingly, previous methods have been conducted to detect mental stress based on biological and biochemical effects. Moreover, hormones, physiological effects, and skin temperature have been extensively used for stress detection. However, based on the recent literature, biological, biochemical, and physiological-based methods have shown inconsistent findings, which are initiated due to hormones' instability. Therefore, it is crucial to study stress using different mechanisms such as Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. In this research study, the frontal lobes EEG spectrum analysis is applied to detect mental stress. Initially, we apply a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) as a feature extraction stage to measure all bands' power density for the frontal lobe. After that, we used two type of classifications such as subject wise and mix (mental stress vs. control) using Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Naive Bayes (NB) machine learning classifiers. Our obtained results of the average subject wise classification showed that the proposed technique has better accuracy (98.21%). Moreover, this technique has low complexity, high accuracy, simple and easy to use, no over fitting, and it could be used as a real-time and continuous monitoring technique for medical applications.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Lobo Frontal/fisiopatologia , Aprendizado de Máquina , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia/normas , Feminino , Análise de Fourier , Humanos , Masculino , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte , Adulto Jovem
2.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263558, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35120184

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mal de Débarquement Syndrome (MdDS) is a medically refractory neurotological disorder characterized by persistent oscillating vertigo that follows a period of entrainment to oscillating motion such as experienced during sea or air travel. Fronto-occipital hypersynchrony may correlate with MdDS symptom severity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Individuals with treatment refractory MdDS lasting at least 6 months received single administrations of three fronto-occipital transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) protocols in an "n-of-1" double-blind randomized design: alpha frequency anti-phase, alpha-frequency in-phase, and gamma frequency control. Baseline assessments were made on Day 1. The treatment protocol that led to the most acute reduction in symptoms during a test session on Day 2 was administered for 10-12 stacked sessions given on Days 3 through 5 (20-minutes at 2-4mA). Pre to post symptom changes were assessed on Day 1 and Day 5. Participants who could clearly choose a preferred protocol on Day 2 did better on Day 5 than those who could not make a short-term determination on Day 2 and either chose a protocol based on minimized side effects or were randomized to one of the three protocols. In addition, weekly symptom assessments were made for four baseline and seven post stimulation points for the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI), MdDS Balance Rating Scale (MBRS), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). RESULTS: Of 24 participants, 13 chose anti-phase, 7 chose in-phase, and 4 chose control stimulation. Compared to baseline, 10/24 completers noted ≥ 25% reduction, 5/24 ≥50% reduction, and 2/24 ≥75% reduction in oscillating vertigo intensity from Day 1 to Day 5. Stimulating at a frequency slightly higher than the individual alpha frequency (IAF) was better than stimulating at exactly the IAF, and slightly better than stimulating with a strategy of standardized stimulation at 10Hz. A one-way repeated measures ANOVA of weekly DHI, MBRS, and HADS measurements showed significant reductions immediately after treatment with improvement increasing through post-treatment week 6. CONCLUSION: Fronto-occipital tACS may be effective in reducing the oscillating vertigo of MdDS and serve as a portable neuromodulation alternative for longer-term treatment. Stimulation frequency relative to the IAF may be important in determining the optimum treatment protocol [ClinicalTrials.gov study NCT02540616. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02540616].


Assuntos
Enjoo devido ao Movimento/terapia , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua/métodos , Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Adulto , Idoso , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Lobo Occipital/fisiopatologia , Oscilometria
3.
Int J Med Sci ; 19(1): 105-111, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34975304

RESUMO

Objective: The brain network in panic disorder (PD) is still an intriguing issue for research. In this study, we hoped to investigate the role of DC (degree centrality) for the pathophysiology of PD, especially for the fear network. Methods: We enrolled 60 patients with PD and 60 controls in the current study. The gender and age were matched for two groups. All participants received the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to survey the baseline brain activity. Then the DC values of all participants were using REST toolbox. We also compared the DC values between PD and controls. The statistical threshold was set as FDR (false discovery rate) < 0.05. Results: The DC values were significantly lower in the right superior frontal gyrus of PD patients compared to controls (FDR < 0.05). In addition, a negative correlation between the DC values and panic severity was observed in the right superior frontal gyrus and left inferior frontal gyrus. However, there was no significant association between the DC values and illness duration. Conclusion: The DC seemed significantly altered in the frontal lobe of PD patients. The role of the frontal lobe might be more emphasized in the pathophysiology research for PD.


Assuntos
Lobo Frontal/fisiopatologia , Transtorno de Pânico/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Neuroimagem , Transtorno de Pânico/diagnóstico por imagem
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 176, 2022 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34997117

RESUMO

The BDNF Val66Met gene polymorphism is a relevant factor explaining inter-individual differences to TMS responses in studies of the motor system. However, whether this variant also contributes to TMS-induced memory effects, as well as their underlying brain mechanisms, remains unexplored. In this investigation, we applied rTMS during encoding of a visual memory task either over the left frontal cortex (LFC; experimental condition) or the cranial vertex (control condition). Subsequently, individuals underwent a recognition memory phase during a functional MRI acquisition. We included 43 young volunteers and classified them as 19 Met allele carriers and 24 as Val/Val individuals. The results revealed that rTMS delivered over LFC compared to vertex stimulation resulted in reduced memory performance only amongst Val/Val allele carriers. This genetic group also exhibited greater fMRI brain activity during memory recognition, mainly over frontal regions, which was positively associated with cognitive performance. We concluded that BDNF Val66Met gene polymorphism, known to exert a significant effect on neuroplasticity, modulates the impact of rTMS both at the cognitive as well as at the associated brain networks expression levels. This data provides new insights on the brain mechanisms explaining cognitive inter-individual differences to TMS, and may inform future, more individually-tailored rTMS interventions.


Assuntos
Ondas Encefálicas , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/genética , Lobo Frontal/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Memória/genética , Memória , Polimorfismo Genético , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico , Cognição , França , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Transtornos da Memória/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Memória/etiologia , Transtornos da Memória/fisiopatologia , Plasticidade Neuronal , Fenótipo , Fatores de Risco , Espanha , Adulto Jovem
5.
Neurosci Lett ; 767: 136309, 2022 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34736723

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is known that increased impulsivity in schizophrenia patients causes poor treatment outcomes by increasing cost, stigma, hospitalization, treatment challenge, and physical harm. Dysfunction in the prefrontal cortex appears to be involved in the impulsivity associated with schizophrenia; nonetheless, there is a dearth of research on specific white matter alterations in the prefrontal cortex related to impulsivity. METHODS: We enrolled in the present study 119 first-episode schizophrenia patients. We measured their symptom severity at baseline and after eight weeks of treatment, using the positive and negative syndrome scale. We performed neuroimaging analysis using the Tract-Based Spatial Statistics program and by specifying the prefrontal white matter as a region of interest. RESULTS: In voxel-wise correlational analysis, we observed white matter regions showing significant positive correlations with poor impulse control scores, in both the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the right frontal pole region. The fractional anisotropy values of these areas correlated positively with symptom severity at baseline. Moreover, after eight weeks, treatment non responders showed significantly higher fractional anisotropy values in the same areas. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study suggest that white matter tracts in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the right frontal pole may underlie dysfunctional impulse control and could be potential predictive markers for short-term treatment in patients with first-episode schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Lobo Frontal/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Impulsivo , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Substância Branca/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão/métodos , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuroimagem/métodos , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico por imagem , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem
6.
Neurobiol Aging ; 110: 37-46, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34847523

RESUMO

Cortical network modularity underpins cognitive functions, so we hypothesized its progressive derangement along the course of frontotemporal (FTD) and Alzheimer's (AD) dementing diseases. EEG was recorded in 18 FTD, 18 AD, and 20 healthy controls (HC). In the FTD and AD patients, the EEG recordings were performed at the prodromal stage of dementia, at the onset of dementia, and three years after the onset of dementia. HC underwent three EEG recordings at 2-3-year time interval. Information flows underlying EEG activity recorded at electrode pairs were estimated by means of Mutual Information (MI) analysis. The functional organization of the cortical network was modelled by means of the Graph theory analysis on MI adjacency matrices. Graph theory analysis showed that the main hub of HC (Parietal area) was lost in FTD patients at onset of dementia, substituted by provincial hubs in frontal leads. No changes in global network organization were found in AD. Despite a progressive cognitive impairment during the FTD and AD progression, only the FTD patients showed a derangement in the cortical network modularity, possibly due to dysfunctions in frontal functional connectivity.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Cognição , Eletroencefalografia , Lobo Frontal/fisiopatologia , Demência Frontotemporal/diagnóstico , Demência Frontotemporal/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Neuroimage ; 247: 118742, 2022 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34863962

RESUMO

The descending pain modulatory system in humans is commonly investigated using conditioned pain modulation (CPM). Whilst variability in CPM efficiency, i.e., inhibition and facilitation, is normal in healthy subjects, exploring the inter-relationship between brain structure, resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) and CPM readouts will provide greater insight into the underlying CPM efficiency seen in healthy individuals. Thus, this study combined CPM testing, voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and rsFC to identify the neural correlates of CPM in a cohort of healthy subjects (n =40), displaying pain inhibition (n = 29), facilitation (n = 10) and no CPM effect (n = 1). Clusters identified in the VBM analysis were implemented in the rsFC analysis alongside key constituents of the endogenous pain modulatory system. Greater pain inhibition was related to higher volume of left frontal cortices and stronger rsFC between the motor cortex and periaqueductal grey. Conversely, weaker pain inhibition was related to higher volume of the right frontal cortex - coupled with stronger rsFC to the primary somatosensory cortex, and rsFC between the amygdala and posterior insula. Overall, healthy subjects showed higher volume and stronger rsFC of brain regions involved with descending modulation, while the lateral and medial pain systems were related to greater pain inhibition and facilitation during CPM, respectively. These findings reveal structural alignments and functional interactions between supraspinal areas involved in CPM efficiency. Ultimately understanding these underlying variations and how they may become affected in chronic pain conditions, will advance a more targeted subgrouping in pain patients for future cross-sectional studies investigating endogenous pain modulation.


Assuntos
Inibição Psicológica , Vias Neurais/fisiopatologia , Dor/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Tonsila do Cerebelo/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Substância Cinzenta Periaquedutal/fisiopatologia , Descanso , Suíça , Adulto Jovem
8.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 43(1): 103274, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34715486

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Tinnitus network(s) consists of pathways in the auditory cortex, frontal cortex, and the limbic system. The cortical hyperactivity caused by tinnitus may be suppressed by neuromodulation techniques. Due to the lack of definitive treatment for tinnitus and limited usefulness of the individual methods, in this study, a combination of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and tailor-made notched music training (TMNMT) was used. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this descriptive-analytic study, 26 patients with chronic unilateral tinnitus of the right ear were randomly divided into the clinical trial group (CTG) and the control group (CG). In both groups, six sessions of tDCS with 2 mA intensity for 20 min, with anode on F4 and cathode on F3, were conducted. Simultaneous with tDCS sessions, and based on TMNMT, the participant was asked to listen passively for 120 min/day, to a CD containing her/his favorite music with a proper notch applied in its spectrum according to the individual's tinnitus The treatment outcome was measured by, psychoacoustic (loudness-matching), psychometric (awareness, loudness and annoyance Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) scores, and Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI)) scores, and cognitive assessments (randomized dichotic digits test (RDDT) and dichotic auditory-verbal memory test (DAVMT)). Repeated measurement test was used for statistical analyses. RESULTS: In the CTG, the tinnitus loudness and annoyance VAS scores, and THI were reduced significantly (p = 0.001). In addition, the DAVMT and RDDT scores were enhanced (p = 0.001). Such changes were not observed in the CG (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: The combination of tDCS and TMNMT led to a reduction in the loudness, awareness, annoyance, and also disability induced by tinnitus in CTG. Furthermore, this method showed an improvement of cognitive functions (auditory divided attention, selective attention and working memory) in the CTG.


Assuntos
Córtex Auditivo/fisiopatologia , Cognição , Musicoterapia/métodos , Psicoacústica , Psicometria , Zumbido/psicologia , Zumbido/terapia , Adulto , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Sistema Límbico/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Zumbido/fisiopatologia , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19746, 2021 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34611294

RESUMO

Psychiatric diagnoses currently rely on a patient's presenting symptoms or signs, lacking much-needed theory-based biomarkers. Our neuropsychological theory of anxiety, recently supported by human imaging, is founded on a longstanding, reliable, rodent 'theta' brain rhythm model of human clinical anxiolytic drug action. We have now developed a human scalp EEG homolog-goal-conflict-specific rhythmicity (GCSR), i.e., EEG rhythmicity specific to a balanced conflict between goals (e.g., approach-avoidance). Critically, GCSR is consistently reduced by different classes of anxiolytic drug and correlates with clinically-relevant trait anxiety scores (STAI-T). Here we show elevated GCSR in student volunteers divided, after testing, on their STAI-T scores into low, medium, and high (typical of clinical anxiety) groups. We then tested anxiety disorder patients (meeting diagnostic criteria) and similar controls recruited separately from the community. The patient group had higher average GCSR than their controls-with a mixture of high and low GCSR that varied with, but cut across, conventional disorder diagnosis. Consequently, GCSR scores should provide the first theoretically-based biomarker that could help diagnose, and so redefine, a psychiatric disorder.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Biomarcadores , Eletroencefalografia , Lobo Frontal/fisiopatologia , Ritmo Teta , Idoso , Análise de Variância , Ansiolíticos/farmacologia , Ansiolíticos/uso terapêutico , Transtornos de Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos de Ansiedade/etiologia , Conflito Psicológico , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
10.
Neurosci Lett ; 764: 136242, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509567

RESUMO

Central fatigue in Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common and disabling symptom that further worsens the patients' quality of life. A deficit in the serotonergic system may be implicated in the occurrence of fatigue in patients with PD as well as in those with other chronic conditions characterized by fatigue. The loudness dependence of auditory evoked potentials (LDAEP) is a neurophysiological tool that has proved to be effective in measuring the serotonergic central function in vivo. The aim of the present study was to assess central serotonergic activity in PD patients and to explore its possible association with the presence of fatigue. LDAEP was recorded in 38 PD patients (26 without fatigue - PDnF and 12 with fatigue - PDF) and 34 healthy controls. A significant difference between parkinsonian patients and controls emerged, with patients displaying stronger LDAEP values (which reflect a lower serotonergic central tone) than controls. By contrast, no differences in LDAEP emerged between PDF and PDnF. Our electrophysiological data confirmed the presence of a deficit in serotonergic central transmission in PD. An association between this deficit and fatigue was not demonstrated. It is likely that an altered dopamine/serotonin balance, rather than a serotonin deficit alone, is involved in the genesis of central fatigue. This complex and multifaceted symptom is related above all to a dysfunction in the striato-thalamo-cortical loop that connects the neostriatum to the frontal lobe and is strongly affected by motivation.


Assuntos
Potenciais Evocados Auditivos/fisiologia , Fadiga/metabolismo , Motivação/fisiologia , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Serotonina/metabolismo , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Eletroencefalografia , Fadiga/etiologia , Fadiga/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/metabolismo , Lobo Frontal/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Percepção Sonora/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neostriado/metabolismo , Neostriado/fisiopatologia , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Qualidade de Vida , Transmissão Sináptica
11.
Neural Plast ; 2021: 5594305, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34349797

RESUMO

Many cognitive functions, including working memory, are processed within large-scale brain networks. We targeted the right frontoparietal network (FPN) with one session of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in an attempt to modulate the cognitive speed of a visual working memory task (WMT) in 27 young healthy subjects using a double-blind crossover design. We further explored the neural underpinnings of induced changes by performing resting-state fMRI prior to and immediately after each stimulation session with the main focus on the interaction between a task-positive FPN and a task-negative default mode network (DMN). Twenty minutes of 2 mA anodal tDCS was superior to sham stimulation in terms of cognitive speed manipulation of a subtask with processing of objects and tools in unconventional views (i.e., the higher cognitive load subtask of the offline WMT). This result was linked to the magnitude of resting-state functional connectivity decreases between the stimulated FPN seed and DMN seeds. We provide the first evidence for the action reappraisal mechanism of object and tool processing. Modulation of cognitive speed of the task by tDCS was reflected by FPN-DMN cross-talk changes.


Assuntos
Lobo Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Lobo Parietal/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Lobo Parietal/fisiopatologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua , Adulto Jovem
12.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(15): 19529-19541, 2021 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34349039

RESUMO

AIMS: Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a psychiatric condition that is associated with the menstrual cycle. Elucidation of the neural regulation mechanisms of brain reactivity to emotional stimuli among women with PMDD may inform PMDD treatment. METHODS: Eighty-six women (42 PMDD, 44 healthy controls) were allocated into two groups (anger-induced group: 23 PMDD vs. 23 controls; depression-induced group: 19 PMDD vs. 21 controls). During the luteal phases of the menstrual cycle, all the women were subjected to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). fMRI resting-state scans were performed before and after the study participants had performed an emotional stimuli task. After the emotional stimuli task, emotional status of the participants were evaluated by Self-Rating Depression Scales (SDS) and Trait Anger Expression Inventory-II (STAXI-II). In addition, all the participants were requested to complete the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) and the Twenty-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20). RESULTS: Compared to healthy controls, all women with PMDD exhibited significantly high scores in Tas-20 (p<0.001), higher neuroticism and psychoticism scores as well as significantly low extraversion and social desirability scores (p<0.05). Compared to the controls, f-MRI revealed that PMDD women had elevated ReHo in the middle frontal gyrus (BA10), temporal lobe (BA42), left cerebellum (BA37), as well as decreased activation in the precuneus (BA7), superior frontal gyrus (BA8), lobulus paracentralis (BA6), and right cerebellum (BA48) (p<0.05). Moreover, depression stimuli showed that women with PMDD had elevated ReHo levels in the middle frontal gyrus (BA11), the middle gyrus (BA47) and in the cingulate gyrus (BA23) vs. healthy controls (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Women with more neuroticism and psychoticism, less extraversion and social desirability tend to report PMDD symptoms. Women with this condition experience difficulties in regulating emotions during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Abnormal ReHo levels in the precuneus, superior frontal gyrus, lobulus paracentralis, and right cerebellum may contribute to anger dysregulation. Hypoactivation in the middle frontal gyrus, the middle gyrus and the cingulate gyrus may be generally associated with depression dysregulation in PMDD.


Assuntos
Cerebelo/fisiopatologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Fase Luteal/fisiologia , Personalidade , Transtorno Disfórico Pré-Menstrual/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Frontal/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Determinação da Personalidade , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiopatologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
13.
Cells ; 10(6)2021 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198731

RESUMO

The clinical effectiveness of supportive therapy with thyroid hormones in drug-resistant depression is well-known; however, the mechanisms of action of these hormones in the adult brain have not been fully elucidated to date. We determined the effects of venlafaxine and/or L-thyroxine on metabolic parameters and markers involved in the regulation of synaptic plasticity and cell damage in an animal model of coexisting depression and hypothyroidism, namely, Wistar Kyoto rats treated with propylthiouracil. In this model, in relation to the depression model itself, the glycolysis process in the brain was weakened, and a reduction in pyruvate dehydrogenase in the frontal cortex was normalized only by the combined treatment with L-thyroxine and venlafaxine, whereas changes in pyruvate and lactate levels were affected by all applied therapies. None of the drugs improved the decrease in the expression of mitochondrial respiratory chain enzymes. No intensification of glucocorticoid action was shown, while an unfavorable change caused by the lack of thyroid hormones was an increase in the caspase-1 level, which was not reversed by venlafaxine alone. The results indicated that the combined administration of drugs was more effective in normalizing glycolysis and the transition to the Krebs cycle than the use of venlafaxine or L-thyroxine alone.


Assuntos
Depressão , Hipotireoidismo , Plasticidade Neuronal/efeitos dos fármacos , Tiroxina/farmacologia , Cloridrato de Venlafaxina/farmacologia , Animais , Depressão/complicações , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão/metabolismo , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Quimioterapia Combinada , Lobo Frontal/metabolismo , Lobo Frontal/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Hipotireoidismo/complicações , Hipotireoidismo/tratamento farmacológico , Hipotireoidismo/metabolismo , Hipotireoidismo/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos WKY
14.
Psychophysiology ; 58(10): e13893, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216043

RESUMO

People vary in their responses to stress. The present study aimed to investigate whether and how alpha frontal asymmetry (AFA) measured in the resting state underlies the individual differences in psychological responses to acute psychosocial stress (e.g., increases in heart rate and cortisol) induced by the Trier social stress test. Forty-three healthy male adults were enrolled in this study. The results showed that the AFA score negatively predicted both heart rate and cortisol responses, that is relatively higher right-frontal activity during the resting state was related to a stronger physiological stress response. These results indicated that higher withdrawal motivation or effortful control is associated with a higher physiological stress response, which suggested that AFA in the resting state can serve as a biological predictor of acute stress responses in men.


Assuntos
Ritmo alfa/fisiologia , Lobo Frontal/fisiopatologia , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12469, 2021 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34127750

RESUMO

Electroencephalographic synchrony can help assess brain network status; however, its usefulness has not yet been fully proven. We developed a clinically feasible method that combines the phase synchrony index (PSI) with resting-state 19-channel electroencephalography (EEG) to evaluate post-stroke motor impairment. In this study, we investigated whether our method could be applied to aphasia, a common post-stroke cognitive impairment. This study included 31 patients with subacute aphasia and 24 healthy controls. We assessed the expressive function of patients and calculated the PSIs of three motor language-related regions: frontofrontal, left frontotemporal, and right frontotemporal. Then, we evaluated post-stroke network alterations by comparing PSIs of the patients and controls and by analyzing the correlations between PSIs and aphasia scores. The frontofrontal PSI (beta band) was lower in patients than in controls and positively correlated with aphasia scores, whereas the right frontotemporal PSI (delta band) was higher in patients than in controls and negatively correlated with aphasia scores. Evaluation of artifacts suggests that this association is attributed to true synchrony rather than spurious synchrony. These findings suggest that post-stroke aphasia is associated with alternations of two different networks and point to the usefulness of EEG PSI in understanding the pathophysiology of aphasia.


Assuntos
Afasia/diagnóstico , Sincronização de Fases em Eletroencefalografia , Rede Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Afasia/etiologia , Afasia/fisiopatologia , Estudos Transversais , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/fisiopatologia , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Descanso/fisiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Lobo Temporal/fisiopatologia
16.
Neurobiol Aging ; 105: 148-158, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087607

RESUMO

Parkinson's Disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder leading to typical motor as well as a range of non-motor symptoms, including cognitive decline mainly characterized by executive deficits. The latter are known to appear years before the typical motor signs, thus representing the prodromal phase of PD. However, appropriate methods for measuring executive dysfunction in this context are not well established yet. Traditionally, executive performance is associated with frontal structures. Here, we investigated prodromal, early PD patients and healthy controls regarding their executive functioning on the behavioral and neural level, measured by the Trail-Making-Test (TMT) combined with functional near-infrared spectroscopy. We observed significantly reduced neural activity in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex within PD patients compared to controls completing the TMT-A and -B in contrast to the TMT-C, but no differences on a behavioral level. These promising results need to be confirmed and checked for reliability in future studies to extend the spectrum of markers applied in prodromal PD.


Assuntos
Função Executiva , Lobo Frontal/fisiopatologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Doença de Parkinson/psicologia , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12943, 2021 06 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34155240

RESUMO

This study investigated neurologic changes in patients with dry eye (DE) by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and to used regional homogeneity (ReHo) analysis to clarify the relationship between these changes and clinical features of DE. A total of 28 patients with DE and 28 matched healthy control (HC) subjects (10 males and 18 females in each group) were enrolled. fMRI scans were performed in both groups. We carried out ReHo analysis to assess differences in neural activity between the 2 groups, and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis was performed to evaluate the performance of ReHo values of specific brain areas in distinguishing DE patients from HCs. The relationship between average ReHo values and clinical characteristics was assessed by correlation analysis. ReHo values of the middle frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, and superior frontal gyrus were significantly lower in DE patients compared to HCs. The ROC analysis showed that ReHo value had high accuracy in distinguishing between DE patients and HCs (P < 0.0001). The ReHo values of the middle frontal gyrus and dorsolateral superior frontal gyrus were correlated to disease duration (P < 0.05). Symptoms of ocular surface injury in DE patients are associated with dysfunction in specific brain regions, which may underlie the cognitive impairment, psychiatric symptoms, and depressive mood observed in DE patients. The decreased ReHo values of some brain gyri in this study may provide a reference for clinical diagnosis and determination of treatment efficacy.


Assuntos
Síndromes do Olho Seco/diagnóstico , Lobo Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Frontal/fisiopatologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Adulto , Idoso , Mapeamento Encefálico , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Síndromes do Olho Seco/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Biológicos , Curva ROC , Adulto Jovem
18.
Life Sci ; 280: 119702, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34111462

RESUMO

AIMS: Nearly a third of U.S. veterans who deployed in support of the 1990-1991 Persian Gulf War are affected by Gulf War illness (GWI). Here we aimed to characterize whether subjective sleep complaints in GWI veterans are associated with objective sleep EEG disturbances relative to healthy veterans and controls; and whether Gulf War veterans show alterations in neural activity during sleep that differentiate them from healthy subjects. MAIN METHODS: We used high-density EEG (HDEEG) to assess regional patterns of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and non-REM (NREM) sleep between three groups: Gulf War male veterans with fatigue and GWI, Gulf War male veterans without fatigue or GWI, and control males. The groups were matched relative to age, sex and obstructive sleep apnea. Topographic comparisons of nocturnal NREM and REM sleep were made between groups for all frequency bands. KEY FINDINGS: Topographic analysis revealed a broadband reduction in EEG power in a circumscribed region overlying the frontal lobe in both groups of Gulf War veterans, regardless of GWI and fatigue. This frontal reduction in neural activity was present, to some extent, across all frequency bands in NREM and REM sleep. SIGNIFICANCE: Given that our findings were observed in all Gulf War veterans, it appears unlikely that frontal sleep HDEEG power reductions prove wholly responsible for fatigue symptoms. These results provide avenues for research which may someday contribute to improved clinical care of formerly deployed veterans of the Persian Gulf War.


Assuntos
Lobo Frontal/fisiopatologia , Síndrome do Golfo Pérsico/fisiopatologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/fisiopatologia , Sono , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Eletroencefalografia , Fadiga/etiologia , Fadiga/fisiopatologia , Guerra do Golfo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome do Golfo Pérsico/complicações , Polissonografia , Estudos Prospectivos , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/etiologia
19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11951, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34099768

RESUMO

Recent theories suggest a shift from model-based goal-directed to model-free habitual decision-making in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, it is yet unclear, whether this shift in the decision process is heritable. We investigated 32 patients with OCD, 27 unaffected siblings (SIBs) and 31 healthy controls (HCs) using the two-step task. We computed behavioral and reaction time analyses and fitted a computational model to assess the balance between model-based and model-free control. 80 subjects also underwent structural imaging. We observed a significant ordered effect for the shift towards model-free control in the direction OCD > SIB > HC in our computational parameter of interest. However less directed analyses revealed no shift towards model-free control in OCDs. Nonetheless, we found evidence for reduced model-based control in OCDs compared to HCs and SIBs via 2nd stage reaction time analyses. In this measure SIBs also showed higher levels of model-based control than HCs. Across all subjects these effects were associated with the surface area of the left medial/right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Moreover, correlations between bilateral putamen/right caudate volumes and these effects varied as a function of group: they were negative in SIBs and OCDs, but positive in HCs. Associations between fronto-striatal regions and model-based reaction time effects point to a potential endophenotype for OCD.


Assuntos
Corpo Estriado/fisiopatologia , Lobo Frontal/fisiopatologia , Modelos Neurológicos , Vias Neurais/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Cognição/fisiologia , Endofenótipos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Análise de Regressão , Irmãos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Elife ; 102021 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34037520

RESUMO

For decades, the frontal alpha asymmetry (FAA) - a disproportion in EEG alpha oscillations power between right and left frontal channels - has been one of the most popular measures of depressive disorders (DD) in electrophysiology studies. Patients with DD often manifest a left-sided FAA: relatively higher alpha power in the left versus right frontal lobe. Recently, however, multiple studies failed to confirm this effect, questioning its reproducibility. Our purpose is to thoroughly test the validity of FAA in depression by conducting a multiverse analysis - running many related analyses and testing the sensitivity of the effect to changes in the analytical approach - on data from five independent studies. Only 13 of the 270 analyses revealed significant results. We conclude the paper by discussing theoretical assumptions underlying the FAA and suggest a list of guidelines for improving and expanding the EEG data analysis in future FAA studies.


Assuntos
Ritmo alfa , Transtorno Depressivo/diagnóstico , Eletroencefalografia , Lobo Frontal/fisiopatologia , Lateralidade Funcional , Adolescente , Adulto , Afeto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Transtorno Depressivo/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Adulto Jovem
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