Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 5.939
Filtrar
1.
Brain Tumor Pathol ; 37(4): 159-164, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32754892

RESUMO

We report a case of 33-year-old Japanese male who presented with a headache and visual disturbances. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large tumor in the left frontal lobe, measuring 7 cm in diameter, which was diagnosed as supratentorial anaplastic ependymoma accompanied by extensive desmoplasia. The patient underwent a gross total resection. Histologically, the tumor cells had oval or short, spindle-shaped nuclei, and proliferating cells in perivascular pseudorosettes with anucleate zones and mitotic figures. Desmoplasia with abundant collagen fibers among the tumor cells was detected at numerous sites, and perinuclear dot- or ring-like immunoreactivity for epithelial membrane antigen was identified. Five years and six months after the initial procedure, a small recurrent tumor was identified at the removal site. The patient underwent a second total resection. The histology of the resected tumor showed decreased collagen production and more apparent anaplastic features as compared to those of the initial tumor. In addition to the histological findings, molecular examinations revealed ependymoma, RELA fusion positive. Although not commonly observed, this case suggests that desmoplasia could be associated with ependymomas, including RELA fusion-positive variant. Moreover, our findings indicate that high-grade ependymoma requires careful, long-term follow-up even if gross total resection is performed.


Assuntos
Ependimoma/genética , Ependimoma/patologia , Fusão Gênica/genética , Neoplasias Supratentoriais/genética , Neoplasias Supratentoriais/patologia , Fator de Transcrição RelA/genética , Adulto , Ependimoma/diagnóstico , Ependimoma/cirurgia , Lobo Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Frontal/patologia , Lobo Frontal/cirurgia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos , Neoplasias Supratentoriais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Supratentoriais/cirurgia
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4305, 2020 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32855391

RESUMO

Oligomeric assemblies of tau and the RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) Musashi (MSI) are reported in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the role of MSI and tau interaction in their aggregation process and its effects are nor clearly known in neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we investigated the expression and cellular localization of MSI1 and MSI2 in the brains tissues of Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) as well as in the wild-type mice and tau knock-out and P301L tau mouse models. We observed that formation of pathologically relevant protein inclusions was driven by the aberrant interactions between MSI and tau in the nuclei associated with age-dependent extracellular depositions of tau/MSI complexes. Furthermore, tau and MSI interactions induced impairment of nuclear/cytoplasm transport, chromatin remodeling and nuclear lamina formation. Our findings provide mechanistic insight for pathological accumulation of MSI/tau aggregates providing a potential basis for therapeutic interventions in neurodegenerative proteinopathies.


Assuntos
Núcleo Celular/patologia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/patologia , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Proteínas tau/metabolismo , Transporte Ativo do Núcleo Celular , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/citologia , Lobo Frontal/patologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Corpos de Inclusão/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Agregados Proteicos , Ligação Proteica , Proteínas tau/genética
3.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236423, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735611

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Use of functional MRI (fMRI) in pre-surgical planning is a non-invasive method for pre-operative functional mapping for patients with brain tumors, especially tumors located near eloquent cortex. Currently, this practice predominantly involves task-based fMRI (T-fMRI). Resting state fMRI (RS-fMRI) offers an alternative with several methodological advantages. Here, we compare group-level analyses of RS-fMRI vs. T-fMRI as methods for language localization. PURPOSE: To contrast RS-fMRI vs. T-fMRI as techniques for localization of language function. METHODS: We analyzed data obtained in 35 patients who had both T-fMRI and RS-fMRI scans during the course of pre-surgical evaluation. The RS-fMRI data were analyzed using a previously trained resting-state network classifier. The T-fMRI data were analyzed using conventional techniques. Group-level results obtained by both methods were evaluated in terms of two outcome measures: (1) inter-subject variability of response magnitude and (2) sensitivity/specificity analysis of response topography, taking as ground truth previously reported maps of the language system based on intraoperative cortical mapping as well as meta-analytic maps of language task fMRI responses. RESULTS: Both fMRI methods localized major components of the language system (areas of Broca and Wernicke) although not with equal inter-subject consistency. Word-stem completion T-fMRI strongly activated Broca's area but also several task-general areas not specific to language. RS-fMRI provided a more specific representation of the language system. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate several advantages of classifier-based mapping of language representation in the brain. Language T-fMRI activated task-general (i.e., not language-specific) functional systems in addition to areas of Broca and Wernicke. In contrast, classifier-based analysis of RS-fMRI data generated maps confined to language-specific regions of the brain.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Área de Broca/patologia , Glioblastoma/diagnóstico , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Adulto , Idoso , Atenção/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Área de Broca/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Frontal/patologia , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Glioblastoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Glioblastoma/patologia , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Descanso/fisiologia , Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Temporal/patologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ; 319(3): E592-E606, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744096

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate whether juvenile Iberian pigs with diet-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), cholestasis, and gut dysbiosis would develop histological and metabolic markers of neurodegeneration in the frontal cortex (FC) and whether supplementing probiotics would influence the response to the diet. Twenty-eight juvenile Iberian pigs were fed for 10 wk either a control (CON) or high-fructose high-fat (HFF) diet with or without a commercial probiotic mixture. Compared with CON, HFF-fed pigs had a decreased number of neurons and an increase in reactive astrocytes in FC tissue. There was also a decrease in one-carbon metabolites choline and betaine and a marked accumulation of bile acids, cholesteryl esters, and polyol pathway intermediates in FC of HFF-fed pigs, which were associated with markers of neurodegeneration and accentuated with the severity of NAFLD. Betaine depletion in FC tissue was negatively correlated with choline-derived phospholipids in colon content, whereas primary conjugated bile acids in FC were associated with cholestasis. Plasma kynurenine-to-tryptophan quotient, as a marker of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity, and intestinal dysbiosis were also correlated with neuronal loss and astrogliosis. Recognition memory test and FC levels of amyloid-ß and phosphorylated Tau did not differ between diets, whereas probiotics increased amyloid-ß and memory loss in HFF-fed pigs. In conclusion, our results show evidence of neurodegeneration in FC of juvenile Iberian pigs and establish a novel pediatric model to investigate the role of gut-liver-brain axis in diet-induced NAFLD.


Assuntos
Doenças Neurodegenerativas/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Animais , Colestase/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dieta , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Disbiose/metabolismo , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/metabolismo , Lobo Frontal/patologia , Frutose/efeitos adversos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Masculino , Atividade Motora , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/complicações , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/psicologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Probióticos , Desempenho Psicomotor , Suínos
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3354, 2020 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620797

RESUMO

Expansion of an intronic (GGGGCC)n repeat region within the C9orf72 gene is a main cause of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia (c9ALS/FTD). A hallmark of c9ALS/FTD is the accumulation of misprocessed RNAs, which are often targets of cellular RNA surveillance. Here, we show that RNA decay mechanisms involving upstream frameshift 1 (UPF1), including nonsense-mediated decay (NMD), are inhibited in c9ALS/FTD brains and in cultured cells expressing either of two arginine-rich dipeptide repeats (R-DPRs), poly(GR) and poly(PR). Mechanistically, although R-DPRs cause the recruitment of UPF1 to stress granules, stress granule formation is independent of NMD inhibition. Instead, NMD inhibition is primarily a result from global translational repression caused by R-DPRs. Overexpression of UPF1, but none of its NMD-deficient mutants, enhanced the survival of neurons treated by R-DPRs, suggesting that R-DPRs cause neurotoxicity in part by inhibiting cellular RNA surveillance.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Proteína C9orf72/genética , Demência Frontotemporal/genética , Degradação do RNAm Mediada por Códon sem Sentido , RNA Helicases/metabolismo , Transativadores/metabolismo , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/patologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Expansão das Repetições de DNA , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Embrião de Mamíferos , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/patologia , Demência Frontotemporal/patologia , Humanos , Íntrons/genética , Camundongos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Cultura Primária de Células , Biossíntese de Proteínas , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA-Seq , Transativadores/genética
6.
Brain Tumor Pathol ; 37(3): 95-99, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32504153

RESUMO

We report a rare case of oligodendroglioma with gangliocytic differentiation. A 31-year-old male without a past medical history was admitted with a sudden seizure. On magnetic resonance imaging, an approximately 7-cm mass with necrosis was noted in the right frontal lobe. The patient underwent surgical resection. On microscopy, two morphologically distinct areas with oligodendroglioma- and ganglioglioma-like features were found. Immunohistochemistry showed an absence of CD34 expression, whereas isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) was positive in the glial component. Moreover, IDH1 was positive in the ganglion-like cells as well as in the glial component. Subsequent 1p/19q co-deletion was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Finally, a diagnosis of oligodendroglioma with gangliocytic differentiation was made. IDH1/2 molecular test would be basic and essential diagnostic tool in central nervous system tumor of young patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Oligodendroglioma/diagnóstico , Oligodendroglioma/patologia , Adulto , Antígenos CD34 , Lobo Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Frontal/patologia , Humanos , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/genética , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Mutação
7.
Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging ; 302: 111110, 2020 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505904

RESUMO

It is still unclear whether the structural abnormalities in Bipolar disorder (BD) are static or progressive. We aimed to compare differences in cortical thickness, surface area, and volume between patients with BD and healthy volunteers (HV) and to examine whether there are differences between patients who have had a single manic episode and those with multiple episodes. We recruited 30 patients with Type I BD and 30 age and sex matched HV. All participants underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging. Cortical volume, thickness, and surface area were measured using the QDEC tool from the Freesurfer software with age and intracranial volume as covariates. Study groups were comparable across age, sex distribution, and intracranial volume. Patients had significantly lower surface area in bilateral cuneus, right postcentral gyrus, and rostral middle frontal gyri; and lower cortical volume in the left middle temporal gyrus, right postcentral gyrus, and right cuneus. BD patients with multiple episodes had lower cortical measures while those with single episode had cortical measures comparable to HV. Findings indicate that the pathophysiological processes in BD are possibly progressive in nature. Our findings underscore the potential importance of early diagnosis and intervention in preventing deterioration and improving functional recovery.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Occipital/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno Bipolar/patologia , Transtorno Bipolar/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/patologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Lobo Occipital/patologia , Tamanho do Órgão , Recidiva , Lobo Temporal/patologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Epilepsia ; 61(8): e90-e94, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589794

RESUMO

Neurological manifestations of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) such as encephalitis and seizures have been reported increasingly, but our understanding of COVID-19-related brain injury is still limited. Herein we describe prefrontal involvement in a patient with COVID-19 who presented prior anosmia, raising the question of a potential trans-olfactory bulb brain invasion.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/patologia , Encefalopatias/virologia , Lobo Frontal/patologia , Estado Epiléptico/virologia , Idoso , Encefalopatias/fisiopatologia , /fisiopatologia , Lobo Frontal/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Epiléptico/patologia , Estado Epiléptico/fisiopatologia
9.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1279: 53-59, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350821

RESUMO

Traumatic brain injury has ripple effect on the physical, cognitive, behavioral, and emotional domains of quality of life and portends a long-term neurological disability in survivors. In this study we evaluated the prognostic role of demographic and clinico-radiological variables on the hospitalization length and mortality in 71 of patients with frontal brain contusions. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) plots were performed, with area under the curve (AUC) values, for graphical comparison of variables that would predict mortality and hospitalization length. We found that the best prognostics of mortality were the Glasgow Coma Scale score, the motor function score, and the Rotterdam CT score, with AUC values of 0.873, 0.836, and 0.711, respectively. Concerning the prediction of hospitalization length, the AUC showed inappreciable differences, with the highest values for the Glasgow Coma Scale score, Rotterdam CT score, and the serum cortisol level in a 0.550-0.600 range. Curve estimation, based on multivariate analysis, showed that the scores of motor function, Glasgow Coma Scale, and Rotterdam CT correlated best with the prediction of both mortality and hospitalization length, along with the upward dynamic changes of serum cortisol for the latter. We conclude that basically simple and non-invasive assessment in survivors of acute traumatic brain contusion is helpful in predicting mortality and the length of hospital stay, which would be of essential value in better allocation of healthcare resources for inpatient treatment and rehabilitation and for post-hospital patient's functioning.


Assuntos
Contusão Encefálica/diagnóstico , Contusão Encefálica/mortalidade , Lobo Frontal/patologia , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Humanos , Prognóstico , Qualidade de Vida , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(4)2020 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350055

RESUMO

A 51-year-old woman had been diagnosed and treated for schizophrenia for 10 years. Two weeks prior to admission, she developed headache and diplopia. Then, she was found unconscious and was sent to the hospital. A tumour in the left frontal lobe of the brain, causing brain herniation, was diagnosed and surgical excision of tumour was performed immediately. The psychotic symptoms of the patient were completely resolved after surgery. The histological diagnosis was meningioma. This case demonstrates an uncommon presentation of meningioma, the most common primary brain tumour. Patients presenting with psychotic symptoms may be misdiagnosed with schizophrenia, when a tumour is present, allowing the tumour to grow and causing associated complications. Early diagnosis and treatment could prevent mortality and morbidity. The treating physician should be aware of organic possibilities and carefully search for atypical presentations of psychiatric disorders in their patients.


Assuntos
Lobo Frontal/cirurgia , Neoplasias Meníngeas/complicações , Neoplasias Meníngeas/cirurgia , Meningioma/complicações , Meningioma/cirurgia , Transtornos Psicóticos/etiologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Erros de Diagnóstico , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Frontal/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Meníngeas/diagnóstico por imagem , Meningioma/diagnóstico por imagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico por imagem
11.
J Med Virol ; 92(7): 699-702, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-96729

RESUMO

Neurologic sequelae can be devastating complications of respiratory viral infections. We report the presence of virus in neural and capillary endothelial cells in frontal lobe tissue obtained at postmortem examination from a patient infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Our observations of virus in neural tissue, in conjunction with clinical correlates of worsening neurologic symptoms, pave the way to a closer understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms underlying central nervous system involvement by SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Ageusia/diagnóstico , Ataxia/diagnóstico , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Olfato/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Convulsões/diagnóstico , Idoso , Ageusia/complicações , Ageusia/fisiopatologia , Ageusia/virologia , Ataxia/complicações , Ataxia/fisiopatologia , Ataxia/virologia , Betacoronavirus/genética , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Células Endoteliais/virologia , Evolução Fatal , Lobo Frontal/irrigação sanguínea , Lobo Frontal/patologia , Lobo Frontal/virologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Pulmão/irrigação sanguínea , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Masculino , Neurônios/patologia , Neurônios/virologia , Transtornos do Olfato/complicações , Transtornos do Olfato/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Olfato/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , RNA Viral/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Convulsões/complicações , Convulsões/fisiopatologia , Convulsões/virologia
12.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1866(8): 165797, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32302650

RESUMO

Sporadic Alzheimer's disease (SAD) is the most common form of dementia, and cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is the most frequent hereditary ischemic small vessel disease of the brain. Relevant biomarkers or specific metabolic signatures could provide powerful tools to manage these diseases. Therefore, the main goal of this study was to compare the postmortem frontal cortex gray matter, white matter and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) between a cognitively healthy group and CADASIL and SAD groups. We evaluated 352 individual lipids, belonging to 13 lipid classes/subclasses, using mass spectrometry, and the lipid profiles were subjected to multivariate analysis to discriminate between the dementia groups (CADASIL and SAD) and healthy controls. The main lipid molecular species showing greater discrimination by partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and a higher significance multivariate correlation (sMC) index were as follows: phosphatidylserine (PS) PS(44:7) and lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE) LPE(18:2) in gray matter (GM); phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) PE(32:2) and phosphatidylcholine PC PC(44:6) in white matter (WM), and ether PE (ePE) ePE(38:2) and ether PC (ePC) ePC(34:3) in CSF. Common phospholipid molecular species were obtained in both dementias, such as PS(44:7) and lyso PC (LPC) LPC(22:5) in GM, PE(32:2) in WM and phosphatidic acid (PA) PA(38:5) and PC(42:7) in CFS. Our exploratory study suggests that phospholipids (PLs) involved in neurotransmission alteration, connectivity impairment and inflammation response in GM, WM and CSF are a transversal phenomenon affecting dementias such as CADASIL and SAD independent of the etiopathogenesis, thus providing a possible common prodromal phospholipidic biomarker of dementia.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , CADASIL/metabolismo , Lobo Frontal/metabolismo , Substância Cinzenta/metabolismo , Tecido Parenquimatoso/metabolismo , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Substância Branca/metabolismo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Autopsia , Biomarcadores/análise , CADASIL/diagnóstico , CADASIL/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Análise Discriminante , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/patologia , Substância Cinzenta/patologia , Humanos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Tecido Parenquimatoso/patologia , Fosfolipídeos/química , Fosfolipídeos/classificação , Fosfolipídeos/isolamento & purificação , Substância Branca/patologia
13.
J Med Virol ; 92(7): 699-702, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32314810

RESUMO

Neurologic sequelae can be devastating complications of respiratory viral infections. We report the presence of virus in neural and capillary endothelial cells in frontal lobe tissue obtained at postmortem examination from a patient infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Our observations of virus in neural tissue, in conjunction with clinical correlates of worsening neurologic symptoms, pave the way to a closer understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms underlying central nervous system involvement by SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Ageusia/diagnóstico , Ataxia/diagnóstico , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Olfato/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Convulsões/diagnóstico , Idoso , Ageusia/complicações , Ageusia/fisiopatologia , Ageusia/virologia , Ataxia/complicações , Ataxia/fisiopatologia , Ataxia/virologia , Betacoronavirus/genética , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Células Endoteliais/virologia , Evolução Fatal , Lobo Frontal/irrigação sanguínea , Lobo Frontal/patologia , Lobo Frontal/virologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Pulmão/irrigação sanguínea , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Masculino , Neurônios/patologia , Neurônios/virologia , Transtornos do Olfato/complicações , Transtornos do Olfato/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Olfato/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , RNA Viral/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Convulsões/complicações , Convulsões/fisiopatologia , Convulsões/virologia
14.
Epilepsia ; 61(4): 747-757, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32124981

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Previous studies of frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) have documented different impairments of theory of mind (ToM), while the study of frontal lobe (FL) lesion without seizures has produced inconsistent results. Given the role played by the FLs in ToM, we evaluated this and other functions in patients with FLE with and without FL lesions. The main objective was to clarify the salience of ToM impairment in the cognitive pattern of FLE and its capacity to discriminate these patients from healthy subjects. The effects of FL lesions on ToM were also explored. METHODS: Seventy-five adult patients with FLE (40 cases with FL lesions) were compared with 42 healthy controls. The Faux Pas Task (FPT) and other neuropsychological tests were utilized to assess ToM, reasoning, language, memory, praxis, attention, and executive abilities. RESULTS: The patients obtained lower z scores for the FPT than for other tests. The ToM, Executive, and Verbal factors discriminated patients from healthy subjects. The patients with or without FL lesion showed significant impairments in recognizing and understanding others' epistemic and affective mental states, but adequate capacity to exclude inexistent mental states was retained. In comparison with controls, the patients with FL lesions obtained lower scores for lexical, memory, praxis, attention, and executive functions, whereas those without lesion only showed attention and initiative deficits. Schooling was the major predictor of ToM, whereas the capacity to exclude inexistent mental states was related to seizure onset age and epilepsy duration. Other cognitive functions were related to schooling, age, or FLE laterality. SIGNIFICANCE: Impaired understanding of real mental states is a specific, salient, and discriminating cognitive aspect of FLE. Poor education is a risk factor for ToM deficit, whereas the clinical variables and FL lesions have no impact. These results suggest that impaired ToM may be a marker of FLE neurobehavioral phenotype.


Assuntos
Epilepsia do Lobo Frontal/patologia , Epilepsia do Lobo Frontal/fisiopatologia , Lobo Frontal/patologia , Teoria da Mente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Processos Mentais/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo
15.
Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging ; 299: 111069, 2020 05 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203897

RESUMO

Eating disorders (EDs) have a possible neurodevelopmental pathogenesis. Our study aim was to assess regional cortical thickness (CT), local gyrification index (lGI) and fractal dimensionality (FD), as specific markers of cortical neurodevelopment in ED females. Twenty-two women with acute anorexia nervosa (acuAN), 10 with recovered anorexia nervosa (recAN), 24 with bulimia nervosa (BN) and 35 female healthy controls (HC) underwent a 3T MRI scan. All data were processed by FreeSurfer. Compared to recAN group women with acuAN showed a lower CT in multiple areas, while compared to HC they showed lower CT in temporal regions. BN group showed higher CT values in temporal and paracentral areas compared to HC. In multiple cortical areas, AcuAN group showed greater values of lGI compared to recAN group and lower values of lGI compared to HC. The BN group showed lower lGI in left medial orbitofrontal cortex compared to HC. No significant differences were found in FD among the groups. Present results provide evidence of CT and lGI alterations in patients with AN and, for the first time, in those with BN. Although these alterations could be state-dependent phenomena, they may underlie psychopathological aspects of EDs.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa/patologia , Bulimia Nervosa/patologia , Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Feminino , Fractais , Lobo Frontal/patologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Lobo Temporal/patologia
16.
Nutrients ; 12(3)2020 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32120798

RESUMO

Evidence suggests that obesity adversely affects brain function. High body mass index, hypertension, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and diabetes are risk factors for increasing cognitive decline. Tart cherries (Prunus Cerasus L.) are rich in anthocyanins and components that modify lipid metabolism. This study evaluated the effects of tart cherries on the brain in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats. DIO rats were fed with a high-fat diet alone or in association with a tart cherry seeds powder (DS) and juice (DJS). DIO rats were compared to rats fed with a standard diet (CHOW). Food intake, body weight, fasting glycemia, insulin, cholesterol, and triglycerides were measured. Immunochemical and immunohistochemical techniques were performed. Results showed that body weight did not differ among the groups. Blood pressure and glycemia were decreased in both DS and DJS groups when compared to DIO rats. Immunochemical and immunohistochemical techniques demonstrated that in supplemented DIO rats, the glial fibrillary acid protein expression and microglial activation were reduced in both the hippocampus and in the frontal cortex, while the neurofilament was increased. Tart cherry intake modified aquaporin 4 and endothelial inflammatory markers. These findings indicate the potential role of this nutritional supplement in preventing obesity-related risk factors, especially neuroinflammation.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Lobo Frontal , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Hipocampo , Obesidade , Prunus avium , Sementes , Animais , Lobo Frontal/metabolismo , Lobo Frontal/patologia , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipocampo/patologia , Masculino , Obesidade/induzido quimicamente , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
18.
Eur Psychiatry ; 63(1): e27, 2020 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32172703

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brain atrophy in anorexia nervosa (AN) is one of the most marked structural brain changes observed in mental disorders. In this study, we propose a whole brain analysis approach to characterize global and regional cerebral volumes in adolescents with restricting-type anorexia nervosa (AN-r). METHODS: A total of 48 adolescent females (age range 13-18 years) were enrolled in the study (24 right-handed AN-r in the early stages of the illness and treated in the same clinical setting and 24 age-matched healthy controls [HC]). High-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were acquired. Cerebral volumes, including the total amounts of gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were obtained with the Statistical Parametric Mapping software (SPM8); specific cortical regional volumes were computed by applying an atlas-based cortical parcellation to the SPM8 GM segments. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to identify any significant between-group differences in global and regional brain volumes. RESULTS: The analyses revealed reduced total GM volumes (p = 0.02) and increased CSF (p = 0.05) in AN-r, compared with HC. No significant between-group difference was found in WM volumes. At the regional level, significantly lower GM volumes in both frontal lobes (p = 0.006) and in the left insula (p = 0.016) were detected. No significant relationships were found between cerebral volumes and duration of illness, psychiatric comorbidities, psychopharmacological treatment, prepubertal phase, or presence of amenorrhea. CONCLUSIONS: The topographic distribution of GM reduction in a homogenous group of AN-r involves regions responsible for the emotional and cognitive deficits associated with the illness. These findings are discussed in relation to the roles of the insular cortex and the frontal lobes.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa/patologia , Lobo Frontal/patologia , Substância Cinzenta/patologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adolescente , Análise de Variância , Encéfalo/patologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Tamanho do Órgão
19.
Brain ; 143(3): 862-876, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155246

RESUMO

Humans are uniquely able to retrieve and combine words into syntactic structure to produce connected speech. Previous identification of focal brain regions necessary for production focused primarily on associations with the content produced by speakers with chronic stroke, where function may have shifted to other regions after reorganization occurred. Here, we relate patterns of brain damage with deficits to the content and structure of spontaneous connected speech in 52 speakers during the acute stage of a left hemisphere stroke. Multivariate lesion behaviour mapping demonstrated that damage to temporal-parietal regions impacted the ability to retrieve words and produce them within increasingly complex combinations. Damage primarily to inferior frontal cortex affected the production of syntactically accurate structure. In contrast to previous work, functional-anatomical dissociations did not depend on lesion size likely because acute lesions were smaller than typically found in chronic stroke. These results are consistent with predictions from theoretical models based primarily on evidence from language comprehension and highlight the importance of investigating individual differences in brain-language relationships in speakers with acute stroke.


Assuntos
Lobo Frontal/patologia , Lobo Parietal/patologia , Distúrbios da Fala/patologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/patologia , Lobo Temporal/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Lateralidade Funcional , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuroimagem , Distúrbios da Fala/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Adulto Jovem
20.
Brain ; 143(3): 844-861, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068789

RESUMO

The loss and recovery of language functions are still incompletely understood. This longitudinal functional MRI study investigated the neural mechanisms underlying language recovery in patients with post-stroke aphasia putting particular emphasis on the impact of lesion site. To identify patterns of language-related activation, an auditory functional MRI sentence comprehension paradigm was administered to patients with circumscribed lesions of either left frontal (n = 17) or temporo-parietal (n = 17) cortex. Patients were examined repeatedly during the acute (≤1 week, t1), subacute (1-2 weeks, t2) and chronic phase (>6 months, t3) post-stroke; healthy age-matched control subjects (n = 17) were tested once. The separation into two patient groups with circumscribed lesions allowed for a direct comparison of the contributions of distinct lesion-dependent network components to language reorganization between both groups. We hypothesized that activation of left hemisphere spared and perilesional cortex as well as lesion-homologue cortex in the right hemisphere varies between patient groups and across time. In addition, we expected that domain-general networks serving cognitive control independently contribute to language recovery. First, we found a global network disturbance in the acute phase that is characterized by reduced functional MRI language activation including areas distant to the lesion (i.e. diaschisis) and subsequent subacute network reactivation (i.e. resolution of diaschisis). These phenomena were driven by temporo-parietal lesions. Second, we identified a lesion-independent sequential activation pattern with increased activity of perilesional cortex and bilateral domain-general networks in the subacute phase followed by reorganization of left temporal language areas in the chronic phase. Third, we observed involvement of lesion-homologue cortex only in patients with frontal but not temporo-parietal lesions. Fourth, irrespective of lesion location, language reorganization predominantly occurred in pre-existing networks showing comparable activation in healthy controls. Finally, we detected different relationships of performance and activation in language and domain-general networks demonstrating the functional relevance for language recovery. Our findings highlight that the dynamics of language reorganization clearly depend on lesion location and hence open new perspectives for neurobiologically motivated strategies of language rehabilitation, such as individually-tailored targeted application of neuro-stimulation.


Assuntos
Afasia/fisiopatologia , Lobo Frontal/fisiopatologia , Idioma , Lobo Parietal/fisiopatologia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/fisiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Lobo Temporal/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Lobo Frontal/patologia , Neuroimagem Funcional , Humanos , Testes de Linguagem , Estudos Longitudinais , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Vias Neurais/fisiopatologia , Lobo Parietal/patologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Lobo Temporal/patologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA