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1.
Cancer Radiother ; 25(1): 62-71, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33414057

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) radiotherapy (RT) irradiates parts of the brain which may cause cerebral tissue changes. This study aimed to systematically review the brain microstructure changes using MRI-based measures, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and the impact of dose and latency following RT. METHODS: PubMed and Scopus databases were searched based on PRISMA guideline to determine studies focusing on changes following NPC RT. RESULTS: Eleven studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Microstructural changes occur most consistently in the temporal region. The changes were correlated with latency in seven studies; fractional anisotropy (FA) and gray matter (GM) volume remained low even after a longer period following RT and areas beyond irradiation site with reduced FA and GM measures. For dosage, only one study showed correlation, thus requiring further investigations. CONCLUSION: DTI, DKI and VBM may be used as a surveillance tool in detecting brain microstructural changes of NPC patients which correlates to latency and brain areas following RT.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/efeitos da radiação , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/radioterapia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/radioterapia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/ultraestrutura , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Humanos , Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Temporal/efeitos da radiação , Lobo Temporal/ultraestrutura
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 360, 2021 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33452252

RESUMO

Endogenous attention is the cognitive function that selects the relevant pieces of sensory information to achieve goals and it is known to be controlled by dorsal fronto-parietal brain areas. Here we expand this notion by identifying a control attention area located in the temporal lobe. By combining a demanding behavioral paradigm with functional neuroimaging and diffusion tractography, we show that like fronto-parietal attentional areas, the human posterior inferotemporal cortex exhibits significant attentional modulatory activity. This area is functionally distinct from surrounding cortical areas, and is directly connected to parietal and frontal attentional regions. These results show that attentional control spans three cortical lobes and overarches large distances through fiber pathways that run orthogonally to the dominant anterior-posterior axes of sensory processing, thus suggesting a different organizing principle for cognitive control.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Lobo Frontal/fisiologia , Lobo Parietal/fisiologia , Lobo Temporal/fisiologia , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção de Movimento/fisiologia , Vias Neurais/diagnóstico por imagem , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Lobo Parietal/diagnóstico por imagem , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
3.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(12)2020 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33334746

RESUMO

A 28-year-old man presented with a progressive inward deviation of the left eye in the last 4 years. Examination revealed -3 abduction and elevation deficit in the left eye with 50 prism diopters (PD) esotropia and 12 PD of hypotropia. The patient had multiple fibromas on the forearms with pulsatile globe and was diagnosed as neurofibromatosis type 1. Myopic strabismus fixus was suspected. MRI revealed left temporal lobe herniation through a dysplastic sphenoid wing, compressing the posterior half of the superior rectus and lateral rectus muscles, resulting in an esotropia-hypotropia complex. Surgical treatment involved suture myopexy (Yokoyama's technique) of the left superior rectus and lateral rectus muscles with a 6.5 mm left medial rectus recession. Two months postoperatively, the patient had minimal residual esotropia and hypotropia. MRI orbits should always be performed in high myopes with strabismus to assess extraocular muscle pathways.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/diagnóstico , Esotropia/cirurgia , Hérnia/etiologia , Miopia/cirurgia , Neurofibromatose 1/diagnóstico , Músculos Oculomotores/cirurgia , Adulto , Encefalopatias/etiologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Esotropia/diagnóstico , Esotropia/etiologia , Hérnia/diagnóstico , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Miopia/diagnóstico , Miopia/etiologia , Neurofibromatose 1/complicações , Osso Esfenoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso Esfenoide/patologia , Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Resultado do Tratamento , Acuidade Visual
4.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(12)2020 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370980

RESUMO

We illustrate a case of post-traumatic recurrent transient prosopagnosia in a paediatric patient with a right posterior inferior temporal gyrus haemorrhage seen on imaging and interictal electroencephalogram abnormalities in the right posterior quadrant. Face recognition area mapping with magnetoencephalography (MEG) and functional MRI (fMRI) was performed to clarify the relationship between the lesion and his prosopagnosia, which showed activation of the right fusiform gyrus that colocalised with the lesion. Lesions adjacent to the right fusiform gyrus can result in seizures presenting as transient prosopagnosia. MEG and fMRI can help to attribute this unique semiology to the lesion.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Cerebral/diagnóstico , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos , Prosopagnosia/etiologia , Convulsões/diagnóstico , Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Mapeamento Encefálico , Hemorragia Cerebral/complicações , Hemorragia Cerebral/cirurgia , Criança , Eletroencefalografia , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Prosopagnosia/diagnóstico , Prosopagnosia/fisiopatologia , Prosopagnosia/cirurgia , Convulsões/etiologia , Convulsões/fisiopatologia , Convulsões/cirurgia , Lobo Temporal/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(46): e23116, 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181681

RESUMO

A recent paper in the journal Neuroreport suggested that, upon source localization, the semantic P600 localizes to executive function areas, that is, outside language. But is this true for all types of linguistic P600? We report a cross-sectional source localization study of a classical (agreement) syntactic paradigm.The results show a clear localization to the temporal lobe, in classical language areas.The P600 is probably not a unitary phenomenon in term of source localization, and the question whether it localizes within or outside the language system depends on the type of P600.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Idioma , Semântica , Lobo Temporal , Adulto , Compreensão/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Fenômenos Eletromagnéticos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Temporal/fisiopatologia , Tomografia/métodos
6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5038, 2020 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028830

RESUMO

Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders, yet its pathophysiology is poorly understood due to the high complexity of affected neuronal circuits. To identify dysfunctional neuronal subtypes underlying seizure activity in the human brain, we have performed single-nucleus transcriptomics analysis of >110,000 neuronal transcriptomes derived from temporal cortex samples of multiple temporal lobe epilepsy and non-epileptic subjects. We found that the largest transcriptomic changes occur in distinct neuronal subtypes from several families of principal neurons (L5-6_Fezf2 and L2-3_Cux2) and GABAergic interneurons (Sst and Pvalb), whereas other subtypes in the same families were less affected. Furthermore, the subtypes with the largest epilepsy-related transcriptomic changes may belong to the same circuit, since we observed coordinated transcriptomic shifts across these subtypes. Glutamate signaling exhibited one of the strongest dysregulations in epilepsy, highlighted by layer-wise transcriptional changes in multiple glutamate receptor genes and strong upregulation of genes coding for AMPA receptor auxiliary subunits. Overall, our data reveal a neuronal subtype-specific molecular phenotype of epilepsy.


Assuntos
Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/genética , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/genética , Neurônios/patologia , Lobo Temporal/patologia , Transcriptoma/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Biópsia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Núcleo Celular/genética , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/patologia , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/cirurgia , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/patologia , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/cirurgia , Feminino , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Microdissecção , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Genéticos , Rede Nervosa/metabolismo , Rede Nervosa/patologia , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , RNA-Seq , Receptores de AMPA/genética , Receptores de AMPA/metabolismo , Receptores de Glutamato/genética , Receptores de Glutamato/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Análise de Célula Única , Lobo Temporal/citologia , Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Temporal/cirurgia , Transcrição Genética , Regulação para Cima , Adulto Jovem
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4518, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908146

RESUMO

The human brain is specialized for face processing, yet we sometimes perceive illusory faces in objects. It is unknown whether these natural errors of face detection originate from a rapid process based on visual features or from a slower, cognitive re-interpretation. Here we use a multifaceted approach to understand both the spatial distribution and temporal dynamics of illusory face representation in the brain by combining functional magnetic resonance imaging and magnetoencephalography neuroimaging data with model-based analysis. We find that the representation of illusory faces is confined to occipital-temporal face-selective visual cortex. The temporal dynamics reveal a striking evolution in how illusory faces are represented relative to human faces and matched objects. Illusory faces are initially represented more similarly to real faces than matched objects are, but within ~250 ms, the representation transforms, and they become equivalent to ordinary objects. This is consistent with the initial recruitment of a broadly-tuned face detection mechanism which privileges sensitivity over selectivity.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Ilusões/fisiologia , Modelos Neurológicos , Lobo Temporal/fisiologia , Córtex Visual/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Magnetoencefalografia , Masculino , Neuroimagem , Estimulação Luminosa , Tempo de Reação , Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Visual/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
8.
Rev. neurol. (Ed. impr.) ; 71(6): 225-233, 16 sept., 2020. ilus, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-195516

RESUMO

La epilepsia del lóbulo temporal plus se define como la epilepsia en la cual la zona epileptógena primaria se localiza en el lóbulo temporal y se extiende a regiones vecinas, como la ínsula, la corteza opercular suprasilviana, la corteza orbitofrontal y la unión temporoparietooccipital. El objetivo de esta revisión es proveer una actualización de la información en la epilepsia del lóbulo temporal plus. La historia de traumatismo craneoencefálico, infección cerebral (meningitis-encefalitis) o crisis epiléptica tonicoclónica generalizada está involucrada en su etiología, y permite la generación de redes neuronales complejas hipocámpicas y extrahipocámpicas. Las manifestaciones clínicas dependen de la zona epileptógena involucrada y de su rápida proyección a las estructuras temporales mesiales. El videoelectroencefalograma evidencia actividad interictal extensa e ictal en el lóbulo temporal, pero con rápida propagación perisilviana, orbitofrontal o temporoparietooccipital. La magnetoelectroencefalografía tiene menos contaminación muscular y podría considerarse como un biomarcador de estados tempranos en el proceso diagnóstico. La resonancia cerebral generalmente es negativa o muestra una ligera alteración de señal en la zona mesial temporal en grado variable. El estereoelectroencefalograma es el método invasivo de elección, especialmente guiado por robot. La epilepsia temporal plus se considera la causa más frecuente de fracaso de la cirugía de la epilepsia del lóbulo temporal, hasta un 30%


Temporal plus epilepsy is defined as focal epilepsy in which the primary epileptogenic area extends beyond the temporal lobe. It involves the neighboring regions such as the insula, the suprasilvian opercular cortex, the orbitofrontal cortex and the temporo-parieto-occipital junction. The objective of this review is to provide an update in temporal plus epilepsy. A previous history of brain trauma, a history of tonic clonic seizures, and previous central nervous system infection are risk factors. They likely allowed the generation of complex hippocampal and extrahypocampic neural networks. Clinical manifestations will depend on the location of the epileptogenic zone as well as the rapid propagation into temporal mesial structures. Video-electroencephalography usually shows involvement of the temporal lobe, with rapid propagation into the perisilvian, orbitofrontal or temporo-parieto-occipital regions. The magnetoelectroencephaography has lesser muscle contamination and could be considered as a biomarker of early states in the diagnosis process. Brain MRI is usually negative or shows non-specific mesial temporal abnormalities. Stereoelectroencephalography is the invasive method of choice. Temporal plus epilepsy is considered to be the most common cause of temporal lobe epilepsy surgery failure and represents up to 30%


Assuntos
Humanos , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/epidemiologia , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/etiologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/classificação , Córtex Cerebral/cirurgia , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Temporal/cirurgia , Lobectomia Temporal Anterior
9.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236423, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735611

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Use of functional MRI (fMRI) in pre-surgical planning is a non-invasive method for pre-operative functional mapping for patients with brain tumors, especially tumors located near eloquent cortex. Currently, this practice predominantly involves task-based fMRI (T-fMRI). Resting state fMRI (RS-fMRI) offers an alternative with several methodological advantages. Here, we compare group-level analyses of RS-fMRI vs. T-fMRI as methods for language localization. PURPOSE: To contrast RS-fMRI vs. T-fMRI as techniques for localization of language function. METHODS: We analyzed data obtained in 35 patients who had both T-fMRI and RS-fMRI scans during the course of pre-surgical evaluation. The RS-fMRI data were analyzed using a previously trained resting-state network classifier. The T-fMRI data were analyzed using conventional techniques. Group-level results obtained by both methods were evaluated in terms of two outcome measures: (1) inter-subject variability of response magnitude and (2) sensitivity/specificity analysis of response topography, taking as ground truth previously reported maps of the language system based on intraoperative cortical mapping as well as meta-analytic maps of language task fMRI responses. RESULTS: Both fMRI methods localized major components of the language system (areas of Broca and Wernicke) although not with equal inter-subject consistency. Word-stem completion T-fMRI strongly activated Broca's area but also several task-general areas not specific to language. RS-fMRI provided a more specific representation of the language system. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate several advantages of classifier-based mapping of language representation in the brain. Language T-fMRI activated task-general (i.e., not language-specific) functional systems in addition to areas of Broca and Wernicke. In contrast, classifier-based analysis of RS-fMRI data generated maps confined to language-specific regions of the brain.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Área de Broca/patologia , Glioblastoma/diagnóstico , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Adulto , Idoso , Atenção/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Área de Broca/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Frontal/patologia , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Glioblastoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Glioblastoma/patologia , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Descanso/fisiologia , Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Temporal/patologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3886, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753603

RESUMO

The ability to recognize written letter strings is foundational to human reading, but the underlying neuronal mechanisms remain largely unknown. Recent behavioral research in baboons suggests that non-human primates may provide an opportunity to investigate this question. We recorded the activity of hundreds of neurons in V4 and the inferior temporal cortex (IT) while naïve macaque monkeys passively viewed images of letters, English words and non-word strings, and tested the capacity of those neuronal representations to support a battery of orthographic processing tasks. We found that simple linear read-outs of IT (but not V4) population responses achieved high performance on all tested tasks, even matching the performance and error patterns of baboons on word classification. These results show that the IT cortex of untrained primates can serve as a precursor of orthographic processing, suggesting that the acquisition of reading in humans relies on the recycling of a brain network evolved for other visual functions.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Macaca mulatta/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Lobo Temporal/fisiologia , Animais , Mapeamento Encefálico , Tomada de Decisões , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Leitura , Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem
11.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32759925

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the characteristics of paroxysmal syndrome in insular and temporal lobe tumors, to determine their relationship with the histological structure of tumor, to assess the effect of tumor growth nature on severity of disease. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis enrolled 80 patients aged 11 - 80 years with insular and temporal lobe tumors and symptomatic epilepsy. All patients underwent surgery at the Polenov National Research Neurosurgery Center in Almazov National Medical Research Center for the period from 2012 to 2018. RESULTS: The main group consisted of 29 patients with tumors of temporal and insular lobes. Control group of 51 patients with temporal gliomas was formed for comparative analysis. It was found that involvement of insular lobe into paroxysmal syndrome is characterized by attacks with a motor component, somatosensory paroxysms, vegetative manifestations (respiratory attacks, salivation, nausea), speech disorders and taste hallucinations. Derealization, motor arrest and déjà vu/jamis vu paroxysms were more common in patients with temporal lobe lesion. Neoplastic lesion of the insular lobe shortens the period between manifestation of paroxysms and surgical treatment. Moreover, this type of disease is characterized by higher incidence of seizures compared to isolated temporal lobe tumors.


Assuntos
Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/cirurgia , Glioma , Neoplasias Supratentoriais , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Córtex Cerebral , Criança , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
12.
PLoS Biol ; 18(8): e3000800, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776945

RESUMO

Studies of neural processes underlying delay of gratification usually focus on prefrontal networks related to curbing affective impulses. Here, we provide evidence for an alternative mechanism that facilitates delaying gratification by mental orientation towards the future. Combining continuous theta-burst stimulation (cTBS) with functional neuroimaging, we tested how the right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ) facilitates processing of future events and thereby promotes delay of gratification. Participants performed an intertemporal decision task and a mental time-travel task in the MRI scanner before and after receiving cTBS over the rTPJ or the vertex (control site). rTPJ cTBS led to both stronger temporal discounting for longer delays and reduced processing of future relative to past events in the mental time-travel task. This finding suggests that the rTPJ contributes to the ability to delay gratification by facilitating mental representation of outcomes in the future. On the neural level, rTPJ cTBS led to a reduction in the extent to which connectivity of rTPJ with striatum reflected the value of delayed rewards, indicating a role of rTPJ-striatum connectivity in constructing neural representations of future rewards. Together, our findings provide evidence that the rTPJ is an integral part of a brain network that promotes delay of gratification by facilitating mental orientation to future rewards.


Assuntos
Corpo Estriado/fisiologia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Desvalorização pelo Atraso/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Lobo Parietal/fisiologia , Lobo Temporal/fisiologia , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico , Corpo Estriado/anatomia & histologia , Corpo Estriado/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Neuroimagem Funcional , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo/fisiologia , Masculino , Rede Nervosa/anatomia & histologia , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Parietal/anatomia & histologia , Lobo Parietal/diagnóstico por imagem , Recompensa , Lobo Temporal/anatomia & histologia , Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana
13.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236800, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776962

RESUMO

Deafness leads to brain modifications that are generally associated with a cross-modal activity of the auditory cortex, particularly for visual stimulations. In the present study, we explore the cortical processing of biological motion that conveyed either non-communicative (pantomimes) or communicative (emblems) information, in early-deaf and hearing individuals, using fMRI analyses. Behaviorally, deaf individuals showed an advantage in detecting communicative gestures relative to hearing individuals. Deaf individuals also showed significantly greater activation in the superior temporal cortex (including the planum temporale and primary auditory cortex) than hearing individuals. The activation levels in this region were correlated with deaf individuals' response times. This study provides neural and behavioral evidence that cross-modal plasticity leads to functional advantages in the processing of biological motion following lifelong auditory deprivation.


Assuntos
Comportamento , Surdez/fisiopatologia , Percepção de Movimento/fisiologia , Adulto , Córtex Auditivo/diagnóstico por imagem , Mapeamento Encefálico , Feminino , Gestos , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa , Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
14.
Neurology ; 95(9): e1236-e1243, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32611640

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of brain MRI abnormalities in people with epilepsy in rural China and to compare it with that of individuals in the United Kingdom. METHODS: Brain MRI scans were obtained in people with epilepsy who participated in a rural community-based program in China between July 2010 and December 2012. Individual epileptogenic lesion types were reviewed and their associations with seizure control examined. The MRI findings were compared with 2 previous similar studies in the United Kingdom. RESULTS: Among the 597 individuals (58% male, median age 38 years) with MRI scans analyzed, 488 (82%) had active epilepsy. The MRI was abnormal in 389 individuals (65%), with potentially epileptogenic lesion in 224 (38%) and nonspecific abnormalities in 165 (28%), and 108 (18%) were potentially resectable. The potentially epileptogenic lesions were less frequently detected in children (<18 years old, 12 of 68, 18%) than in adults (212 of 529, 40%; p < 0.001). In people with potentially epileptogenic lesions, 67% (150 of 224) had failed ≥2 antiseizure medications. They had higher risk of uncontrolled epilepsy than those with normal MRI (risk ratio [RR] 1.25; p < 0.001) and those with nonspecific abnormality (RR 1.15; p = 0.002) after adjustment for age and sex. The diagnostic yield of MRI was similar to that reported in community- and hospital-based studies in the United Kingdom. CONCLUSIONS: More than one-third of people with chronic epilepsy in rural China have potentially epileptogenic lesions identifiable on brain MRI, with two-thirds fulfilling the definition of pharmacoresistance. These findings highlight the magnitude of the unmet needs for epilepsy surgery in China.


Assuntos
Encefalomalacia/epidemiologia , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Gliose/epidemiologia , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Encefálicas/epidemiologia , Malformações Vasculares do Sistema Nervoso Central/diagnóstico por imagem , Malformações Vasculares do Sistema Nervoso Central/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos , Encefalomalacia/diagnóstico por imagem , Epilepsia/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Gliose/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico por imagem , Prevalência , População Rural , Esclerose , Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Temporal/patologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Neurology ; 95(9): e1188-e1198, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32586899

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship among iron accumulation, blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage, and cognitive function in patients with cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL). METHODS: We enrolled 21 patients with NOTCH3 mutations and 21 age-matched healthy controls in this cross-sectional study. All participants underwent global physical and cognitive assessments and brain MRI using voxel-based quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM; iron deposition measure) and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (BBB permeability measure). We compared behavioral and imaging data between the groups and analyzed the correlations in each group. RESULTS: Among 21 NOTCH3 mutation carriers, 10 were symptomatic and 11 asymptomatic. Montreal Cognitive Assessment scores were significantly different among the groups (symptomatic < asymptomatic < control participants). Voxel-based QSM analysis revealed that the symptomatic group had higher QSM values than did the asymptomatic group in the putamen, caudate nucleus, temporal pole, and centrum semiovale. These QSM values were positively correlated with regional BBB permeabilities (putamen: r = 0.57, p = 0.006; caudate nucleus: r = 0.51, p = 0.019; temporal pole: r = 0.48, p = 0.030; centrum semiovale: r = 0.45, p = 0.044) and negatively correlated with Montreal Cognitive Assessment scores (caudate nucleus: r = -0.53, p = 0.012; temporal pole: r = -0.56, p = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that cerebral iron burden was associated with regional BBB permeability and cognitive dysfunction in patients with CADASIL, highlighting the potential of these imaging techniques as auxiliary biomarkers to monitor the course of small vessel disease.


Assuntos
Barreira Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , CADASIL/metabolismo , Cognição , Ferro/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Assintomáticas , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , CADASIL/diagnóstico por imagem , CADASIL/genética , CADASIL/psicologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Núcleo Caudado/diagnóstico por imagem , Núcleo Caudado/metabolismo , Corpo Caloso/diagnóstico por imagem , Corpo Caloso/metabolismo , Feminino , Globo Pálido/diagnóstico por imagem , Globo Pálido/metabolismo , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Permeabilidade , Putamen/diagnóstico por imagem , Putamen/metabolismo , Receptor Notch3/genética , Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Temporal/metabolismo
16.
Rinsho Shinkeigaku ; 60(7): 479-484, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32536665

RESUMO

A 48-year-old woman with a right-sided headache beginning a month prior to admission presented with sudden-onset right hemiparesis. On admission, she had weakness of the right lower extremity, which disappeared 3 hours after onset. Contrast enhanced brain MRI revealed no parenchymal lesion, while indicated thrombi in the superior sagittal sinus and the right side of the transverse sinus, sigmoid sinus, and internal jugular vein, leading to the diagnosis of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Brain perfusion single photon emission computed tomography presented slightly decreased blood flow in the bilateral frontal lobes (left-sided dominant) and the right occipitotemporal lobe. Electroencephalogram showed no abnormal finding. After anticoagulant therapy, thrombi in the venous sinuses decreased and brain blood flow improved. We should consider cerebral venous sinus thrombosis in the case of a patient presenting with symptoms of a transient ischemic attack accompanied with headache. Moreover, the etiology of transient neurological deficits remains controversial.


Assuntos
Trombose dos Seios Intracranianos/diagnóstico por imagem , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/irrigação sanguínea , Lobo Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Cefaleia/etiologia , Humanos , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paresia/etiologia , Imagem de Perfusão , Trombose dos Seios Intracranianos/complicações , Trombose dos Seios Intracranianos/tratamento farmacológico , Lobo Temporal/irrigação sanguínea , Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Neuron ; 107(2): 383-393.e5, 2020 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32386524

RESUMO

Sensory experience shapes what and how knowledge is stored in the brain-our knowledge about the color of roses depends in part on the activity of color-responsive neurons based on experiences of seeing roses. We compared the brain basis of color knowledge in congenitally (or early) blind individuals, whose color knowledge can only be obtained through language descriptions and/or cognitive inference, to that of sighted individuals whose color-knowledge benefits from both sensory experience and language. We found that some regions support color knowledge only in the sighted, whereas a region in the left dorsal anterior temporal lobe supports object-color knowledge in both the blind and sighted groups, indicating the existence of a sensory-independent knowledge coding system in both groups. Thus, there are (at least) two forms of object knowledge representations in the human brain: sensory-derived and language- and cognition-derived knowledge, supported by different brain systems.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Conhecimento , Adulto , Idoso , Cegueira/congênito , Cegueira/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Cognição , Percepção de Cores , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estimulação Luminosa , Sensação/fisiologia , Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Temporal/fisiologia , Visão Ocular , Córtex Visual/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Visual/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Headache Pain ; 21(1): 47, 2020 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375638

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Migraine is a severe and disabling brain disorder, and the exact neurological mechanisms remain unclear. Migraineurs have altered pain perception, and headache attacks disrupt their sensory information processing and sensorimotor integration. The altered functional connectivity of sub-regions of sensorimotor brain areas with other brain cortex associated with migraine needs further investigation. METHODS: Forty-eight migraineurs without aura during the interictal phase and 48 age- and sex-matched healthy controls underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans. We utilized seed-based functional connectivity analysis to investigate whether patients exhibited abnormal functional connectivity between sub-regions of sensorimotor brain areas and cortex regions. RESULTS: We found that patients with migraineurs without aura exhibited disrupted functional connectivities between the sensorimotor areas and the visual cortex, temporal cortex, posterior parietal lobule, prefrontal areas, precuneus, cingulate gyrus, sensorimotor areas proper and cerebellum areas compared with healthy controls. In addition, the clinical data of the patients, such as disease duration, pain intensity and HIT-6 score, were negatively correlated with these impaired functional connectivities. CONCLUSION: In patients with migraineurs without aura, the functional connectivities between the sensorimotor brain areas and other brain regions was reduced. These disrupted functional connectivities might contribute to abnormalities in visual processing, multisensory integration, nociception processing, spatial attention and intention and dysfunction in cognitive evaluation and modulation of pain. Recurrent headache attacks might lead to the disrupted network between primary motor cortex and temporal regions and between primary somatosensory cortex and temporal regions. Pain sensitivity and patient quality of life are closely tied to the abnormal functional connectivity between sensorimotor regions and other brain areas.


Assuntos
Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Enxaqueca sem Aura/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Motor/diagnóstico por imagem , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Somatossensorial/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Enxaqueca sem Aura/fisiopatologia , Córtex Motor/fisiopatologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Dor/diagnóstico por imagem , Dor/fisiopatologia , Qualidade de Vida , Córtex Somatossensorial/fisiopatologia , Lobo Temporal/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 43: 102216, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32464585

RESUMO

The new severe acute respiratory syndrome- coronavirus 2 is reported to affect the nervous system. Among the reports of the various neurological manifestations, there are a few documented specific processes to explain the neurological signs. We report a para-infectious encephalitis patient with clinical, laboratory, and imaging findings during evolution and convalescence phase of coronavirus infection. This comprehensive overview can illuminate the natural history of similar cases. As the two previously reported cases of encephalitis associated with this virus were not widely discussed regarding the treatment, we share our successful approach and add some recommendations about this new and scarce entity.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Consciência/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Encefalite/fisiopatologia , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Metilprednisolona/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Convulsões/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Sulfato de Atazanavir/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos da Consciência/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos da Consciência/etiologia , Transtornos da Consciência/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Progressão da Doença , Encefalite/diagnóstico por imagem , Encefalite/etiologia , Encefalite/terapia , Feminino , Inibidores da Protease de HIV/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Levetiracetam/uso terapêutico , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Ponte/diagnóstico por imagem , Respiração Artificial , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Convulsões/etiologia , Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Tálamo/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
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