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1.
Work ; 67(1): 3-9, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955469

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, it has been essential for some workplaces to stay open. Considering the rapid spread of the virus, interior architectural re-designing of these essential workplaces such as markets, banks, and drugstores is crucial for prevention. The employees, as well as the customers in these workplaces, have a high infection rate. Some precautions need to be taken urgently to prevent the spread of the disease. Some workplaces may have already performed their action plan whereas others have not. OBJECTIVE: Some practical, rapid, and cost-efficient preventive precautions are presented in this paper for employers to take action in their workplaces. METHODS: Two new proposals are advised to be carried out. The contents of these newly designed barriers will be introduced. RESULTS: Some practical and cost-efficient ideas are given within this report. CONCLUSION: All the preventions proposed in this paper are claimed to reduce the spread of COVID-19 and may save lives around the country as well as the world.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Análise Custo-Benefício , Decoração de Interiores e Mobiliário/economia , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Local de Trabalho/economia , Betacoronavirus , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Doenças Profissionais/virologia
2.
J Headache Pain ; 21(1): 68, 2020 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513174

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Productivity and monetary loss due to migraine in the workplace may be substantial. This study aimed to determine the impact of migraine on productivity and monetary lost among employees in the banking sectors, in a multiethnic middle income country. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey was conducted among employees in two multinational banks in Malaysia between April and July 2019. Screening for migraine was conducted using the self-administered ID-Migraine™ questionnaire. Migraine-related disability (MIDAS) and headache frequency were recorded. Impact of migraine on work productivity and activities were evaluated using the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment (WPAI) questionnaire. RESULTS: Of the 1268 employees who submitted complete responses, 47.2% (n = 598) were screened positive for migraine. Strikingly, the mean percent productivity loss at work (presenteeism) was almost 20-fold higher than the mean percent work time missed due to migraine (absenteeism) (39.1% versus 1.9%). The mean percent productivity loss in regular activity (activity impairment) and overall work productivity loss (work impairment) was 38.4% and 39.9%, respectively. It was also found that the costs related to presenteeism (MYR 5392.6) (US$1296) was 3.5-fold higher than absenteeism (MYR1,548.3) (US$370). Highest monetary loss related to presenteeism was reported in migraineurs with frequency of headache of above 3 days (MYR 25,691.2) (US$6176), whereas highest monetary loss related to absenteeism was reported in migraineurs with MIDAS grade IV (MYR 12,369.1) (US$2973). Only 30% of migraineurs of MIDAS grade IV reported taking prescribed medication. Notably, a vast majority (96%) of migraineurs who had three or lower episodes of migraine per month did not seek treatment. CONCLUSION: The significant impact of migraine on work productivity and regular activity, appears to lead to substantial monetary loss attributed to not only absenteeism, but more importantly to presenteeism. This study also highlights the unmet needs in migraine management among employees in the banking sector.


Assuntos
Conta Bancária/economia , Eficiência/fisiologia , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/economia , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/epidemiologia , Presenteísmo/economia , Local de Trabalho/economia , Absenteísmo , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Malásia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/terapia , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
New Solut ; 30(2): 95-101, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32567480

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic is exposing critical failures in public and occupational health in the United States. So-called hazard pay for essential workers is a necessary but insufficient response to the lack of workplace protections. The roots of these failures in the weakening of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration enforcement and pandemic preparedness and the dramatic shifts in the economy and labor market in recent decades are explored along with the history of hazard pay. The current prominence of COVID-19-related workplace hazards, and the mobilization by both nonunion and union workers experiencing them, presents opportunities amid the crisis and tragic losses to envision a revival of worker protection measures. Strategies are needed for organizing and legislative advocacy to address the disparate impact of both normal and crisis conditions on low-wage workers, especially women and workers of color.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Saúde do Trabalhador/normas , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Salários e Benefícios , Local de Trabalho/economia , Betacoronavirus , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Humanos , Sindicatos/economia , Sindicatos/normas , Pandemias , Estados Unidos , United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration , Mulheres Trabalhadoras
4.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233599, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555636

RESUMO

Increasing intensification in swine production has led to new and specialized technologies, but the occupational health and safety impacts are rarely quantified in the business plans for adoption. Needle-less injection has potential to increase productivity and eliminate needle stick injury in workers, but it is not clear whether these benefits offset high capital investment and potential increases in musculoskeletal loads. This economic evaluation employed probabilistic scenario analysis using injury, cost, and production data gathered from interviews with swine producers in Manitoba and Saskatchewan. After adoption of needle-less injection, rates of needle-stick injury went down with no measureable effect on upper limb musculoskeletal disorders, resulting in lower health and safety costs for needle-less injectors. Needle-less injection duration was 40% faster once workers acclimatized, but large start-up costs mean economic benefits are realized only after the first year. The incremental benefit cost ratio promoted adoption of needle-less injectors over conventional needles for the base case of a 1200 sow barn; the conventional method is beneficial for barns with 600 sows or less. Findings indicate that well-designed technologies have the potential to achieve the dual ergonomics goals of enhancing human wellbeing and system performance. We anticipate that the economic and decision models developed in this study can be applied to other new technologies in agriculture and animal production.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/organização & administração , Injeções a Jato/veterinária , Saúde do Trabalhador/economia , Local de Trabalho/organização & administração , Criação de Animais Domésticos/economia , Criação de Animais Domésticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Análise Custo-Benefício , Eficiência Organizacional , Humanos , Injeções a Jato/economia , Manitoba , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/economia , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/epidemiologia , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/prevenção & controle , Doenças Profissionais/economia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Saúde do Trabalhador/estatística & dados numéricos , Saskatchewan , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Tempo , Indenização aos Trabalhadores/economia , Indenização aos Trabalhadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Local de Trabalho/economia
5.
Occup Med (Lond) ; 70(4): 251-258, 2020 06 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421800

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Workplace bullying is a pervasive problem with significant personal, social and economic costs. Estimates of the resulting lost productivity provide an important societal perspective on the impact of the problem. Understanding where these economic costs fall is relevant for policy. AIMS: We estimated the value of lost productivity to the economy from workplace bullying in the public and private sectors in Ireland. METHODS: We used nationally representative survey data and multivariable negative binomial regression to estimate the independent effect of workplace bullying on days absent from work. We applied the human capital approach to derive an estimate of the annual value of lost productivity due to bullying by sector and overall, in 2017. RESULTS: Bullying was independently associated with an extra 1.00 (95% CI: 0.38-1.62) days absent from work over a 4-week period. This differed for public and private sector employees: 0.69 (95% CI: -0.12 to 1.50) versus 1.45 (95% CI: 0.50-2.40) days respectively. Applying official data, we estimated the associated annual value of lost productivity to be €51.8 million in the public sector, €187.6 million in the private sector and €239.3 million overall. CONCLUSIONS: The economic value of lost productivity from workplace bullying in Ireland is significant. Although bullying is more prevalent in the public sector, it has a larger effect on absence in the private sector. Given this, along with the greater overall share of employees, productivity losses from bullying are considerably larger in the private sector in Ireland.


Assuntos
Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Eficiência Organizacional/economia , Setor Privado/economia , Setor Público/economia , Local de Trabalho/economia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Irlanda/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Local de Trabalho/psicologia
6.
Acad Med ; 95(1): 52-58, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31567172

RESUMO

Facing space constraints similar to those experienced by many urban campuses, the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) looked to innovative office workplace design to curb growing facilities expenditures. Mission Hall, a new office building primarily for desktop and clinical researchers and staff, was designed as an activity-based workplace (ABW), a type of open-space design. ABW was simultaneously being proposed as the template for future UCSF desktop research workspaces. ABWs can be less costly to construct than other designs, and their mix of shared and open workspaces is intended to improve efficiency and interaction. Evaluations of ABWs in corporate settings have yielded mixed results. Examples of ABW buildings for faculty in academic health centers (AHCs) are rare.The Mission Hall experience provided a unique opportunity to understand the impact of an ABW design on faculty satisfaction, work effectiveness, well-being, and engagement. In a 2016 survey of faculty, 1 year after occupancy, respondents reported adverse changes in all 4 areas. The most common complaints involved noise exposure and lack of visual and auditory privacy. In response to these issues, faculty reported working at home or elsewhere more frequently, making collaboration more difficult. In 2018, UCSF retrofitted the building to create some private offices and adjusted its overall program to balance private office and open workspaces in future projects.Lessons drawn from this experience can inform workplace solutions at other AHCs. Most critical are the needs to assess functional requirements of work and align design, change management, and technologies to support those requirements.


Assuntos
Arquitetura de Instituições de Saúde/economia , Docentes/organização & administração , Universidades/organização & administração , Local de Trabalho/organização & administração , Eficiência/ética , Arquitetura de Instituições de Saúde/métodos , Arquitetura de Instituições de Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Satisfação Pessoal , Espaço Pessoal , Pesquisadores/estatística & dados numéricos , São Francisco/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades/normas , Engajamento no Trabalho , Local de Trabalho/economia
7.
Work ; 64(3): 461-475, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658080

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Work accommodations are adjustments made in the work place or to policies surrounding employment to accommodate an individual with a mental disorder to be successful in completing work related tasks. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this systematic review is to identify work accommodations that are available and that are provided to individuals with mental disorders. In addition, associated cost-effectiveness and cost-benefits of these accommodations are examined. METHODS: Studies published between 1990-2016 from four databases were reviewed. From these databases, studies that specified accommodations that were available/provided and/or addressed cost-effectiveness or cost-benefit analysis of work accommodations were included. RESULTS: Of the 1362 eligible studies, only 15 were included. Work accommodations that were provided to individuals assisted in mitigating limitations in the work place and improved length of job tenure, as well as reduced the severity of certain mental disorders. The costs associated with these accommodations were found to be minimal and had positive economic benefits for employers. CONCLUSION: Work accommodations help individuals with mental disorders meet employment expectations with minimal cost.


Assuntos
Readaptação ao Emprego/economia , Transtornos Mentais , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Local de Trabalho/economia
8.
Syst Rev ; 8(1): 247, 2019 10 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665095

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal injuries are the most common non-fatal injury from road traffic crashes. Even when the injuries are mild, they can cause pain which can affect return to work rates and work ability post-crash. Workplace output losses are the biggest cost from traffic crash-related injuries. There is a need to identify effective interventions that can improve work-related outcomes (e.g. time to return to work, sick leave, and work ability) in this group and a need to understand the intervention components, external factors, and participant characteristics that may be associated with improvement. METHODS: A systematic review will be conducted using seven databases and search terms related to road traffic crash, musculoskeletal injury, work-related outcomes, and study design. Intervention studies will be eligible if they report on at least one work-related outcome, include adults with a traffic crash-related musculoskeletal injury (e.g. fracture or whiplash), include a comparison group, and are written in English. Interventions can be medical, therapeutic, work-based, multicomponent, or other. Two researchers will independently screen titles and abstracts, review full texts for inclusion in the review, and perform the data extraction. The main outcomes of the review will be time until return to work and duration of sick leave. The results will be narratively described, with meta-analyses conducted where possible. DISCUSSION: This review will explore the effectiveness of interventions in individuals with traffic crash-related musculoskeletal injury on work-related outcomes and will act as a useful source for researchers, policy makers, and stakeholders when developing and implementing interventions in this group. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42018103746.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Sistema Musculoesquelético/lesões , Retorno ao Trabalho , Traumatismos em Chicotada , Adulto , Humanos , Licença Médica/economia , Local de Trabalho/economia
9.
BMC Psychiatry ; 19(1): 278, 2019 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500602

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People in green professions are exposed to a variety of risk factors, which could possibly enhance the development of depression. Amongst possible prevention approaches, internet- and mobile-based interventions (IMIs) have been shown to be effective and scalable. However, little is known about the effectiveness in green professions. The aim of the present study is to examine the (cost-)effectiveness of a tailored IMI program for reducing depressive symptoms and preventing the onset of clinical depression compared to enhanced treatment as usual (TAU+). METHODS: A pragmatic randomized controlled trial (RCT) will be conducted to evaluate a tailored and therapeutically guided preventive IMI program in comparison to TAU+ with follow-ups at post-treatment (9 weeks), 6-, 12-, 24-, and 36-months. Entrepreneurs in green professions, collaborating spouses, family members and pensioners (N = 360) with sufficient insurance status and at least subthreshold depression (PHQ-9 ≥ 5) are eligible for inclusion. Primary outcome is depressive symptom severity (QIDS-SR16). Secondary outcomes include incidence of depression (QIDS-SR16), quality of life (AQoL-8D) and negative treatment effects (INEP). A health-economic evaluation will be conducted from a societal perspective. The IMI program is provided by psychologists of an external service company and consists of six guided IMIs (6-8 modules, duration: 6-8 weeks) targeting different symptoms (depressive mood, depressive mood with comorbid diabetes, perceived stress, insomnia, panic and agoraphobic symptoms or harmful alcohol use). Intervention choice depends on a screening of participants' symptoms and individual preferences. The intervention phase is followed by a 12-months consolidating phase with monthly contact to the e-coach. DISCUSSION: This is the first pragmatic RCT investigating long-term effectiveness of a tailored guided IMI program for depression prevention in green professions. The present trial builds on a large-scale strategy for depression prevention in green professions. The intended implementation of the IMI program with a nationwide rollout has the potential to reduce overall depression burden and associated health care costs in case of given effectiveness. TRIAL REGISTRATION: German Clinical Trial Registration: DRKS00014000 . Registered on 09 April 2018.


Assuntos
Depressão/prevenção & controle , Intervenção Baseada em Internet/economia , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Ocupações , Telemedicina/economia , Adulto , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Análise Custo-Benefício , Depressão/economia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Profissionais/economia , Doenças Profissionais/psicologia , Questionário de Saúde do Paciente , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Telemedicina/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Local de Trabalho/economia , Local de Trabalho/psicologia
10.
Value Health Reg Issues ; 19: 104-111, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377654

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The cost burden of occupational injuries has significant effects on the social well-being of workers. Although there seems to be growing evidence on the cost burden on other public health issues, little is known about occupational injuries, especially in low- to middle-income countries including Ghana. OBJECTIVE: This study, therefore, sought to estimate the cost burden of managing occupational injuries among frontline construction workers. METHODS: A prevalence-based cost of illness approach was used to estimate the cost burden of construction injuries. A structured questionnaire was used to collect cost-related data from 640 frontline construction workers. Descriptive statistics were used to estimate direct and indirect cost of injuries using Microsoft Excel and STATA version 14. RESULTS: Overall, a worker spends an average of GHC 104.84 ($24.52) and GHC 180.89 ($42.31) as direct and indirect costs, respectively. Compared with other injuries, fracture had the highest average cost, GHS 343.33 ($80.30), and concussion and internal injury recorded the lowest cost. Also, compared with other trade specialties, carpenters had the highest average cost burden and laborers had the lowest burden. CONCLUSION: There is high direct and indirect cost for managing occupational injury among construction workers. Advocacy and awareness about workplace insurance and regulatory policies should adequately be strengthened and prioritized through periodic monitoring and evaluations.


Assuntos
Indústria da Construção , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Local de Trabalho/economia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Work ; 64(1): 107-116, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450534

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A considerable amount of money is invested annually in workplaces to promote creative, comfortable and safe work environments. The processes and effects of these investments are however not sufficiently studied. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to examine work environment investment processes and identify organizational critical elements for optimizing investment in terms of occupational health and safety effects for employees. METHODS: Twelve case studies were conducted in different sectors. The data was collected through interviews, by studying available documents, and, in several cases, observations and measurement of hazards by means of the PIMEX-method. RESULTS: The empirical results yielded seven different critical elements for work environment investment processes. The critical elements identified were: identifying the need, risk assessment, involvement of staff, consultation with OHS expertise, procurement and delivery, implementation and training of workers, and evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: The critical elements have wide similarities with steps outlined in Swedish Work Environment Management processes, and ideas described in the Plan-Do-Act-Check model. If organizations follow this process, they are provided with improved possibilities for maximizing invested money for a safer working environment.


Assuntos
Saúde do Trabalhador/economia , Local de Trabalho/economia , Acidentes de Trabalho/economia , Acidentes de Trabalho/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Doenças Profissionais/economia , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ocupacional/economia , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Estudos de Casos Organizacionais , Medição de Risco , Segurança/economia , Local de Trabalho/psicologia
12.
Oral Oncol ; 95: 187-193, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31345389

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: (1) Describe financial toxicity (FT) in head and neck cancer (HNC) survivors and assess its association with personal/health characteristics and health-related quality of life (HRQOL); (2) examine financial coping mechanisms (savings/loans); (3) assess relationship between COmprehensive Score for financial Toxicity (COST) and Financial Distress Questionnaire (FDQ). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional survey from January - April 2018 of insured patients at a tertiary multidisciplinary HNC survivorship clinic who completed primary treatment for squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, oropharynx, or larynx/hypopharynx. RESULTS: Of 104 survivors, 30 (40.5%) demonstrated high FT. Patients with worse FT were more likely (1) not married (COST, 25.33 ±â€¯1.87 vs. 30.61 ±â€¯1.34, p = 0.008); (2) of lower education levels (COST, 26.12 ±â€¯1.47 vs. 34.14 ±â€¯1.47, p < 0.001); and (3) with larynx/hypopharynx primaries (COST, 22.86 ±â€¯2.28 vs. 30.27 ±â€¯1.50 vs. 32.72 ±â€¯1.98, p = 0.005). Younger age (4.23, 95%CI 2.20 to 6.26, p < 0.001), lower earnings at diagnosis (1.17, 95%CI 0.76 to 1.58, p < 0.001), and loss in earnings (-1.80, 95%CI -2.43 to -1.16, p < 0.001) were associated with worse FT. COST was associated with HRQOL (0.08, p = 0.03). Most survivors (63/102, 60%) reported using savings and/or loans. Worse FT was associated with increased likelihood of using more mechanisms (COST, OR1.06, 95%CI 1.02 to 1.10, p = 0.004). Similar results were found with FDQ. CONCLUSIONS: We found differences in FT by primary site, with worst FT in larynx/hypopharynx patients. This finding illuminates potential site-specific factors, e.g. workplace discrimination or inability to return to work, that may contribute to increased risk. FDQ correlates strongly with COST, encouraging further exploration as a clinically-meaningful screening tool.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/economia , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/economia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Custo Compartilhado de Seguro/economia , Custo Compartilhado de Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/mortalidade , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/terapia , Humanos , Hipofaringe/patologia , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Laringe/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Retorno ao Trabalho/economia , Retorno ao Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Discriminação Social/economia , Discriminação Social/estatística & dados numéricos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/terapia , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Local de Trabalho/economia , Local de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
Eur J Health Econ ; 20(8): 1165-1180, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31309366

RESUMO

Work stress-related productivity losses represent a substantial economic burden. In this study, we estimate the effects of social and task-related stressors and resources at work on health-related productivity losses caused by absenteeism and presenteeism. We also explore the interaction effects between job stressors, job resources and personal resources and estimate the costs of work stress. Work stress is defined as exposure to an unfavorable combination of high job stressors and low job resources. The study is based on a repeated survey assessing work productivity and workplace characteristics among Swiss employees. We use a representative cross-sectional data set and a longitudinal data set and apply both OLS and fixed effects models. We find that an increase in task-related and social job stressors increases health-related productivity losses, whereas an increase in social job resources and personal resources (measured by occupational self-efficacy) reduces these losses. Moreover, we find that job stressors have a stronger effect on health-related productivity losses for employees lacking personal and job resources, and that employees with high levels of job stressors and low personal resources will profit the most from an increase in job resources. Productivity losses due to absenteeism and presenteeism attributable to work stress are estimated at 195 Swiss francs per person and month. Our study has implications for interventions aiming to reduce health absenteeism and presenteeism.


Assuntos
Absenteísmo , Eficiência Organizacional/economia , Estresse Ocupacional/economia , Estresse Ocupacional/psicologia , Presenteísmo/economia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Econométricos , Suíça , Local de Trabalho/economia , Local de Trabalho/psicologia
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319561

RESUMO

Korea is facing problems, such as inequality within society and an aging population, that places a burden on public health expenditure. The active adoption of policies that promote work-family balance (WFB), such as parental leave and workplace childcare centers, is known to help solve these problems. However, there has, as yet, been little quantitative evidence accumulated to support this notion. This study used the choice experiment methodology on 373 Koreans in their twenties and thirties, to estimate the level of utility derived from work-family balance policies. The results show that willingness to pay for parental leave was found to be valued at 7.81 million Korean won, while it was 4.83 million won for workplace childcare centers. In particular, WFB policies were found to benefit workers of lower socioeconomic status or belonging to disadvantaged groups, such as women, those with low education levels, and those with low incomes. Furthermore, the utility derived from WFB policies was found to be greater among those who desire children compared to those who do not. The results suggest that the proactive introduction of WFB policies will help solve problems such as inequality within society and population aging.


Assuntos
Creches/economia , Licença Parental/economia , Equilíbrio Trabalho-Vida/economia , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto , Algoritmos , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , República da Coreia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Local de Trabalho/economia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Drug Alcohol Rev ; 38(5): 543-553, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170328

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Alcohol use impacts workplace productivity in terms of absence and reduced performance by employees. This study's aims were to estimate the cost of lost productivity associated with alcohol use in New Zealand and to describe and quantify its impact on employers. DESIGN AND METHODS: An online survey was completed by 800 New Zealand employees and 227 employers across a range of industries. The costs of lost productivity directly attributable to alcohol use were estimated using days off work (absenteeism), lost hours of productive time while at work (presenteeism) and hours spent by employers dealing with alcohol-related issues. Ordinal logistic regression was used to explore the association between employee characteristics and reduced workplace productivity associated with alcohol consumption. RESULTS: The estimated annual average cost of lost productivity per employee was NZ$1097.71 (NZ$209.62 absenteeism, NZ$888.09 presenteeism) and NZ$134.62 per employer. At a population level this equates to approximately NZ$1.65 billion per year. The significant predictors of reduced workplace performance were being younger (less than 25 years), male, having a stressful job and drinking more than the recommended standard number of drinks per session. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Considering absenteeism costs alone will substantially underestimate the total productivity loss associated with alcohol use. Designing and effectively targeting a set of multifaceted policies to engineer change at both the workplace and societal levels will assist in reducing the costs of lost productivity.


Assuntos
Absenteísmo , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/economia , Eficiência , Presenteísmo/economia , Local de Trabalho/economia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
16.
Am J Public Health ; 109(6): e1-e12, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31067117

RESUMO

Background. Although there is a large literature examining the relationship between a wide range of political economy exposures and health outcomes, the extent to which the different aspects of political economy influence health, and through which mechanisms and in what contexts, is only partially understood. The areas in which there are few high-quality studies are also unclear. Objectives. To systematically review the literature describing the impact of political economy on population health. Search Methods. We undertook a systematic review of reviews, searching MEDLINE, Embase, International Bibliography of the Social Sciences, ProQuest Public Health, Sociological Abstracts, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts, EconLit, SocINDEX, Web of Science, and the gray literature via Google Scholar. Selection Criteria. We included studies that were a review of the literature. Relevant exposures were differences or changes in policy, law, or rules; economic conditions; institutions or social structures; or politics, power, or conflict. Relevant outcomes were any overall measure of population health such as self-assessed health, mortality, life expectancy, survival, morbidity, well-being, illness, ill health, and life span. Two authors independently reviewed all citations for relevance. Data Collection and Analysis. We undertook critical appraisal of all included reviews by using modified Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) criteria and then synthesized narratively giving greater weight to the higher-quality reviews. Main Results. From 4912 citations, we included 58 reviews. Both the quality of the reviews and the underlying studies within the reviews were variable. Social democratic welfare states, higher public spending, fair trade policies, extensions to compulsory education provision, microfinance initiatives in low-income countries, health and safety policy, improved access to health care, and high-quality affordable housing have positive impacts on population health. Neoliberal restructuring seems to be associated with increased health inequalities and higher income inequality with lower self-rated health and higher mortality. Authors' Conclusions. Politics, economics, and public policy are important determinants of population health. Countries with social democratic regimes, higher public spending, and lower income inequalities have populations with better health. There are substantial gaps in the synthesized evidence on the relationship between political economy and health, and there is a need for higher-quality reviews and empirical studies in this area. However, there is sufficient evidence in this review, if applied through policy and practice, to have marked beneficial health impacts. Public Health Implications. Policymakers should be aware that social democratic welfare state types, countries that spend more on public services, and countries with lower income inequalities have better self-rated health and lower mortality. Research funders and researchers should be aware that there remain substantial gaps in the available evidence base. One such area concerns the interrelationship between governance, polities, power, macroeconomic policy, public policy, and population health, including how these aspects of political economy generate social class processes and forms of discrimination that have a differential impact across social groups. This includes the influence of patterns of ownership (of land and capital) and tax policies. For some areas, there are many lower-quality reviews, which leave uncertainties in the relationship between political economy and population health, and a high-quality review is needed. There are also areas in which the available reviews have identified primary research gaps such as the impact of changes to housing policy, availability, and tenure.


Assuntos
Economia , Política de Saúde , Política , Saúde da População , Recessão Econômica , Emprego/economia , Política de Saúde/economia , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/economia , Habitação/economia , Humanos , Renda , Sistemas Políticos/economia , Local de Trabalho/economia
17.
J Med Internet Res ; 21(4): e11394, 2019 04 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31002304

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Investigating participant engagement and nonusage attrition can help identify the likely active ingredients of electronic health interventions. Research on engagement can identify which intervention components predict health outcomes. Research on nonusage attrition is important to make recommendations for retaining participants in future studies. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate engagement and nonusage attrition in the Physical Activity Loyalty (PAL) scheme, a 6-month complex physical activity intervention in workplaces in Northern Ireland. The intervention included financial incentives with reward redemption and self-regulation techniques. Specific objectives were (1) to determine whether engagement in specific intervention components predicted physical activity at 6 months, (2) to determine whether engagement in specific intervention components predicted targeted mediators at 6 months, and (3) to investigate predictors of nonusage attrition for participants recording daily activity via the PAL scheme physical activity monitoring system and logging onto the website. METHODS: Physical activity was assessed at baseline and 6 months using pedometers (Yamax Digiwalker CW-701, Japan). Markers of engagement and website use, monitoring system use, and reward redemption were collected throughout the scheme. Random-effects generalized least-squares regressions determined whether engagement with specific intervention components predicted 6-month physical activity and mediators. Cox proportional hazards regressions were used to investigate predictors of nonusage attrition (days until first 2-week lapse). RESULTS: A multivariable generalized least-squares regression model (n=230) showed that the frequency of hits on the website's monitoring and feedback component (regression coefficient [b]=50.2; SE=24.5; P=.04) and the percentage of earned points redeemed for financial incentives (b=9.1; SE=3.3; P=.005) were positively related to 6-month pedometer steps per day. The frequency of hits on the discussion forum (b=-69.3; SE=26.6; P=.009) was negatively related to 6-month pedometer steps per day. Reward redemption was not related to levels of more internal forms of motivation. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models identified several baseline predictors associated with nonusage attrition. These included identified regulation (hazard ratio [HR] 0.88, 95% CI 0.81-0.97), recovery self-efficacy (HR 0.88, 95% CI 0.80-0.98), and perceived workplace environment safety (HR 1.07, 95% CI 1.02-1.11) for using the physical activity monitoring system. The EuroQoL health index (HR 0.33, 95% CI 0.12-0.91), financial motivation (HR 0.93, 95% CI 0.87-0.99), and perceived availability of physical activity opportunities in the workplace environment (HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.93-0.99) were associated with website nonusage attrition. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide evidence opposing one of the main hypotheses of self-determination theory by showing that financial rewards are not necessarily associated with decreases in more internal forms of motivation when offered as part of a complex multicomponent intervention. Identifying baseline predictors of nonusage attrition can help researchers to develop strategies to ensure maximum intervention adherence. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN Registry ISRCTN17975376; http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN17975376 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/76VGZsZug).


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Local de Trabalho/economia , Adulto , Feminino , Doações , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Motivação , Prognóstico
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30866495

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the cost-effectiveness of workplace-delivered interventions designed to reduce sitting time as primary prevention measures for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Australia. METHODS: A Markov model was developed to simulate the lifetime cost-effectiveness of a workplace intervention for the primary prevention of CVD amongst office-based workers. An updated systematic review and a meta-analysis of workplace interventions that aim to reduce sitting time was conducted to inform the intervention effect. The primary outcome was workplace standing time. An incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was calculated for this intervention measured against current practice. Costs (in Australia dollars) and benefits were discounted at 3% annually. Both deterministic (DSA) and probabilistic (PSA) sensitivity analyses were performed. RESULTS: The updated systematic review identified only one new study. Only the multicomponent intervention that included a sit-and-stand workstation showed statistically significant changes in the standing time compared to the control. The intervention was associated with both higher costs ($6820 versus $6524) and benefits (23.28 versus 23.27, quality-adjusted life year, QALYs), generating an ICER of $43,825/QALY. The DSA showed that target age group for the intervention, relative risk of CVD relative to the control and intervention cost were the key determinants of the ICER. The base case results were within the range of the 95% confidence interval and the intervention had a 85.2% probability of being cost-effective. CONCLUSIONS: A workplace-delivered intervention in the office-based setting including a sit-and-stand desk component is a cost-effective strategy for the primary prevention of CVD. It offers a new option and location when considering interventions to target the growing CVD burden.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/economia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Saúde do Trabalhador/economia , Postura Sentada , Local de Trabalho/economia , Austrália , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Cadeias de Markov , Modelos Econômicos , Prevenção Primária , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Posição Ortostática , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Am J Prev Med ; 56(4): 548-562, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30772152

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Workplace tobacco control interventions reduce smoking and secondhand smoke exposure among U.S. workers. Data on smoke-free workplace policy coverage and cessation programs by industry and occupation are limited. This study assessed smoke-free workplace policies and employer-offered cessation programs among U.S. workers, by industry and occupation. METHODS: Data from the 2014-2015 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey, a random sample of the civilian, non-institutionalized population, were analyzed in 2018. Self-reported smoke-free policy coverage and employer-offered cessation programs were assessed among working adults aged ≥18 years, overall and by occupation and industry. Respondents were considered to have a 100% smoke-free policy if they indicated smoking was not permitted in any indoor areas of their workplace, and to have a cessation program if their employer offered any stop-smoking program within the past year. RESULTS: Overall, 80.3% of indoor workers reported having smoke-free policies at their workplace and 27.2% had cessation programs. Smoke-free policy coverage was highest among workers in the education services (90.6%) industry and lowest among workers in agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting industry (64.1%). Employer-offered cessation programs were significantly higher among workers reporting 100% smoke-free workplace policies (30.9%) than those with partial/no policies (23.3%) and were significantly higher among indoor workers (29.2%) than outdoor workers (15.0%). CONCLUSIONS: Among U.S. workers, 100% smoke-free policy and cessation program coverage varies by industry and occupation. Lower smoke-free policy coverage and higher tobacco use in certain industry and occupation groups suggests opportunities for workplace tobacco control interventions to reduce tobacco use and secondhand smoke exposure.


Assuntos
Cobertura do Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde do Trabalhador/estatística & dados numéricos , Política Antifumo/legislação & jurisprudência , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência , Local de Trabalho/legislação & jurisprudência , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro/economia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Serviços de Saúde do Trabalhador/economia , Prevalência , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Política Antifumo/economia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/terapia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/economia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/prevenção & controle , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Local de Trabalho/economia , Local de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Int J Health Geogr ; 18(1): 2, 2019 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30696451

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over a third of the Scottish population do not meet physical activity (PA) recommendations, with a greater proportion of those from disadvantaged areas not meeting recommended levels. There is a great need for detailed understanding of why some people are active while others are not. It has been established that features within home neighbourhoods are important for promoting PA, and although around 60% of time spent in exercise daily is undertaken outside the residential environment, relatively little research includes both home and workplace neighbourhood contexts. This study utilised an existing west central Scotland survey and spatial data on PA facilities to examine whether, for working adults, there are links between access to facilities, within home and workplace neighbourhoods, and frequency of PA, and whether such associations differ by socio-economic group. METHODS: Using a Geographic Information System (GIS), home and workplace postcodes of a sub-sample of 'Transport, Health and Well-being' 2010 study respondents (n = 513) were mapped, along with public (i.e. public-sector funded) and private (i.e. private-sector funded) PA facilities (e.g. sports halls, gyms, pools etc.) within 800 m and 1600 m path/street network buffers of home and workplace postcodes. Using Analysis of Variance, associations between spatial access to PA facilities (i.e. facility counts within buffers) and self-reported PA (i.e. days being physically active in past month) were analysed. Models were run separately for access to any, public, private, and home, workplace, and home/workplace facilities. Associations were examined for all respondents, and stratified by age and income deprivation. RESULTS: Respondents' PA frequency was associated with spatial access to specific types of facilities near home and near home or workplace (combined). In general, PA frequency was higher where individuals lived/worked in closer proximity to private facilities and frequency lower where individuals lived/worked nearby to public facilities. Results varied by age and income deprivation sub-groups. CONCLUSION: This research contributes to methods exploring neighbourhood contextual influences on PA behaviour; it goes beyond a focus upon home neighbourhoods and incorporates access to workplace neighbourhood facilities. Results demonstrate the importance of examining both neighbourhood types, and such findings may feed into planning for behaviour-change interventions within both spaces.


Assuntos
Planejamento Ambiental/economia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Características de Residência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Local de Trabalho/economia , Adulto , Idoso , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escócia/epidemiologia , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
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