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2.
New Solut ; 30(3): 237-248, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33121368

RESUMO

The World Health Organization's (WHO) workplace health and safety guidelines on COVID-19 are unacceptably complacent in parts, patently dangerous in others, and contain serious gaps. Omissions include no mention of the essential role of labor inspection and enforcement, and a lack of recognition of potential interactions with other workplace hazards. WHO also omitted discussion of the necessity for wider employment protections to make safety and safe behavior a realistic prospect. Potential risks in outdoor work and the need to address the impact of job segregation related to inequalities in health outcomes are also absent. WHO's advice influences national practice, official guidance, and binding rules.The International Trade Union Confederation has assessed the flaws in WHO's arguments and has prepared a critique so they are understood and can be challenged.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Saúde do Trabalhador/normas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Local de Trabalho/normas , Organização Mundial da Saúde/organização & administração , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Sindicatos/normas , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ocupacional/normas
3.
Pain Physician ; 23(4S): S475-S482, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942811

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus emergency obliged Italy's government to stop production and trade activities to limit the =risk of contagion. Italy will restart activities in a few days and some security measures will have to be taken to limit the risks of spreading the virus as much as possible. OBJECTIVE: This work summarizes the rules that are to be adopted for the reduction of the risks of SARS-CoV-2 infection with particular regard to the air conditioning systems in working environments, the sources of risk, and possible risk reduction measures. RESULTS: Ducted air systems are of great importance, widespread, and often overlooked in risk assessment. Scientific evidence has shown that air conditioning systems can be both an infection risk reducer and, if misused, a multiplier of infection possibility. LIMITATIONS: A narrative review with paucity of literature.


Assuntos
Ar Condicionado , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Saúde do Trabalhador/normas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Betacoronavirus , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/instrumentação , Humanos , Itália , Local de Trabalho/normas
4.
Work ; 66(4): 717-729, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925133

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a highly contagious acute respiratory syndrome and has been declared a pandemic in more than 209 countries worldwide. At the time of writing, no preventive vaccine has been developed and tested in the community. This study was conducted to review studies aimed at preventing the spread of the coronavirus worldwide. METHODS: This study was a review of the evidence-based literature and was conducted by searching databases, including Google Scholar, PubMed, and ScienceDirect, until April 2020. The search was performed based on keywords including "coronavirus", "COVID-19", and "prevention". The list of references in the final studies has also been re-reviewed to find articles that might not have been obtained through the search. The guidelines published by trustworthy organizations such as the World Health Organization and Center for Disease Control have been used in this study. CONCLUSION: So far, no vaccine or definitive treatment for COVID-19 has been invented, and the disease has become a pandemic. Therefore, observation of hand hygiene, disinfection of high-touch surfaces, observation of social distance, and lack of presence in public places are recommended as preventive measures. Moreover, to control the situation and to reduce the incidence of the virus, some of the measures taken by the decision-making bodies and the guidelines of the deterrent institutions to strengthen telecommuting of employees and reduce the presence of people in the community and prevent unnecessary activities, are very important.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Guias como Assunto , Controle de Infecções/normas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Local de Trabalho/organização & administração , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Tomada de Decisões Gerenciais , Desinfecção/organização & administração , Desinfecção/normas , Higiene das Mãos/organização & administração , Higiene das Mãos/normas , Humanos , Incidência , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Programas de Rastreamento/organização & administração , Programas de Rastreamento/normas , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Distância Social , Telecomunicações/organização & administração , Telecomunicações/normas , Local de Trabalho/normas
5.
J Occup Environ Hyg ; 17(10): 447-456, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960737

RESUMO

Bioaerosols are known to be an important transmission pathway for SARS-CoV-2. We report a framework for estimating the risk of transmitting SARS-CoV-2 via aerosols in laboratory and office settings, based on an exponential dose-response model and analysis of air flow and purification in typical heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. High-circulation HVAC systems with high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration dramatically reduce exposure to the virus in indoor settings, and surgical masks or N95 respirators further reduce exposure. As an example of our risk assessment model, we consider the precautions needed for a typical experimental physical science group to maintain a low risk of transmission over six months of operation. We recommend that, for environments where fewer than five individuals significantly overlap, work spaces should remain vacant for between one (high-circulation HVAC with HEPA filtration) to six (low-circulation HVAC with no filtration) air exchange times before a new worker enters in order to maintain no more than 1% chance of infection over six months of operation in the workplace. Our model is readily applied to similar settings that are not explicitly given here. We also provide a framework for evaluating infection mitigation through ventilation in multiple occupancy spaces.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Laboratórios/normas , Modelos Estatísticos , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Ventilação/normas , Local de Trabalho/normas , Ar Condicionado/normas , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Saúde do Trabalhador , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco
7.
New Solut ; 30(3): 249-253, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962521

RESUMO

The Massachusetts Coalition for Occupational Safety and Health (MassCOSH) developed workplace health and safety recommendations for Phase 2 of the Massachusetts plans to reopen the economy as the spread of SARS-CoV-2 novel coronavirus was reduced in the state. The governor's plan included minimal measures for workplace health and safety protections during this pandemic. The MassCOSH recommendations are presented in this document.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Saúde do Trabalhador/normas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Local de Trabalho/normas , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Massachusetts/epidemiologia
8.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0237970, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32903268

RESUMO

Germany has experienced sharply rising earnings inequalities, both between and within workplaces. Working from prior literature on rising employment dualization and the fissuring of workplaces into high and low wage employers, we explore a set of organizational explanations for rising between and within workplace inequality focusing on the role of employment dualization, skill segregation/complexity, and firm fissuring. We describe and model these hypothesized processes with administrative data on a large random sample panel of German workplaces. We find that rising inequalities are associated with polarization in industrial wage rates and the birth of new low wage workplaces, as well as increased establishment skill specialization and the growth of part-time jobs in workplace divisions of labor. We conclude with recommendations for future research that directly examines more proximate mechanisms and their relative importance in different institutional contexts.


Assuntos
Eficiência Organizacional , Emprego/economia , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Salários e Benefícios/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Local de Trabalho/normas , Adulto , Emprego/tendências , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Curationis ; 43(1): e1-e8, 2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787431

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Professional nurses are responsible for the provision of care, treatment and rehabilitation of all mental healthcare users (MHCUs) in the institutions for mental healthcare. However, professional nurses find themselves in difficult circumstances under which they must provide quality healthcare services to MHCUs. OBJECTIVES: The study explored and described the challenges experienced by the professional nurses working in a mental healthcare institution in Limpopo province of South Africa. METHOD: A qualitative approach was used to explore and describe the challenges faced by professional nurses working in a mental healthcare institution. The study was conducted from July 2016 to December 2016. Purposive sampling was used to select participants. Data were obtained through individual in-depth interviews with professional nurses between the ages of 26 and 50 years. Data collection continued until data saturation, which occurred after interviewing 18 participants. Tech's open coding method was used to analyse data in this study. RESULTS: Four themes emerged from data analysis, namely: inadequate safety measures, inadequate resources, impact of high workload and shortage of staff. The themes were further sub-divided into sub-themes. CONCLUSION: The study revealed several challenges that professional nurses face in mental healthcare institutions which might be a barrier to the provision of quality healthcare. Conducive working environments should be established to enable professional health nurses to provide quality nursing care, thereby promoting the health of MHCUs.


Assuntos
Hospitais Psiquiátricos/normas , Satisfação no Emprego , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Local de Trabalho/normas , Adulto , Feminino , Recursos em Saúde/normas , Recursos em Saúde/provisão & distribução , Hospitais Psiquiátricos/organização & administração , Hospitais Psiquiátricos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , África do Sul , Carga de Trabalho/psicologia , Carga de Trabalho/normas , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Local de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(32): e21607, 2020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769917

RESUMO

Job-related stress had adverse effects on both patients and community nurses. To evaluate stress, an effective and reliable instrument was needed. The aim of this study was to develop a short-form Chinese Community Nurse Stress Scale and examine its psychometric properties.A cross-sectional study was conducted. A total of 969 community nurses were selected from 56 community centers/stations in Sichuan Province. The socio-demographic data and job stress assessed by the Chinese Community Nurse Stress Scale (CNSS) were collected. After randomly splitting the sample into group 1 and group 2, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis were carried out to shorten the scale and test its reliability and construct validity.There were no significant differences in socio-demographic variables between group 1 (n = 488) and group 2 (n = 481). During exploratory factor analysis, 4 factors were selected, including management and interpersonal relationships (8 items), patient care (7 items), environment and resources of work (6 items), and career promotion (4 items), which explained 62.66% of all variance. Cronbachs α coefficient of the short-form CNSS was 0.94, and the cross-sample validity test supported the best fit model for this 25-item CNSS.The results in this study supported that the 25-item CNSS had a good reliability and validity when it was administrated to Chinese community nurses.


Assuntos
Enfermeiros de Saúde Comunitária/psicologia , Psicometria/normas , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Adulto , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Enfermeiros de Saúde Comunitária/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicometria/instrumentação , Psicometria/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Local de Trabalho/normas
11.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 25(1): 40, 2020 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787774

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although nurses' workplace social capital for a healthy work environment has received considerable attention, few scales about nurses' workplace social capital are based on the attributes of clinical settings in Japan. This study aims to develop a Relational Workplace Social Capital Scale for Japanese Nurses (RWSCS-JN), which includes bonding, linking, and bridging social capital and assessing its reliability and validity. METHODS: We assessed its reliability and validity using questionnaire survey data collected from 309 nurses in the first survey and 105 nurses in the second survey in four hospitals in Japan. First, we determined the number of factors and items for the RWSCS-JN through the parallel and factor analyses after conducting the item analysis. Then, we confirmed the omega coefficients and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) of the RWSCS-JN. Finally, we examined the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient between the RWSCS-JN score and other variables, including an existing measurement of workplace social capital, work engagement, and turnover intention. RESULTS: The newly developed RWSCS-JN contained 15 items, comprising three factors as follows: bonding social capital, linking social capital, and bridging social capital. The omega coefficient and the ICC of the RWSCS-JN were 0.90 and 0.85, respectively. The Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient between the RWSCS-JN and the existing scale of the workplace social capital was 0.88 (p < 0.01). Furthermore, the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient between the RWSCS-JN and work engagement was 0.36 (p < 0.01) and that of the RWSCS-JN and turnover intention was - 0.40 (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that the RWSCS-JN could be sufficiently useful for a healthy work environment in a clinical setting.


Assuntos
Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Capital Social , Local de Trabalho/normas , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
J Laryngol Otol ; 134(8): 665-669, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758319

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: ENT surgeons are likely to be at high risk of coronavirus disease 2019 exposure. METHODS: A national registry of UK ENT surgeons with suspected or confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 was created with the support of ENT UK. Voluntary entry was made by either the affected individual or a colleague, using a web-based platform. RESULTS: A four-month data collection period is reported, comprising 73 individuals. Coronavirus disease 2019 was test-confirmed in 35 respondents (47.9 per cent). There was a need for hospitalisation in two cases (2.7 per cent) and tragically one individual died. Symptom onset peaked in March. The majority suspected their exposure to have been in the workplace, with a significant proportion attributing their disease to a lack of personal protective equipment at a time before formal guidance had been introduced. CONCLUSION: The registry suggests that a significant number of ENT clinicians in the UK have contracted coronavirus disease 2019, and supports the need for tailored personal protective equipment guidance and service planning.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Otolaringologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Cirurgiões/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/provisão & distribução , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Sistema de Registros , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Local de Trabalho/normas , Local de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
Toxicol Lett ; 331: 53-56, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497561

RESUMO

The objective of this study is to highlight the effectiveness of urinary lead as an index of recent lead exposure. In the past scientific literature urinary lead has been studied as a parameter for recent lead exposure. It is a reliable indicator for occupational lead exposure. But, strangely enough, nowadays is scarcely used in the Netherlands and worldwide. We performed six field biological monitoring studies of preshift and postshift urinary lead tests during tank maintenance and bridge repair work. Highest values occurred during bridge repair. Mean urinary values were postshift 1,6-5 times higher than preshift values, indicating clearly recent lead exposure and failing protective measures. This is so far we know the first study combining preshift and postshift sampling of urinary lead. We compared our studies with crossectional and follow-up studies in occupational medicine. Our conclusion is that preshift and postshift urinary lead testing is a worker friendly test, ideally for detecting recent lead exposures in the field. It signals the need to review or possibly improve controls at work. There are no safe lead levels, so we recommend to use a target value for urinary lead of <3 µg/g creatinine for all lead workers in the Netherlands.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/urina , Monitoramento Biológico/métodos , Indústria da Construção , Chumbo/urina , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Local de Trabalho/normas , Humanos , Países Baixos , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória
14.
Med Care ; 58(7): 594-600, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520835

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prior research has found that adverse events have significant negative consequences for the patients (first victim) and caregivers (second victim) involved such as burnout. However, research has yet to examine the consequences of adverse events on members of caregiving units. We also lack research on the effects of the personal and job resources that shape the context of how adverse events are experienced. OBJECTIVES: We test the relationship between job demands (the number of adverse events on a hospital nursing unit) and nurses' experience of burnout. We further explore the ways in which personal (workgroup identification) and job (safety climate) resources amplify or dampen this relationship. Specifically, we examine whether, and the conditions under which, adverse events affect nurse burnout. RESEARCH DESIGN: Cross-sectional analyses of survey data on nurse burnout linked to hospital incident reporting system data on adverse event rates for the year before survey administration and survey data on workgroup identification and safety climate. SUBJECTS: Six hundred three registered nurses from 30 nursing units in a large, urban hospital in the Midwest completed questionnaires. RESULTS: Multilevel regression analysis indicated that adverse events were positively associated with nurse burnout. The effects of adverse events on nurse burnout were amplified when nurses exhibited high levels of workgroup identification and attenuated when safety climate perceptions were higher. CONCLUSIONS: Adverse events have broader negative consequences than previously thought, widely affecting nurse burnout on caregiving units, especially when nurses strongly identify with their workgroup. These effects are mitigated when leaders cultivate safety climate.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional/etiologia , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Gestão da Segurança/normas , Identificação Social , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto , Esgotamento Profissional/complicações , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Satisfação no Emprego , Masculino , Erros Médicos/psicologia , Erros Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Cultura Organizacional , Segurança do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise de Regressão , Gestão da Segurança/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Local de Trabalho/normas , Local de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
Workplace Health Saf ; 68(6): 263-271, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421473

RESUMO

Background: A drug-free workplace program (DFWP) has been shown to be effective in reducing workers' drug misuse. The purpose of this project was to determine the need and capacity for a new or enhanced DFWP in a large health system. If determined to be needed, the next step would be to develop, implement, and evaluate a toolkit to assist occupational health nurses to promote a new or enhanced DFWP. Methods: A strategic prevention framework was used to assess the need and capacity for a toolkit to prepare occupational health nurses to promote a new or enhanced DFWP. The project was conducted in the occupational health services department at a large health system in the Midwest U.S. occupational health nurses and employee assistance counselors in the hospital system completed a survey assessing the need and capacity for a new or enhanced DFWP. Findings: A gap was identified in the perceived effectiveness of training about DFWP and current DFWP components. The findings reflect the need and capacity for a DFWP toolkit. Optimally, a DFWP toolkit would include evidence-based drug and alcohol screening tools. We found that a toolkit for occupational health nurses to promote a new or enhanced DFWP in the project site was warranted. Conclusion/Application to practice: A DFWP can be an effective method of promoting workplace health and safety. Occupational health nurses can contact state and national representatives to encourage monitoring of drug-related work injuries to provide evidence to influence health policies to support effective DFWPs.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde do Trabalhador/métodos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Enfermagem do Trabalho/métodos , Enfermagem do Trabalho/tendências , Desenvolvimento de Programas/métodos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/prevenção & controle , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Local de Trabalho/normas
19.
New Solut ; 30(2): 86-94, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448036

RESUMO

This commentary examines the occupational health and safety issues faced by the UK workers in the COVID-19 pandemic, against the background of government cuts in health care and in occupational health and safety budgets, and a deregulatory climate. The UK government has been obsessed, blinkered, and distracted by the desire to leave the European Union (Brexit). The state of knowledge about the virus, especially from international agencies that identified pandemic threats and strategies to combat it, is outlined. UK politicians, government bodies, medical and scientific advisors, and employers periodically ignored or abused that knowledge. Regulatory and ministerial inaction and errors on the workplace virus risks emerged. In contrast, several trade unions, health professional bodies, and nongovernmental organizations identified COVID-19 threats from poor personal protection equipment, working practices, and knowledge gaps and offered solutions for health care workers, social care workers, production workers, and service workers in "essential" occupations.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Sindicatos/normas , Saúde do Trabalhador/normas , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/provisão & distribução , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Local de Trabalho/normas , Betacoronavirus , Governo , Pessoal de Saúde/normas , Humanos , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ocupacional/normas , Pandemias , Assistentes Sociais , Reino Unido
20.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(5): e17620, 2020 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32406857

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The advancement of health care information technology and the emergence of artificial intelligence has yielded tools to improve the quality of various health care processes. Few studies have investigated employee perceptions of artificial intelligence implementation in Saudi Arabia and the Arabian world. In addition, limited studies investigated the effect of employee knowledge and job title on the perception of artificial intelligence implementation in the workplace. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore health care employee perceptions and attitudes toward the implementation of artificial intelligence technologies in health care institutions in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: An online questionnaire was published, and responses were collected from 250 employees, including doctors, nurses, and technicians at 4 of the largest hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. RESULTS: The results of this study showed that 3.11 of 4 respondents feared artificial intelligence would replace employees and had a general lack of knowledge regarding artificial intelligence. In addition, most respondents were unaware of the advantages and most common challenges to artificial intelligence applications in the health sector, indicating a need for training. The results also showed that technicians were the most frequently impacted by artificial intelligence applications due to the nature of their jobs, which do not require much direct human interaction. CONCLUSIONS: The Saudi health care sector presents an advantageous market potential that should be attractive to researchers and developers of artificial intelligence solutions.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial/normas , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Local de Trabalho/normas , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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