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1.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 26(3): 489-495, 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559809

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Deficits of vitamin resources constitute a significant public health problem, especially among the elderly population. The aim of the research was to determine the level of vitamin 25 (OH) D and vitamins from group B in the chronically ill elderly in domiciliary care, depending on functional capacity and coexisting diseases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The pilot study included 137 patients staying in long-term domiciliary care. Samples of the participants' venous blood was obtained for laboratory tests. Centrifuged serum was used to determine the level of the following biochemical parameters: vitamin 25 (OH)D, B12, folic acid and total protein, albumin, triglycerides, total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol. Assessment of the functional status of patients was made by using the Barthel scale. RESULTS: More than ¾ of the patients with functional deficit (according to Barthel's score 0-85 points) were deficient in vitamin 25 (OH)D, while folic acid values were below the reference values in more than half of the patients. Respondents with lower functional efficiency were characterised by a reduced average value of vitamin 25 (OH)D and folic acid. CONCLUSIONS: The studied group of the chronically ill elderly was characterised by a deficiency of vitamin D3 and folic acid. Subjects with a functional impairment deficit show a reduced mean value of vitamin 25 (OH)D and folic acid in the blood serum, compared to the group of patients with higher mobility.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/sangue , Doença Crônica/terapia , Vitamina B 12/sangue , Vitamina D/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Feminino , Ácido Fólico/sangue , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Locomoção , Masculino , Atividade Motora , Projetos Piloto , Triglicerídeos/sangue
2.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 44(8): 571-6, 2019 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475490

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of different frequencies (2 Hz, 100 Hz) of electroacupuncture (EA) on limb locomotion and the expression of inflammatory factors IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α in sciatic nerve, and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in lumber(L)4-L5of spinal cord in rats with sciatic nerve injury (SNI), so as to reveal its mechanisms underlying improvement of SNI. METHODS: A total of 48 SD rats (half male and half female) were equally divided into blank control, model, low frequency (2 Hz) EA and high frequency (100 Hz) EA groups. The SNI model was established by clamping the spinal nerve. EA intervention (2 Hz, 100 Hz, 1 mA), starting on the 8th day after modeling, was applied to "Huantiao" (GB30) on the injured side for 15 min, once daily for 14 consecutive days. The sciatic function index (SFI) was calculated to assess the injured hindlimb recovery with reference to BAIN's and colleagues' methods. Histopathological changes of the sciatic nerve were displayed by H.E. staining. The expressions of IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNF-α in the sciatic nerve tissue were detected by immunohistochemistry, and the expression of NF-κB in the spinal cord was detected by using Western blot. RESULTS: After modeling, the SFI level on day 8 was significantly decreased in the model group (P<0.01), and no significant differences were found among the model, low frequency EA and high frequency EA groups before the EA intervention (P>0.05). Following the treatment (at the 22nd day), the SFI values of both low frequency EA and high frequency EA groups were significantly increased (P<0.01), suggesting an improvement of the limb motor function, and the SFI of the low frequency EA group was notably higher than that of the high frequency EA group (P<0.01). In comparison with the blank control group, the expression levels of IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α in the sciatic nerve and NF-κB protein in the spinal cord were significantly up-regulated (P<0.05). Following EA intervention, the increased expression levels of IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α and NF-κB proteins were significantly down-regulated in both low frequency EA and high frequency EA groups (P<0.05), and the therapeutic effect of low frequency EA was markedly superior to that of high frequency EA in down-regulating the expression levels of IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α and NF-κB protein (P<0.05). H.E. staining showed increase of Schwann cells in number, cellular swelling, and disintegration of the axons and myelin sheath, and appearance of vacuolar degeneration in the model group, which was relatively milder in both low frequency EA and high frequency EA groups, particularly in the low frequency EA group. CONCLUSION: EA of GB30 at 2 Hz and 100 Hz can promote the recovery of hindlimb motor function in SNI rats, which is probably related to its function in inhibiting the inflammatory response, and facilitating the repair of the damaged sciatic nerve. 2 Hz EA is better than 100 Hz EA in the therapeutic effect.


Assuntos
Eletroacupuntura , Neuropatia Ciática , Animais , Feminino , Locomoção , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Nervo Isquiático
3.
Z Gerontol Geriatr ; 52(Suppl 3): 168-179, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520118

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Assistance systems serving the locomotion of older people interact in many ways with the culture of a society. Since early modern times at the latest, walking aids were tantamount to human frailty; however, the cane also symbolized governmental power or reputation. Nowadays, the cane, the wheelchair, and the rollator have not only a functional significance in terms of a better mobility, they also enable people to take an active part in social life. OBJECTIVE: This study aimes at tracing back these provisional insights into the history of civilization and thereby analyze the roots, new forms and pictures of the handling and metaphors of these assistance systems. The goal in the context of this special issue is to decipher a central textual and pictorial symbol of old age, comparing it with more recent symbols of assistance in old age. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Methodologically, the text combines approaches of philology and history of medicine with those of the history of art. It analyzes (after a brief retrospection of ancient times and the Middle Ages) by means of textual and pictorial sources from the sixteenth to the twenty-first centuries the historical development of these aids of locomotion for older people. Additionally, it explores the cultural relevancy of these assistance systems. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: In history the medical profession paid relatively late and then only minor attention to the assistive systems analyzed here. Its semantic diversity is closely related to the age roles and stereotypes of age prevailing in certain epochs. The more the respective assistive tool is used by old people, the more suitable it is as a symbol of old age and the more biased and negative the semantic connotation seems to be. The development of a symbol of age connoting frailty, at present symbolized most clearly by the rollator, tends to refer to a pejorative image of age in a society. The cultural historical analysis suggests that a contrasting development will only be possible when the assistive systems will again fulfil a diversity of alternative functions and semantics.


Assuntos
Bengala , Características Culturais , Andadores , Caminhada , Idoso/fisiologia , Idoso/psicologia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cultura , Humanos , Locomoção , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Semântica
4.
Chem Biol Interact ; 311: 108790, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400342

RESUMO

Preclinical assays play a key role in research in research on the neurobiology of pain and the development of novel analgesics. Drugs available for the treatment of inflammatory pain are not fully effective and show adverse effects. Thus, we investigated the antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperalgesic effects of bis(3-amino-2-pyridine) diselenide (BAPD), a new analgesic drug prototype. BAPD effects were investigated using nociception models induced by chemical (glutamate), immunologic (Freund's Complete Adjuvant - CFA) and thermal stimuli in Swiss mice. Mice were orally (p.o.) treated with BAPD (0.1-50 mg/kg) 30 min prior to the glutamate and hot-plate tests and a time-course (0.5 up to 8 h) of the antinociceptive effect of BAPD (50 mg/kg, p. o.) was evaluated in a CFA model. In the CFA model, BAPD effects on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor (TNFα) and interferon-γ (INF-γ) expression, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, oxidative (2,2'-Azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline 6-sulfonic acid and 2,2-diphe- nyl-1-picrylhydrazyl levels) and histological parameters were evaluated. The safety of the compound (50 and 300 mg/kg, p. o.) was verified for 72 h. BAPD reduced the licking time induced by glutamate and caused an increase in latency response to thermal stimulus. Naloxone reversed the antinociceptive effect of BAPD. Paw edema formation induced by glutamate or CFA injection was reduced by BAPD. Mechanical hyperalgesia induced by CFA was attenuated by BAPD. BAPD did not protect against the increase in MPO activity and decrease of the 2,2'-Azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline 6-sulfonic acid and 2,2-diphe- nyl-1-picrylhydrazyl levels induced by CFA. BAPD protected against histological alterations and reduction on the levels of gene expression COX-2 and INF-γ in the paw of mice exposed to CFA. BAPD was safe at the doses and time evaluated. BAPD exerts acute antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperalgesic actions, suggesting that it may represent an alternative in the future development of new therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Nociceptividade/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Opioides/metabolismo , Analgésicos/química , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/genética , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Edema/patologia , Comportamento Exploratório/efeitos dos fármacos , Pé/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Glutâmico/farmacologia , Interferon gama/genética , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Dor/patologia , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo , Receptores Opioides/genética , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
5.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(9): 8332-8342, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301835

RESUMO

The quality of dairy cow mobility can have significant welfare, economic, and environmental consequences that have yet to be extensively quantified for pasture-based systems. The objective of this study was to characterize mobility quality by examining associations between specific mobility scores, claw disorders (both the type and severity), body condition score (BCS), and cow parity. Data were collected for 6,927 cows from 52 pasture-based dairy herds, including mobility score (0 = optimal mobility; 1, 2, or 3 = increasing severities of suboptimal mobility), claw disorder type and severity, BCS, and cow parity. Multinomial logistic regression was used for analysis. The outcome variable was mobility score, and the predictor variables were BCS, type and severity of claw disorders, and cow parity. Three models were run, each with 1 reference category (mobility score 0, 1, or 2). Each model also included claw disorders (overgrown claw, sole hemorrhage, white line disease, sole ulcer, and digital dermatitis), BCS, and cow parity as predictor variables. The presence of most types of claw disorders had odds ratios >1, indicating an increased likelihood of a cow having suboptimal mobility. Low BCS (BCS <3.00) was associated with an increased risk of a cow having suboptimal mobility, and relatively higher parity was also associated with an increased risk of suboptimal mobility. These results confirm an association between claw disorders, BCS, cow parity, and dairy cow mobility score. Therefore, mobility score should be routinely practiced to identify cows with slight deviations from the optimal mobility pattern and to take preventive measures to keep the problem from worsening.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/fisiopatologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Coxeadura Animal/fisiopatologia , Locomoção , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/etiologia , Feminino , Doenças do Pé/fisiopatologia , Doenças do Pé/veterinária , Coxeadura Animal/etiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Razão de Chances , Paridade , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Caminhada
6.
Aquat Toxicol ; 214: 105257, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336221

RESUMO

The interactions between nanoparticles (NPs) and metals in aquatic environments may modify the bioavailability and toxicity of metals to organisms. In this study, we investigated the effects of titanium dioxide NPs (n-TiO2) on the bioconcentration, depuration, and neurotoxic effects of lead (Pb) in zebrafish larvae. Transmission electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy showed that Pb2+ was adsorbed by n-TiO2 to form NP-Pb complexes in suspension, and these complexes were observed in larval tissues. The bioconcentration of Pb in larvae along with the depuration rates of Pb were higher in the presence of n-TiO2 compared to when n-TiO2 was absent. Exposure to Pb alone induced the expression of the biomarker metallothionein, downregulated neurodevelopment-related genes, and reduced swimming activity of larvae. However, the addition of n-TiO2 to the exposure solution alleviated these effects. The results suggest that n-TiO2 can act as a carrier of Pb to increase its bioconcentration; however, the formation of NP-Pb complexes likely reduces the amount of free Pb2+, thereby reducing toxicity to larvae.


Assuntos
Chumbo/toxicidade , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Titânio/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Adsorção , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Disponibilidade Biológica , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/genética , Larva/ultraestrutura , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Metalotioneína/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Suspensões , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/genética
7.
Nature ; 571(7765): 381-386, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292552

RESUMO

In ant colonies, collectivity enables division of labour and resources1-3 with great scalability. Beyond their intricate social behaviours, individuals of the genus Odontomachus4, also known as trap-jaw ants, have developed remarkable multi-locomotion mechanisms to 'escape-jump' upwards when threatened, using the sudden snapping of their mandibles5, and to negotiate obstacles by leaping forwards using their legs6. Emulating such diverse insect biomechanics and studying collective behaviours in a variety of environments may lead to the development of multi-locomotion robotic collectives deployable in situations such as emergency relief, exploration and monitoring7; however, reproducing these abilities in small-scale robotic systems with simple design and scalability remains a key challenge. Existing robotic collectives8-12 are confined to two-dimensional surfaces owing to limited locomotion, and individual multi-locomotion robots13-17 are difficult to scale up to large groups owing to the increased complexity, size and cost of hardware designs, which hinder mass production. Here we demonstrate an autonomous multi-locomotion insect-scale robot (millirobot) inspired by trap-jaw ants that addresses the design and scalability challenges of small-scale terrestrial robots. The robot's compact locomotion mechanism is constructed with minimal components and assembly steps, has tunable power requirements, and realizes five distinct gaits: vertical jumping for height, horizontal jumping for distance, somersault jumping to clear obstacles, walking on textured terrain and crawling on flat surfaces. The untethered, battery-powered millirobot can selectively switch gaits to traverse diverse terrain types, and groups of millirobots can operate collectively to manipulate objects and overcome obstacles. We constructed the ten-gram palm-sized prototype-the smallest and lightest self-contained multi-locomotion robot reported so far-by folding a quasi-two-dimensional metamaterial18 sandwich formed of easily integrated mechanical, material and electronic layers, which will enable assembly-free mass-manufacturing of robots with high task efficiency, flexibility and disposability.


Assuntos
Formigas/anatomia & histologia , Formigas/fisiologia , Biomimética , Locomoção , Movimento , Robótica/instrumentação , Robótica/métodos , Animais , Marcha
8.
Life Sci ; 232: 116672, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336120

RESUMO

AIMS: Obesity is not only associated with metabolic diseases but is also a symptom of menopause in women. To date, there are no effective drugs for the management of obesity, and it is important to find new agents with fewer side effects, for the treatment of obesity. This study aimed to determine the anti-obesity effect of 17-dimethylaminoethylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-DMAG), a heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitor, and its underlying mechanism in rats with ovariectomy-induced obesity. MAIN METHODS: Ovariectomy (Ovx) rats were treated with 17-DMAG (1 mg kg-1, intraperitoneally) for eight weeks from one week after surgery. The body weight, food intake, locomotor activity, adipogenic- and autophagy-related protein expression in white adipose tissue (WAT) and plasma triglyceride (TG) levels were measured in sham and Ovx rats. KEY FINDINGS: Compared with sham rats, Ovx rats showed increased weight gain, food intake, WAT mass, TG levels, adipogenic protein expression, and decreased locomotor activity. Furthermore, autophagy-related proteins and Foxo3a of WAT were significantly increased in Ovx rats. However, with the exclusion of increased food intake, the changes induced by Ovx were all reversed in 17-DMAG-treated Ovx rats. In addition, the expression of Hsp70 and phosphorylation of Akt increased in 17-DMAG-treated Ovx rats. SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that 17-DMAG significantly ameliorated obesity induced by Ovx, and this phenomenon is accompanied by the downregulation of adipogenic-related and autophagy-related proteins as well as the upregulation of Akt-phosphorylation and Hsp70 expression. Therefore, 17-DMAG may be a potential agent for preventing or treating obesity in postmenopausal women.


Assuntos
Benzoquinonas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/antagonistas & inibidores , Lactamas Macrocíclicas/farmacologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Ovariectomia/efeitos adversos , Adipogenia , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Autofagia , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/metabolismo , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos
9.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 67(7): 699-706, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257325

RESUMO

In our search for novel orally active α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor antagonists, we found that conversion of an allyl group in the lead compound 2-[allyl(4-methylphenyl)amino]-4H-pyrido[3,2-e][1,3]thiazin-4-one (4) to a 2-cyanoethyl group significantly increased inhibitory activity against AMPA receptor-mediated kainate-induced toxicity in rat hippocampal cultures. Here, we synthesized 10 analogs bearing a 2-cyanoethyl group and administered them to mice to evaluate their anticonvulsant activity in maximal electroshock (MES)- and pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizure tests, and their effects on motor coordination in a rotarod test. 3-{(4-Oxo-4H-pyrido[3,2-e][1,3]thiazin-2-yl)[4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl]amino}propanenitrile (25) and 3-[(2,2-difluoro-2H-1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)(4-oxo-4H-pyrido[3,2-e][1,3]thiazin-2-yl)amino]propanenitrile (27) exhibited potent anticonvulsant activity in both seizure tests and induced minor motor disturbances as indicated in the rotarod test. The protective index values of 25 and 27 for MES-induced seizures (10.7 and 12.0, respectively) and PTZ-induced seizures (6.0 and 5.6, respectively) were considerably higher compared with those of YM928 (5) and talampanel (1).


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/síntese química , Nitrilos/química , Receptores de AMPA/antagonistas & inibidores , Administração Oral , Animais , Anticonvulsivantes/farmacologia , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Hipocampo/citologia , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Microssomos Hepáticos/metabolismo , Nitrilos/farmacologia , Nitrilos/uso terapêutico , Pentilenotetrazol/toxicidade , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Receptores de AMPA/metabolismo , Convulsões/induzido quimicamente , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Convulsões/veterinária , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
10.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2703, 2019 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266939

RESUMO

The functionalities of the untethered miniature swimming robots significantly decrease as the robot size becomes smaller, due to limitations of feasible miniaturized on-board components. Here we propose an untethered jellyfish-inspired soft millirobot that could realize multiple functionalities in moderate Reynolds number by producing diverse controlled fluidic flows around its body using its magnetic composite elastomer lappets, which are actuated by an external oscillating magnetic field. We particularly investigate the interaction between the robot's soft body and incurred fluidic flows due to the robot's body motion, and utilize such physical interaction to achieve different predation-inspired object manipulation tasks. The proposed lappet kinematics can inspire other existing jellyfish-like robots to achieve similar functionalities at the same length and time scale. Moreover, the robotic platform could be used to study the impacts of the morphology and kinematics changing in ephyra jellyfish.


Assuntos
Desenho de Equipamento , Robótica/instrumentação , Cifozoários/fisiologia , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Elastômeros/química , Locomoção , Magnetismo/instrumentação , Natação
11.
Chem Biol Interact ; 311: 108758, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348919

RESUMO

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder in children. It is diagnosed by two main behavioral phenotypes i.e. social-communication impairments and repetitive behavior. ASD is complex disorder with unsolved etiology due to multiple genes involvement, epigenetic mechanism and environmental factors. The clinical and preclinical studies have been indicating the association of propionic acid with autism spectrum disorder. Numerous studies suggest the potential therapeutic effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ) in different brain disorders. This research evaluates the utility of selective agonist of PPAR-γ, pioglitazone in postnatal propionic acid induced ASD related symptomatology in male Wistar rats. PPA (250 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered to male offspring for three consecutive days from postnatal 21st day to 23rd day. PPA induced social impairment, repetitive behavior, hyperlocomotion, anxiety and low exploratory activity in rats. Also, postnatal propionic acid-treated rats showed higher levels of oxidative stress (increased in thiobarbituric acid reactive species and decreased in reduced glutathione) as well as inflammation (increased in interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and decreased in interleukin-10) in the cerebellum, brainstem and prefrontal cortex. The rats were treated daily with pioglitazone (10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg, p.o.) from postnatal 24th day to end of the study. Treatment with pioglitazone, significantly attenuated the postnatal propionic acid-induced social impairment, repetitive behavior, hyperactivity, anxiety and low exploratory activity. Furthermore, pioglitazone also reduced the postnatal propionic acid-induced oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in aforementioned brain regions. Hence, pioglitazone improved the propionic acid-induced neurobehavioral and biochemical impairments in rats.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , PPAR gama/agonistas , Pioglitazona/farmacologia , Animais , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/induzido quimicamente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/metabolismo , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Comportamento Exploratório/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa/metabolismo , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Pioglitazona/uso terapêutico , Propionatos/toxicidade , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
12.
Life Sci ; 232: 116627, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276690

RESUMO

AIM: Evidence suggests that task-specific gait training improves locomotor impairments in people with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI); however, plastic changes in brain areas remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine the possible effects of a task-specific overground gait training on locomotor recovery and neuroplasticity markers in the cortex, cerebellum, and lumbar spinal cord in an experimental model of incomplete-SCI. MAIN METHODS: Using a blind, basic experimental design, 24 adult Wistar rats underwent a surgical procedure and were allocated into sham, non-trained SCI (SCI), and trained SCI (Tr-SCI) groups. On postoperative day 14, trained animals started a 4-week overground gait training program. All groups were subjected to weekly assessment of locomotor recovery of the hind limbs. On postoperative day 40, brain and lumbar spinal cord structures were dissected and processed for biochemical analysis of the synaptophysin, microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP-2), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). KEY FINDINGS: Tr-SCI group showed greater locomotor function recovery compared with non-trained SCI from the postoperative day 21 (p < 0.05). The training was able to improve the neuroplasticity markers synaptophysin, MAP-2, and BDNF expressions in motor cortex (p < 0.05), but not in the cerebellum and in the spinal cord for trained SCI group compared to non-trained. SIGNIFICANCE: Task-specific overground gait training improves locomotor recovery in a rat model of incomplete thoracic-SCI. Furthermore, training promotes motor cortex plasticity, evidenced for increasing expression of the neuroplasticity markers that may support the functional recovery.


Assuntos
Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Locomoção/fisiologia , Animais , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Marcha/fisiologia , Masculino , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Atividade Motora , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/terapia
13.
Neuron ; 103(4): 719-733.e7, 2019 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253469

RESUMO

A central goal in learning and memory research is to reveal the neural substrates underlying episodic memory formation. The hallmark of sequential spatial trajectory learning, a model of episodic memory, has remained equivocal, with proposals ranging from de novo creation of compressed sequential replay from blank slate networks to selection of pre-existing compressed preplay sequences. Here, we show that increased millisecond-timescale activation of cell assemblies expressed during de novo sequential experience and increased neuronal firing rate correlations can explain the difference between post-experience trajectory replay and robust preplay. This increased activation results from an improved neuronal tuning to specific cell assemblies, higher recruitment of experience-tuned neurons into pre-existing cell assemblies, and increased recruitment of cell assemblies in replay. In contrast, changes in overall neuronal and cell assembly temporal order within extended sequences do not account for sequential trajectory learning. We propose the coordinated strengthening of cell assemblies played sequentially on robust pre-existing temporal frameworks could support rapid formation of episodic-like memory.


Assuntos
Região CA1 Hipocampal/fisiologia , Memória Episódica , Modelos Neurológicos , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Memória Espacial , Animais , Região CA1 Hipocampal/citologia , Simulação por Computador , Locomoção/fisiologia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Long-Evans , Sono/fisiologia , Distribuições Estatísticas , Transmissão Sináptica/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Neuron ; 103(2): 309-322.e7, 2019 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151773

RESUMO

Body temperature control is essential for survival. In mammals, thermoregulation is mediated by the preoptic area of anterior hypothalamus (POA), with ∼30% of its neurons sensitive to brain temperature change. It is still unknown whether and how these temperature-sensitive neurons are involved in thermoregulation, because for eight decades they have only been identified via electrophysiological recording. By combining single-cell RNA-seq with whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, we identified Ptgds as a genetic marker for temperature-sensitive POA neurons. Then, we demonstrated these neurons' role in thermoregulation via chemogenetics. Given that Ptgds encodes the enzyme that synthesizes prostaglandin D2 (PGD2), we further explored its role in thermoregulation. Our study revealed that rising temperature of POA alters the activity of Ptgds-expressing neurons so as to increase PGD2 production. PGD2 activates its receptor DP1 and excites downstream neurons in the ventral medial preoptic area (vMPO) that mediates body temperature decrease, a negative feedback loop for thermoregulation.


Assuntos
Regulação da Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Área Pré-Óptica/citologia , Área Pré-Óptica/fisiologia , Prostaglandina D2/metabolismo , Temperatura Ambiente , Potenciais de Ação/efeitos dos fármacos , Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Animais , Temperatura Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal/genética , Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR/genética , Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR/metabolismo , Clozapina/farmacologia , Dinoprostona/genética , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Antagonistas de Aminoácidos Excitatórios/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Locomoção/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Área Pré-Óptica/efeitos dos fármacos , Prostaglandina D2/genética
15.
Mar Drugs ; 17(6)2019 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146323

RESUMO

Pharmaceutical agents for halting the progression of Parkinson's disease (PD) are lacking. The current available medications only relieve clinical symptoms and may cause severe side effects. Therefore, there is an urgent need for novel drug candidates for PD. In this study, we demonstrated the neuroprotective activity of stellettin B (SB), a compound isolated from marine sponges. We showed that SB could significantly protect SH-SY5Y cells against 6-OHDA-induced cellular damage by inhibiting cell apoptosis and oxidative stress through PI3K/Akt, MAPK, caspase cascade modulation and Nrf2/HO-1 cascade modulation, respectively. In addition, an in vivo study showed that SB reversed 6-OHDA-induced a locomotor deficit in a zebrafish model of PD. The potential for developing SB as a candidate drug for PD treatment is discussed.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Poríferos/química , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos/química , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Oxidopamina/toxicidade , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Triterpenos/química , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Peixe-Zebra
16.
Biol Bull ; 236(3): 224-241, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31167089

RESUMO

Salinity is one of the most crucial environmental factors that structures biogeographic boundaries of aquatic organisms, affecting distribution, abundance, and behavior. However, the association between behavior and gene regulation underlying acclimation to changes in salinity remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of salinity stress on behavior (movement distance) and patterns of gene expression (using RNA sequencing) of the intertidal gastropod Batillaria attramentaria. We examined responses to short-term (1-hour) and long-term (30-day) acclimation to a range of salinities (43, 33 [control], 23, 13, and 3 psu). We found that the intertidal B. attramentaria is able to tolerate a broad range of salinity from 13 to 43 psu but not the acute low salinity of 3 psu. Behavioral experiments showed that salt stress significantly influenced snails' movement, with lower salinity resulting in shorter movement distance. Transcriptomic analyses revealed critical metabolic pathways and genes potentially involved in acclimation to salinity stress, including ionic and osmotic regulation, signal and hormonal transduction pathways, water exchange, cell protection, and gene regulation or epigenetic modification. In general, our study presents a robust, integrative laboratory-based approach to investigate the effects of salt stress on a nonmodel gastropod facing detrimental consequences of environmental change. The current genetic results provide a wealth of reference data for further research on mechanisms of ionic and osmotic regulation and adaptive evolution of this coastal gastropod.


Assuntos
Gastrópodes/fisiologia , Estresse Salino , Aclimatação/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Gastrópodes/genética , Gastrópodes/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Locomoção , Pressão Osmótica , Análise de Sequência de RNA
17.
Aquat Toxicol ; 213: 105217, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200331

RESUMO

Evidence of the ecological and biological impact of pharmaceuticals in surface waters on aquatic organisms is increasing. Tramadol is a synthetic opioid analgesic used to treat chronic and acute pain. To investigate its long-term effects at environmentally relevant levels, we evaluated heart rate (HR) and locomotion of signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus during a 21-day exposure to 1 µg L-1 tramadol followed by 14 days depuration. Locomotion and HR were recorded over a period 30 min before and 30 min after exposure to physiological fluids of an injured conspecific, a natural stressor, four times during the tramadol exposure and four times during depuration. A significant increase in HR following stress induction was found in the majority of tramadol-exposed and control crayfish, as well as significant group-specific HR changes between both groups. Locomotor activity during tramadol treatment differed from that during depuration, in general showing less time spent in locomotion and lower distance moved. The tramadol exposed crayfish exhibited higher velocity during depuration than during the exposure period. Results may suggest a potential shift in prey-predator relationships.


Assuntos
Astacoidea/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Coração/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Tramadol/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Astacoidea/efeitos dos fármacos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Zoolog Sci ; 36(3): 208-214, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31251489

RESUMO

The diversity of trunk muscle morphology of Salamandridae occupying different habitats (aquatic: Pachytriton labiatus; terrestrial: Tylototriton kweichowensis and Salamandra salamandra salamandra) was examined. Trunk muscles were dissected, and muscle weight ratios were quantified. The terrestrial species have larger abdominal trunk muscles than the aquatic species do. In contrast, the lateral hypaxial muscles are larger in the aquatic species. The M. rectus abdominis profundus is located subjacent to the M. rectus abdominis in the terrestrial species. In the aquatic species, the ventral muscle is composed of the M. rectus abdominis alone. The lateral hypaxial muscles in the aquatic species are suited to lateral bending during underwater locomotion in the denser aquatic medium. Larger abdominal muscles may be used in supporting body weight against gravity in the terrestrial species. The function of the M. rectus abdominis profundus may be to support the M. rectus abdominis in the terrestrial species. These findings suggest a divergent evolution of trunk muscle characteristics within the Salamandridae, which correlate with both habitats and modes of locomotion.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Músculo Esquelético/anatomia & histologia , Salamandridae/anatomia & histologia , Salamandridae/classificação , Adaptação Biológica/fisiologia , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Locomoção , Especificidade da Espécie , Tronco/anatomia & histologia
19.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2585, 2019 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197148

RESUMO

During navigation, rodents continually sample the environment with their whiskers. How locomotion modulates neuronal activity in somatosensory cortex, and how it is integrated with whisker-touch remains unclear. Here, we compared neuronal activity in layer 2/3 (L2/3) and L5 of barrel cortex using calcium imaging in mice running in a tactile virtual reality. Both layers increase their activity during running and concomitant whisking, in the absence of touch. Fewer neurons are modulated by whisking alone. Whereas L5 neurons respond transiently to wall-touch during running, L2/3 neurons show sustained activity. Consistently, neurons encoding running-with-touch are more abundant in L2/3 and they encode the run-speed better during touch. Few neurons across layers were also sensitive to abrupt perturbations of tactile flow during running. In summary, locomotion significantly enhances barrel cortex activity across layers with L5 neurons mainly reporting changes in touch conditions and L2/3 neurons continually integrating tactile stimuli with running.


Assuntos
Locomoção/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Córtex Somatossensorial/fisiologia , Tato/fisiologia , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Modelos Animais , Estimulação Física , Córtex Somatossensorial/citologia , Vibrissas/fisiologia
20.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2654, 2019 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201326

RESUMO

Animal locomotion requires spatiotemporally coordinated contraction of muscles throughout the body. Here, we investigate how contractions of antagonistic groups of muscles are intersegmentally coordinated during bidirectional crawling of Drosophila larvae. We identify two pairs of higher-order premotor excitatory interneurons present in each abdominal neuromere that intersegmentally provide feedback to the adjacent neuromere during motor propagation. The two feedback neuron pairs are differentially active during either forward or backward locomotion but commonly target a group of premotor interneurons that together provide excitatory inputs to transverse muscles and inhibitory inputs to the antagonistic longitudinal muscles. Inhibition of either feedback neuron pair compromises contraction of transverse muscles in a direction-specific manner. Our results suggest that the intersegmental feedback neurons coordinate contraction of synergistic muscles by acting as delay circuits representing the phase lag between segments. The identified circuit architecture also shows how bidirectional motor networks could be economically embedded in the nervous system.


Assuntos
Retroalimentação Fisiológica , Locomoção/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Interneurônios/fisiologia , Larva/fisiologia , Microscopia Eletrônica , Modelos Animais , Contração Muscular/fisiologia , Músculos/inervação , Músculos/fisiologia , Optogenética
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